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Finding Consciousness

Finding Consciousness Author Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
ISBN-10 9780190280321
Release 2016-01-13
Pages 256
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Modern medicine enables us to keep many people alive after they have suffered severe brain damage and show no reliable outward signs of consciousness. Many such patients are misdiagnosed as being in a permanent vegetative state when they are actually in a minimally conscious state. This mistake has far-reaching implications for treatment and prognosis. To alleviate this problem, neuroscientists have recently developed new brain-scanning methods to detect consciousness in some of these patients and even to ask them questions, including "Do you want to stay alive?" Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage addresses many questions regarding these recent neuroscientific methods: Is what these methods detect really consciousness? Do patients feel pain? Should we decide whether or not to let them die or are they competent to decide for themselves? And which kinds of treatment should governments and hospitals make available? This edited volume provides contextual information, surveys the issues and positions, and takes controversial stands from a wide variety of prominent contributors in fields ranging from neuroscience and neurology to law and policy to philosophy and ethics. Finding Consciousness should interest not only neuroscientists, clinicians, and ethicists but anyone who might suffer brain damage, which includes us all.



The Neuroethics of Biomarkers

The Neuroethics of Biomarkers Author Matthew L. Baum
ISBN-10 9780190236274
Release 2016-02-11
Pages 192
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Neuroscientists are mining nucleic acids, blood, saliva, and brain images in hopes of uncovering biomarkers that could help estimate risk of brain disorders like psychosis and dementia; though the science of bioprediction is young, its prospects are unearthing controversy about how bioprediction should enter hospitals, courtrooms, or state houses. While medicine, law, and policy have established protocols for how presence of disorders should change what we owe each other or who we blame, they have no stock answers for the probabilities that bioprediction offers. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers observes, however, that for many disorders, what we really care about is not their presence per se, but certain risks that they carry. The current reliance of moral and legal structures on a categorical concept of disorder (sick verses well), therefore, obscures difficult questions about what types and magnitudes of probabilities matter. Baum argues that progress in the neuroethics of biomarkers requires the rejection of the binary concept of disorder in favor of a probabilistic one based on biological variation with risk of harm, which Baum names a "Probability Dysfunction." This risk-reorientation clarifies practical ethical issues surrounding the definition of mental disorder in the DSM-5 and the nosology of conditions defined by risk of psychosis and dementia. Baum also challenges the principle that the acceptability of bioprediction should depend primarily on whether it is medically useful by arguing that biomarkers can also be morally useful through enabling moral agency, better assessment of legal responsibility, and fairer distributive justice. The Neuroethics of Biomarkers should be of interest to those within neuroethics, medical ethics, and the philosophy of psychiatry.



Neuroethics

Neuroethics Author Judy Illes
ISBN-10 9780198786832
Release 2017-07-20
Pages 672
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Over the last decade, there have been unparalleled advances in our understanding of brain sciences. But with the development of tools that can manipulate brain function, there are pressing ethical implications to this newfound knowledge of how the brain works. In Neuroethics: Anticipating theFuture, a distinguished group of contributors tackle current and critical ethical questions and offer forward-looking insights. What new balances should be struck between diagnosis and prediction, or invasive and non-invasive interventions, given the rapid advances in neuroscience? Are new criteria needed for the clinical definition of death for those eligible for organ donation? As data from emerging technologies are madeavailable on public databases, what frameworks will maximize benefits while ensuring privacy of health information? These challenging questions, along with numerous other neuroethical concerns, are discussed in depth. Written by eminent scholars from diverse disciplines including neurology and neuroscience, ethics and law, public health and philosophy, this new volume on neuroethics sets out the many necessary considerations for the future. It is essential reading for the field of neuroethics, neurosciences andpsychology, and an invaluable resource for physicians in neurological medicine, academics in humanities and law, and health policy makers.



Neuroethics in Practice

Neuroethics in Practice Author Anjan Chatterjee
ISBN-10 9780195389784
Release 2013-01-17
Pages 278
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This book explores relevant questions within this multi-faceted and rapidly growing field, and will help to define and foster scholarship within the intersection of neuroethics and clinical neuroscience.



Consciousness and Moral Responsibility

Consciousness and Moral Responsibility Author Neil Levy
ISBN-10 9780198704638
Release 2014-03
Pages 157
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Neil Levy presents a new theory of freedom and responsibility. He defends a particular account of consciousness—the global workspace view—and argues that consciousness plays an especially important role in action. There are good reasons to think that the naïve assumption, that consciousness is needed for moral responsibility, is in fact true.



Music and Disorders of Consciousness Emerging Research Practice and Theory

Music and Disorders of Consciousness  Emerging Research  Practice and Theory Author Wendy L. Magee
ISBN-10 9782889450992
Release 2017-02-28
Pages
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Music processing in severely brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness has been an emergent field of interest for over 30 years, spanning the disciplines of neuroscience, medicine, the arts and humanities. Disorders of consciousness (DOC) is an umbrella term that encompasses patients who present with disorders across a continuum of consciousness including people who are in a coma, in vegetative state (VS)/have unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), and in minimally conscious state (MCS). Technological developments in recent years, resulting in improvements in medical care and technologies, have increased DOC population numbers, the means for investigating DOC, and the range of clinical and therapeutic interventions under validation. In neuroimaging and behavioural studies, the auditory modality has been shown to be the most sensitive in diagnosing awareness in this complex population. As misdiagnosis remains a major problem in DOC, exploring auditory responsiveness and processing in DOC is, therefore, of central importance to improve therapeutic interventions and medical technologies in DOC. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of music as a potential treatment and medium for diagnosis with patients with DOC, from the perspectives of research, clinical practice and theory. As there are almost no treatment options, such a non-invasive method could constitute a promising strategy to stimulate brain plasticity and to improve consciousness recovery. It is therefore an ideal time to draw together specialists from diverse disciplines and interests to share the latest methods, opinions, and research on this topic in order to identify research priorities and progress inquiry in a coordinated way. This Research Topic aimed to bring together specialists from diverse disciplines involved in using and researching music with DOC populations or who have an interest in theoretical development on this topic. Specialists from the following disciplines participated in this special issue: neuroscience; medicine; music therapy; clinical psychology; neuromusicology; and cognitive neuroscience.



Morality Without God

Morality Without God Author Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
ISBN-10 9780195337631
Release 2009-07-02
Pages 172
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A common refrain against atheism and secular humanism is that without belief in God, "everything is permitted." Walter Sinnott-Armstrong dismantles this argument and argues instead that God is not only not essential to morality, but that our moral behavior should be seen as utterly independent of religion. This short, accessible book is on a major aspect of the arguments against atheism and will interest those intrigued by the "new atheism" (Harris, Dawkins, etc).



Self Control in Society Mind and Brain

Self Control in Society  Mind  and Brain Author Ran Hassin
ISBN-10 9780199741625
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 576
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This book presents social, cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to the study of self-control, connecting recent work in cognitive and social psychology with recent advances in cognitive and social neuroscience. In bringing together multiple perspectives on self-control dilemmas from internationally renowned researchers in various allied disciplines, this is the first single-reference volume to illustrate the richness, depth, and breadth of the research in the new field of self control.



The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology Author C.U.M. Smith
ISBN-10 9780199766499
Release 2012-08-02
Pages 277
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This book examines the history of Western attempts to explain how messages might be sent from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles. It focuses on a construct called animal spirit, which would permeate philosophy and guide physiology and medicine for over two millennia.



Unlocking the Brain

Unlocking the Brain Author Georg Northoff
ISBN-10 9780199826988
Release 2013-12
Pages 352
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What makes our brain a brain? This is the central question posited in Unlocking the Brain. By providing a fascinating venture into different territories of neuroscience, psychiatry, and philosophy, the author takes a novel exploration of the brain's resting state in the context of the neural code, and its ability to yield consciousness.



Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness

Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness Author Martin M. Monti
ISBN-10 9783319214252
Release 2015-11-30
Pages 207
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This book provides up-to-date information on all aspects of brain function and responsiveness in patients with severe disorders of consciousness. Topics considered include the mechanisms and measures of consciousness; perfusional, metabolic, and fMRI markers of responsiveness; responsiveness to pain; the role of brain–computer interface techniques; electrophysiology; cortical excitability; autonomic responsiveness; the natural history of vegetative and minimally conscious states; and prediction of outcome. Brain neuroimaging has documented residual responsiveness in the vegetative state. The scientific impact of this seminal evidence has generated a schism between neuroscience and the clinical criteria defining consciousness and responsiveness. Our current understanding of human consciousness must be reconsidered also in view of the emotional impact on the public and the far-reaching implications for diagnosis, prognosis, medical treatment, human costs, medical and individual responsibility, logistics, healthcare, ethics, etc. It is hoped that this book will help to bridge the gap between neuroscience and clinical routine.



Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics Author Judy Illes
ISBN-10 9780191620911
Release 2011-04-07
Pages 976
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The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the brain and mind. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world- whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike - for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The field of Neuroethics aims to proactively anticipate ethical, legal and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it. A landmark in the academic literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the sciences and humanities. It presents a range of chapters considering key issues, discussion, and debate at the intersection of brain and ethics. The handbook contains more than 50 chapters by leaders from around the world and a broad range of sectors of academia and clinical practice spanning the neurosciences, medical sciences and humanities and law. The book focuses on and provides a platform for dialogue of what neuroscience can do, what we might expect neuroscience will do, and what neuroscience ought to do. The major themes include: consciousness and intention; responsibility and determinism; mind and body; neurotechnology; ageing and dementia; law and public policy; and science, society and international perspectives. Tackling some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so over the coming decades, The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics will be an essential resource for the field of neuroethics for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists in the neurosciences and psychology, scholars in humanities and law, as well as physicians practising in the areas of primary care in neurological medicine.



The Ego Tunnel

The Ego Tunnel Author Thomas Metzinger
ISBN-10 9780786744428
Release 2009-03-17
Pages 288
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We're used to thinking about the self as an independent entity, something that we either have or are. In The Ego Tunnel, philosopher Thomas Metzinger claims otherwise: No such thing as a self exists. The conscious self is the content of a model created by our brain—an internal image, but one we cannot experience as an image. Everything we experience is “a virtual self in a virtual reality.” But if the self is not “real,” why and how did it evolve? How does the brain construct it? Do we still have souls, free will, personal autonomy, or moral accountability? In a time when the science of cognition is becoming as controversial as evolution, The Ego Tunnel provides a stunningly original take on the mystery of the mind.



Mind Time

Mind Time Author Benjamin Libet
ISBN-10 0674040163
Release 2009-07-01
Pages 248
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Our subjective inner life is what really matters to us as human beings--and yet we know relatively little about how it arises. Over a long and distinguished career Benjamin Libet has conducted experiments that have helped us see, in clear and concrete ways, how the brain produces conscious awareness. For the first time, Libet gives his own account of these experiments and their importance for our understanding of consciousness. Most notably, Libet's experiments reveal a substantial delay--the mind time of the title--before any awareness affects how we view our mental activities. If all conscious awarenesses are preceded by unconscious processes, as Libet observes, we are forced to conclude that unconscious processes initiate our conscious experiences. Freely voluntary acts are found to be initiated unconsciously before an awareness of wanting to act--a discovery with profound ramifications for our understanding of free will. How do the physical activities of billions of cerebral nerve cells give rise to an integrated conscious subjective awareness? How can the subjective mind affect or control voluntary actions? Libet considers these questions, as well as the implications of his discoveries for the nature of the soul, the identity of the person, and the relation of the non-physical subjective mind to the physical brain that produces it. Rendered in clear, accessible language, Libet's experiments and theories will allow interested amateurs and experts alike to share the experience of the extraordinary discoveries made in the practical study of consciousness.



Consciousness Lost and Found

Consciousness Lost and Found Author Lawrence Weiskrantz
ISBN-10 UOM:39015039050813
Release 1997
Pages 294
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The phenomenon of "consciousness" is intrinsically related to one's awareness of one's self, of time, and of the physical world. But what if something should happen to impair one's awareness? What do we make of "consciousness" in those people who have suffered brain damage, such as amnesia? This is the intriguing question explored by Lawrence Weiskrantz, a distinguished neuropsychologist who has worked with such patients over 30 years. Contrary to the perception that many have about brain-damaged patients, it has been discovered that many of these individuals retain intact capacities of which they are unaware, in what is known as `covert' processing. A blind patient, then, may actually be able to "see," without having knowledge of such success, while an amnesiac patient can be shown to learn and retain information that he or she does not realize is memory--nor can be made to realize. In fact, in every major class of defect in which patients lose cognitive ability--from perception, to meaning, to memory, to language--examples of preserved capacities can be found of which the patient is unaware. Weiskrantz starts with his research into this phenomenon, known to neuropsychologists but unfamiliar to many layreaders, and uses it as a springboard toward a philosophical argument which, combined with the latest brain imaging studies, points the way to specific brain structures which may be involved in conscious awareness. Weiskrantz takes his argument further, too, asking whether animals who share much the same brain anatomy as humans share awareness--and how that impacts our assumptions about evolution as well as our moral and ethical decision making. Written in an engaging and accessible style, Consciousness Lost and Found provides a unique perspective on one of the most challenging issues in science today.



Integrated Neuroscience and Neurology

Integrated Neuroscience and Neurology Author Elliott M. Marcus
ISBN-10 9780199981717
Release 2014-08-22
Pages 540
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Integrated Neuroscience argues that in order to make an intelligent diagnosis and provide a rational treatment nervous system disorders, it is necessary to answer the basic questions of clinical neurology. Where is the disease process located, and what is the nature of the disease process? For students to answer these questions, the authors first review the makeup of the cells within the central nervous system and the development of the regions within the central nervous system. A detailed anatomical overview of the nervous system, starting at the spinal cord, proceeding to the brain stem, diencephalon and cerebrum follows. This textbook focuses not only on localized diseases caused by infectious diseases, trauma, tumors, and vascular lesions within the central nervous system, but also these diseases within the systems of the brain and spinal cord. Over 250 real cases with associated MRI or CTs and any pathological findings from these patients illustrate numerous disorders and fully explain the nature of the pathology. The authors have also included six problem solving sessions in which the student must identify the ongoing disease process, what caused it, and how best to treat it. Throughout the discussion in this text the authors also correlate the neurological findings to the underlying anatomy of the region.



The Problems of Philosophy

The Problems of Philosophy Author Bertrand Russell
ISBN-10 9780486121161
Release 2012-05-04
Pages 128
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Accessible, thought-provoking study by Nobel Prize-winner considers distinction between appearance and reality, existence and nature of matter, idealism, inductive logic, intuitive knowledge, many other stimulating subjects.