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Extended Defects in Semiconductors

Extended Defects in Semiconductors Author D. B. Holt
ISBN-10 9781139463591
Release 2007-04-09
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The elucidation of the effects of structurally extended defects on electronic properties of materials is especially important in view of the current advances in electronic device development that involve defect control and engineering at the nanometer level. This book surveys the properties, effects, roles and characterization of extended defects in semiconductors. The basic properties of extended defects (dislocations, stacking faults, grain boundaries, and precipitates) are outlined, and their effect on the electronic properties of semiconductors, their role in semiconductor devices, and techniques for their characterization are discussed. These topics are among the central issues in the investigation and applications of semiconductors and in the operation of semiconductor devices. The authors preface their treatment with an introduction to semiconductor materials and conclude with a chapter on point defect maldistributions. This text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, and for those studying semiconductor physics.

CdTe and Related Compounds Physics Defects Hetero and Nano structures Crystal Growth Surfaces and Applications

CdTe and Related Compounds  Physics  Defects  Hetero  and Nano structures  Crystal Growth  Surfaces and Applications Author
ISBN-10 0080914586
Release 2009-10-22
Pages 550
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Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful. Detailed coverage of the main topics associated with the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT Review of the CdTe recent developments Fundamental background of many topics clearly introduced and exposed

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices Author Serge Zhuiykov
ISBN-10 9781782422242
Release 2014-02-14
Pages 466
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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Extended Defects in Germanium

Extended Defects in Germanium Author Cor Claeys
ISBN-10 9783540856146
Release 2008-12-29
Pages 300
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The aim is to give an overview of the physics of extended defects in Germanium, i.e. dislocations (line defects), grain boundaries, stacking faults, twins and {311} defects (two-dimensional defects) and precipitates, bubbles, etc. The first part covers fundamentals, describing the crystallographic structure and other physical and electrical properties, mainly of dislocations. Since dislocations are essential for the plastic deformation of Germanium, methods for analysis and imaging of dislocations and to evaluate their structure are described. Attention is given to the electrical and optical properties, which are important for devices made in dislocated Ge. The second part treats the creation of extended defects during wafer and device processing. Issues are addressed such as defect formation during ion implantation, necessary to create junctions, which are an essential part in every device type. Extended defects are also created during the deposition of thin or thick epitaxial layers on other substrates, which are important for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. In brief, the book is intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

Point and Extended Defects in Semiconductors

Point and Extended Defects in Semiconductors Author Giorgio Benedek
ISBN-10 9781468457094
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 287
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The systematic study of defects in semiconductors began in the early fifties. FrQm that time on many questions about the defect structure and properties have been an swered, but many others are still a matter of investigation and discussion. Moreover, during these years new problems arose in connection with the identification and char acterization of defects, their role in determining transport and optical properties of semiconductor materials and devices, as well as from the technology of the ever in creasing scale of integration. This book presents to the reader a view into both basic concepts of defect physics and recent developments of high resolution experimental techniques. The book does not aim at an exhaustive presentation of modern defect physics; rather it gathers a number of topics which represent the present-time research in this field. The volume collects the contributions to the Advanced Research Workshop "Point, Extended and Surface Defects in Semiconductors" held at the Ettore Majo rana Centre at Erice (Italy) from 2 to 7 November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Materials Science and Technology. The workshop has brought together scientists from thirteen countries. Most participants are currently working on defect problems in either silicon submicron technology or in quantum wells and superlattices, where point defects, dislocations, interfaces and surfaces are closely packed together.

Germanium Based Technologies

Germanium Based Technologies Author Cor Claeys
ISBN-10 008047490X
Release 2011-07-28
Pages 480
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Germanium is a semiconductor material that formed the basis for the development of transistor technology. Although the breakthrough of planar technology and integrated circuits put silicon in the foreground, in recent years there has been a renewed interest in germanium, which has been triggered by its strong potential for deep submicron (sub 45 nm) technologies. Germanium-Based technologies: From Materials to Devices is the first book to provide a broad, in-depth coverage of the field, including recent advances in Ge-technology and the fundamentals in material science, device physics and semiconductor processing. The contributing authors are international experts with a world-wide recognition and involved in the leading research in the field. The book also covers applications and the use of Ge for optoelectronics, detectors and solar cells. An ideal reference work for students and scientists working in the field of physics of semiconductor devices and materials, as well as for engineers in research centres and industry. Both the newcomer and the expert should benefit from this unique book. State-of-the-art information available for the first time as an all-in-source Extensive reference list making it an indispensable reference book Broad coverage from fundamental aspects up to industrial applications

Nitride Semiconductors

Nitride Semiconductors Author Pierre Ruterana
ISBN-10 3527403876
Release 2003-06-09
Pages 664
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Semiconductor components based on silicon have been used in a wide range of applications for some time now. These elemental semiconductors are now well researched and technologically well developed. In the meantime the focus has switched to a new group of materials: ceramic semiconductors based on nitrides are currently the subject of research due to their optical and electronic characteristics. They open up new industrial possibilities in the field of photosensors, as light sources or as electronic components. This collection of review articles provides a systematic and in-depth overview of the topic, on both a high and current level. It offers information on the physical basics as well as the latest results in a compact yet comprehensive manner. The contributions cover the physical processes involved in manufacture, from semiconductor growth, via their atomic structures and the related characteristics right up to future industrial applications. A highly pertinent book for anyone working in applied materials research or the semiconductor industry.

Defect Control in Semiconductors

Defect Control in Semiconductors Author K. Sumino
ISBN-10 9780444600646
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 817
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Defect control in semiconductors is a key technology for realizing the ultimate possibilities of modern electronics. The basis of such control lies in an integrated knowledge of a variety of defect properties. From this viewpoint, the volume discusses defect-related problems in connection with defect control in semiconducting materials, such as silicon, III-V, II-VI compounds, organic semiconductors, heterostructure, etc. The conference brought together scientists in the field of fundamental research and engineers involved in application related to electronic devices in order to promote future research activity in both fields and establish a fundamental knowledge of defect control. The main emphasis of the 254 papers presented in this volume is on the control of the concentration, distribution, structural and electronic states of any types of defects including impurities as well as control of the electrical, optical and other activities of defects. Due to the extensive length of the contents, only the number of papers presented per session is listed below.

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology Author
ISBN-10 9780080932286
Release 2011-01-28
Pages 3608
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Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts

Characterization of Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures

Characterization of Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures Author Giovanni Agostini
ISBN-10 9780444595492
Release 2013-04-11
Pages 828
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Characterization of Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures is structured so that each chapter is devoted to a specific characterization technique used in the understanding of the properties (structural, physical, chemical, electrical etc..) of semiconductor quantum wells and superlattices. An additional chapter is devoted to ab initio modeling. The book has two basic aims. The first is educational, providing the basic concepts of each of the selected techniques with an approach understandable by advanced students in Physics, Chemistry, Material Science, Engineering, Nanotechnology. The second aim is to provide a selected set of examples from the recent literature of the TOP results obtained with the specific technique in understanding the properties of semiconductor heterostructures and nanostructures. Each chapter has this double structure: the first part devoted to explain the basic concepts, and the second to the discussion of the most peculiar and innovative examples. The topic of quantum wells, wires and dots should be seen as a pretext of applying top level characterization techniques in understanding the structural, electronic etc properties of matter at the nanometer (and even sub-nanometer) scale. In this respect it is an essential reference in the much broader, and extremely hot, field of Nanotechnology. Comprehensive collection of the most powerful characterization techniques for semiconductors heterostructures and nanostructures Most of the chapters are authored by scientists that are world-wide among the top-ten in publication ranking of the specific field Each chapter starts with a didactic introduction on the technique The second part of each chapters deals with a selection of top examples highlighting the power of the specific technique to analyse the properties of semiconductors heterostructures and nanostructures

III Nitride Semiconductors Electrical Structural and Defects Properties

III Nitride Semiconductors  Electrical  Structural and Defects Properties Author M.O. Manasreh
ISBN-10 0080534449
Release 2000-12-06
Pages 464
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Research advances in III-nitride semiconductor materials and device have led to an exponential increase in activity directed towards electronic and optoelectronic applications. There is also great scientific interest in this class of materials because they appear to form the first semiconductor system in which extended defects do not severely affect the optical properties of devices. The volume consists of chapters written by a number of leading researchers in nitride materials and device technology with the emphasis on the dopants incorporations, impurities identifications, defects engineering, defects characterization, ion implantation, irradiation-induced defects, residual stress, structural defects and phonon confinement. This unique volume provides a comprehensive review and introduction of defects and structural properties of GaN and related compounds for newcomers to the field and stimulus to further advances for experienced researchers. Given the current level of interest and research activity directed towards nitride materials and devices, the publication of the volume is particularly timely. Early pioneering work by Pankove and co-workers in the 1970s yielded a metal-insulator-semiconductor GaN light-emitting diode (LED), but the difficulty of producing p-type GaN precluded much further effort. The current level of activity in nitride semiconductors was inspired largely by the results of Akasaki and co-workers and of Nakamura and co-workers in the late 1980s and early 1990s in the development of p-type doping in GaN and the demonstration of nitride-based LEDs at visible wavelengths. These advances were followed by the successful fabrication and commercialization of nitride blue laser diodes by Nakamura et al at Nichia. The chapters contained in this volume constitutes a mere sampling of the broad range of research on nitride semiconductor materials and defect issues currently being pursued in academic, government, and industrial laboratories worldwide.

Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Processes

Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Processes Author
ISBN-10 9781118514603
Release 2015-08-17
Pages 416
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The development of solid state devices began a little more than a century ago, with the discovery of the electrical conductivity of ionic solids. Today, solid state technologies form the background of the society in which we live. The aim of this book is threefold: to present the background physical chemistry on which the technology of semiconductor devices is based; secondly, to describe specific issues such as the role of defects on the properties of solids, and the crucial influence of surface properties; and ultimately, to look at the physics and chemistry of semiconductor growth processes, both at the bulk and thin-film level, together with some issues relating to the properties of nano-devices. Divided into five chapters, it covers: Thermodynamics of solids, including phases and their properties and structural order Point defects in semiconductors Extended defects in semiconductors and their interactions with point defects and impurities Growth of semiconductor materials Physical chemistry of semiconductor materials processing With applications across all solid state technologies,the book is useful for advanced students and researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical and electronic engineering. It is also useful for those in the semiconductor industry.

Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices Materials Properties Physics and Growth

Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices  Materials Properties  Physics and Growth Author Hadis Morkoç
ISBN-10 9783527628469
Release 2009-07-30
Pages 1311
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The three volumes of this handbook treat the fundamentals, technology and nanotechnology of nitride semiconductors with an extraordinary clarity and depth. They present all the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering together with an extensive reference section. Volume 1 deals with the properties and growth of GaN. The deposition methods considered are: hydride VPE, organometallic CVD, MBE, and liquid/high pressure growth. Additionally, extended defects and their electrical nature, point defects, and doping are reviewed.

Polarization Effects in Semiconductors

Polarization Effects in Semiconductors Author Colin Wood
ISBN-10 0387368310
Release 2007-12-10
Pages 515
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Polarization Effects in Semiconductors: From Ab Initio Theory to Device Applications presents the latest understanding of the solid state physics, electronic implications and practical applications of the unique spontaneous or pyro-electric polarization charge of wurtzite compound semiconductors, and associated piezo-electric effects in strained thin film heterostructures. These heterostructures are used in wide band gap semiconductor based sensors, in addition to various electronic and opto-electronic semiconductor devices. The book covers the ab initio theory of polarization in cubic and hexagonal semiconductors, growth of thin film GaN, GaN/AlGaN GaAlN/ AlGaInN, and other nitrides, and SiC heterostructures. It discusses the effects of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization on band diagrams and electronic properties of abrupt and compositionally graded heterostructures, electronic characterization of polarization-induced charge distributions by scanning-probe spectroscopies, and gauge factors and strain effects. In addition, polarization in extended defects, piezo-electric strain/charge engineering, and application to device design and processing are covered. The effects of polarization on the fundamental electron transport properties, and on the basic optical transitions are described. The crucial role of polarization in devices such as high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is covered. The chapters are authored by professors and researchers in the fields of physics, applied physics and electrical engineering, who worked for 5 years under the "Polarization Effects in Semiconductors" DOD funded Multi Disciplinary University Research Initiative. This book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in the field of wide-bandgap semiconductor physics and their device applications. It will also be useful for practicing engineers in the field of wide-bandgap semiconductor device research and development.

Fundamentals of Silicon Carbide Technology

Fundamentals of Silicon Carbide Technology Author Tsunenobu Kimoto
ISBN-10 9781118313527
Release 2014-11-24
Pages 400
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'Fundamentals of Silicon Carbide Technology' covers basic properties of SiC materials, processing technology, theory and analysis of practical devices, and an overview of the most important systems applications.

Hydrogen in Semiconductors

Hydrogen in Semiconductors Author Jacques I. Pankove
ISBN-10 0080864317
Release 1991-04-23
Pages 648
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Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed coverage of hydrogen in silicon, chapters are provided that discuss hydrogen-related phenomena in germanium and the neutralization of defects and dopants in III*b1V semiconductors. Provides the most in-depth coverage of hydrogen in silicon available in a single source**Includes an extensive chapter on the neutralization of defects in III*b1V semiconductors**Combines both experimental and theoretical studies to form a comprehensive reference

Progress in SOI Structures and Devices Operating at Extreme Conditions

Progress in SOI Structures and Devices Operating at Extreme Conditions Author Francis Balestra
ISBN-10 1402005768
Release 2002-04-30
Pages 351
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in Kyiv, Ukraine, October 15-20, 2000