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Femtosecond Laser Matter Interaction

Femtosecond Laser Matter Interaction Author Eugene G. Gamaly
ISBN-10 9789814241816
Release 2011-10-06
Pages 350
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This is the first comprehensive treatment of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with solids at nonrelativistic intensity. It connects phenomena from the subtle atomic motion on the nanoscale to the generation of extreme pressure and temperature in the interaction zone confined inside a solid. The femtosecond laser-matter interaction has already found numerous applications in industry, medicine, and materials science. However, there is no consensus on the interpretation of related phenomena. With mathematics kept to a minimum, this is a highly engaging and readable treatment for students and researchers in science and engineering. The book avoids complex mathematical formulae, and hence the content is accessible to nontechnical readers. Useful summaries after each chapter provide compressed information for quick estimates of major parameters in planned or performed experiments. The book connects the basic physics of femtosecond laser-solid interactions to a broad range of applications. Throught the text, basic assumptions are derived from the first principles, and new results and ideas are presented. From such analyses, a qualitative and predictive framework for the field emerges, the impact of which on applications is also discussed.



Pulsed Laser Ablation

Pulsed Laser Ablation Author Ion N. Mihailescu
ISBN-10 9781351733526
Release 2018-01-09
Pages 564
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Pulsed laser–based techniques for depositing and processing materials are an important area of modern experimental and theoretical scientific research and development, with promising, challenging opportunities in the fields of nanofabrication and nanostructuring. Understanding the interplay between deposition/processing conditions, laser parameters, as well as material properties and dimensionality is demanding for improved fundamental knowledge and novel applications. This book introduces and discusses the basic principles of pulsed laser–matter interaction, with a focus on its peculiarities and perspectives compared to other conventional techniques and state-of-the-art applications. The book starts with an overview of the growth topics, followed by a discussion of laser–matter interaction depending on laser pulse duration, background conditions, materials, and combination of materials and structures. The information outlines the foundation to introduce examples of laser nanostructuring/processing of materials, pointing out the importance of pulsed laser–based technologies in modern (nano)science. With respect to similar texts and monographs, the book offers a comprehensive review including bottom-up and top-down laser-induced processes for nanoparticles and nanomicrostructure generation. Theoretical models are discussed by correlation with advanced experimental protocols in order to account for the fundamentals and underline physical mechanisms of laser–matter interaction. Reputed, internationally recognized experts in the field have contributed to this book. In particular, this book is suitable for a reader (graduate students as well as postgraduates and more generally researchers) new to the subject of pulsed laser ablation in order to gain physical insight into and advanced knowledge of mechanisms and processes involved in any deposition/processing experiment based on pulsed laser–matter interaction. Since knowledge in the field is given step by step comprehensively, this book serves as a valid introduction to the field as well as a foundation for further specific readings.



High Energy Density Physics

High Energy Density Physics Author R Paul Drake
ISBN-10 9783319677118
Release 2018-01-02
Pages 658
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The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This title surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course, an introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-energy-density systems. This second edition includes pedagogic improvements to the presentation throughout and additional material on equations of state, heat waves, and ionization fronts, as well as problem sets accompanied by solutions.



Instabilities in Laser Matter Interaction

Instabilities in Laser Matter Interaction Author Sergei I. Anisimov
ISBN-10 0849386608
Release 1995-03-23
Pages 160
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This book describes the thermal and hydrodynamic instabilities appearing in laser-matter interactions at moderate intensities. These instabilities result in the distortion of phase-transition front, dispersion of target material in condensed phase, formation of dissipative surface structures, generation of complex oscillatory evaporation modes, and so on. These effects, in turn, lead to the appearance of liquid droplets in an expanding vapor, non-uniform removal of a solid material, and the enhanced light absorption in the vapor plume. This book focuses on nonresonant interactions. It concentrates on the range of low and moderate laser intensities that are important for technological applications of lasers. Instabilities in Laser-Matter Interaction provides a theoretical background to the interpretation of experimental results and an understanding of the effect of instabilities on the processes of laser technology.



Laser Ablation and Its Applications

Laser Ablation and Its Applications Author Claude Phipps
ISBN-10 9780387304526
Release 2007
Pages 586
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Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficult. Laser Ablation and its Applications emphasizes the wide range of these topics rather than - as is so often the case in advanced science – focusing on one specialty or discipline. The book is divided into four sections: theory and modeling, ultrafast interactions, material processing and laser-matter interaction in novel regimes. The latter range from MALDI to ICF, SNOM’s and femtosecond nanosurgery to laser space propulsion. The book arose from the SPIE series of High Power Laser Ablation Symposia which began in 1998. It is intended for a graduate course in laser interactions with plasmas and materials, but it should be accessible to anyone with a graduate degree in physics or engineering. It is also intended as a major reference work to familiarize scientists just entering the field with laser ablation and its applications.



Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy

Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy Author Halina Abramczyk
ISBN-10 0080455255
Release 2005-05-06
Pages 384
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Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy is a well-written, easy-to-read guide to understanding the fundamentals of lasers, experimental methods of modern laser spectroscopy and applications. It provides a solid grounding in the fundamentals of many aspects of laser physics, nonlinear optics, and molecular spectroscopy. In addition, by comprehensively combining theory and experimental techniques it explicates a variety of issues that are essential to understanding broad areas of physical, chemical and biological science. Topics include key laser types - gas, solid state, and semiconductor - as well as the rapidly evolving field of ultrashort laser phenomena for femtochemistry applications. The examples used are well researched and clearly presented. Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy is strongly recommended to newcomers as well as researchers in physics, engineering, chemistry and biology. * A comprehensive course that combines theory and practice * Includes a systematic and comprehensive description for key laser types * Written for students and professionals looking to gain a thorough understanding of modern laser spectroscopy



Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Author Sergio Musazzi
ISBN-10 9783642450853
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 565
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This book deals with the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) a widely used atomic emission spectroscopy technique for elemental analysis of materials. It is based on the use of a high-power, short pulse laser excitation. The book is divided into two main sections: the first one concerning theoretical aspects of the technique, the second one describing the state of the art in applications of the technique in different scientific/technological areas. Numerous examples of state of the art applications provide the readers an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique. The LIBS theoretical aspects are reviewed. The book helps the readers who are less familiar with the technique to understand the basic principles. Numerous examples of state of the art applications give an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique potentiality. These examples of applications may have a strong impact on future industrial utilization. The authors made important contributions to the development of this field.



Theoretical Femtosecond Physics

Theoretical Femtosecond Physics Author Frank Grossmann
ISBN-10 9783319006062
Release 2013-07-16
Pages 254
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Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm2 are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenomena, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are presented and discussed on a fundamental level. In this way the theoretical background for state of the art experiments with strong and short laser pulses is given. The text is augmented by more than thirty exercises, whose worked-out solutions are given in the last chapter. Some detailed calculations are performed in the appendices. Furthermore, each chapter ends with references to more specialized literature.



Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials Author S. C. Singh
ISBN-10 9783527646845
Release 2012-10-22
Pages 810
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The first in-depth treatment of the synthesis, processing, and characterization of nanomaterials using lasers, ranging from fundamentals to the latest research results, this handy reference is divided into two main sections. After introducing the concepts of lasers, nanomaterials, nanoarchitectures and laser-material interactions in the first three chapters, the book goes on to discuss the synthesis of various nanomaterials in vacuum, gas and liquids. The second half discusses various nanomaterial characterization techniques involving lasers, from Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies to light dynamic scattering, laser spectroscopy and such unusual techniques as laser photo acoustic, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, ultrafast dynamics and laser-induced thermal pulses. The specialist authors adopt a practical approach throughout, with an emphasis on experiments, set-up, and results. Each chapter begins with an introduction and is uniform in covering the basic approaches, experimental setups, and dependencies of the particular method on different parameters, providing sufficient theory and modeling to understand the principles behind the techniques.



Optically Induced Nanostructures

Optically Induced Nanostructures Author Karsten König
ISBN-10 9783110383508
Release 2015-05-19
Pages 369
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Nanostructuring of materials is a task at the heart of many modern disciplines in mechanical engineering, as well as optics, electronics, and the life sciences. This book includes an introduction to the relevant nonlinear optical processes as well as coverage of state-of-the-art applications of non-UV radiation such as cell reprogramming, surface treatments of implants, production of nanowires, friction modification, and 3D data storage.



Femtochemistry VII

Femtochemistry VII Author Michele Kimble
ISBN-10 0080466826
Release 2006-10-03
Pages 610
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Femtochemistry VII presents the most recent developments in femtochemistry and highlights the significance of the field today. This book contains extracts from the proceedings, presentations and posters from the Femtochemistry VII conference, held in Washington D.C., on July 17-22, 2005. The stimulating conference was opened by Professor Ahmed Zewail (1999 Nobel Prize Winner), and as was evident by the attendees at the conference, had a very active program with the presentation of numerous talks and a large number of posters. This collection of papers reflects the remarkable progress that has been made in femtosecond spectroscopy, and especially to its emergence as a field of research devoted to chemistry and biology, giving rise to femtochemistry and femtobiology. Subjects covered include imaging, structural dynamics, and spectroscopies, fundamentals of reaction dynamics, salvation phenomenta, liquids and interfaces, aggregates/particles/surfaces, protein dynamics and photobiology, quantum control, and intense laser-matter interactions. Subjects covered by this book include imaging, structural dynamics, and spectroscopies; fundamentals of reaction dynamics; salvation phenomenta; liquids and interfaces; aggregates/particles/surfaces; protein dynamics and photobiology; quantum control; and intense laser-matter interactions. This book would appeal to chemists, physicists and biologists in the fields of atomic and molecular science. * Contains the most recent developments in Femtochemistry from the Femtochemistry VII conference * Highlights the significance of femtochemistry today * Displays extracts from the proceedings, presentations and posters from the conference



Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics

Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics Author Zenghu Chang
ISBN-10 9781420089387
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 547
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Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances that are driving the field forward. A stand-alone textbook for courses on attosecond optics and the interaction of matter with ultrafast, high-power lasers, the book begins with basic theory and gradually advances to more complex ideas. Using both semi-classical models and quantum mechanics theories, the author explains foundational concepts and mechanisms including femtosecond lasers, high-order harmonic generation, and the technological leap that inspired attosecond pulse generation. The book introduces techniques for generating attosecond train using the basis of high-order harmonics, followed by an explanation of gating methods for extracting single isolated pulses. Chapters examine the connection between attosecond pulses and high harmonic generation, the use of driving lasers as key tools in attosecond generation, the mechanism of chirped pulse amplification, and the generation of few-cycle pulses. The book looks at carrier-envelope phase stabilization and the theoretical foundations for single atom and dipole phase response. It discusses propagation effects, introducing several approaches for improving phase matching; attosecond pulse generation and characterization, covering attosecond pulse train and single isolated pulses; and several examples of experimental applications for attosecond pulses.



Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena Author Jean-Claude Diels
ISBN-10 9780080466408
Release 2006-09-21
Pages 680
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Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, Second Edition serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond ("faster than electronics") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic concepts and how they apply to the design of particular sources (dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers, and sources based on frequency conversion). Provides an easy to follow guide through "faster than electronics" probing and detection methods THE manual on designing and constructing femtosecond systems and experiments Discusses essential technology for applications in micro-machining, femtochemistry, and medical imaging



Laser Surface Engineering

Laser Surface Engineering Author Jonathan R. Lawrence
ISBN-10 9781782420798
Release 2014-10-02
Pages 718
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Lasers can alter the surface composition and properties of materials in a highly controllable way, which makes them efficient and cost-effective tools for surface engineering. This book provides an overview of the different techniques, the laser-material interactions and the advantages and disadvantages for different applications. Part one looks at laser heat treatment, part two covers laser additive manufacturing such as laser-enhanced electroplating, and part three discusses laser micromachining, structuring and surface modification. Chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering are explored in part four, including ways to improve the surface corrosion properties of metals. Provides an overview of thermal surface treatments using lasers, including the treatment of steels, light metal alloys, polycrystalline silicon and technical ceramics Addresses the development of new metallic materials, innovations in laser cladding and direct metal deposition, and the fabrication of tuneable micro- and nano-scale surface structures Chapters also cover laser structuring, surface modification, and the chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering



Laser Science and Applications

Laser Science and Applications Author Lotfia El Nadi
ISBN-10 9789812814609
Release 2010
Pages 292
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This volume presents information on the exciting breakthroughs and the very quickly evolving fields of research in laser science and applications. This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lasers and their applications, with contributions from scientists and technologists from Egyptian and international universities, institutes, ministries and industries in this highly advanced field of science and technology. This book covers topics related to laser development and applications in the following fields of research: fiber optics; remote sensing; ultra-fast phenomena; laser spectroscopy; laser photobiology; laser photochemistry; laser applications in agriculture; laser applications in engineering; laser applications in medicine; laser applications in photochemistry and photobiology; and, laser basic sciences.



Lasers in Materials Science

Lasers in Materials Science Author Marta Castillejo
ISBN-10 9783319028989
Release 2014-01-08
Pages 387
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This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems. The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications. Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers in Materials Science which was held in Isola di San Servolo, Venice, Italy, in July, 2012.



Short Pulse Laser Interactions with Matter

Short Pulse Laser Interactions with Matter Author Paul Gibbon
ISBN-10 9781860941351
Release 2005-01-01
Pages 312
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This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of the subject, covering the theoretical principles, present experimental status and important applications of short-pulse laser-matter interactions. Femtosecond lasers have undergone dramatic technological advances over the last fifteen years, generating a whole host of new research activities under the theme of ?ultrafast science?. The focused light from these devices is so intense that ordinary matter is torn apart within a few laser cycles. This book takes a close-up look at the exotic physical phenomena which arise as a result of this new form of ?light-matter? interaction, covering a diverse set of topics including multiphoton ionization, rapid heatwaves, fast particle generation and relativistic self-channeling. These processes are central to a number of exciting new applications in other fields, such as microholography, optical particle accelerators and photonuclear physics.