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Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components

Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components Author Nathan White
ISBN-10 9781493928989
Release 2015-07-20
Pages 166
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This SpringerBrief presents strategies for fire mitigation based on combustible assembly systems of exterior walls. Providing background information on common exterior wall systems, the mechanisms of fire spread, and case studies, it examines the difficulties in controlling a fire with several materials and assembly methods. The brief compiles information on typical fire scenarios which involve the exterior wall, along with further exploration into test methods, approval and regulatory requirements for the various assembly systems. Offering testing approaches for possible mitigation strategies, the brief takes into account that current commercial wall assembly systems are constructed to improve energy performance, reduce water and air infiltration, and allow for aesthetic design flexibility. Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, metal composite claddings, high-pressure laminates, and weather-resistive barrier systems all have components which directly impact the fire hazard. Recommendations for future exterior wall construction are based on identified knowledge gaps.



Advances in Health and Environment Safety

Advances in Health and Environment Safety Author N. A. Siddiqui
ISBN-10 9789811071225
Release 2017-12-28
Pages 396
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This book comprises selected papers on advances in the field of health and environment safety that were presented at the leading international conference on advances in the field of health, safety, fire, environment, allied sciences and engineering (HSFEA 2016). The book focuses on the latest developments in the field of health and environment safety, and highlights related opportunities and challenges. The book also presents methods that can be used to effectively monitor and measure climate change and global warming. Further, the contents of this work stress the importance of maintaining safety and healthy work environments that are free of occupational health hazards. This book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.



Climate Fire and Human Evolution

Climate  Fire and Human Evolution Author Andrew Y. Glikson
ISBN-10 9783319225128
Release 2015-11-04
Pages 227
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.



Fire Resistant Geopolymers

Fire Resistant Geopolymers Author Les Vickers
ISBN-10 9789812873118
Release 2014-12-05
Pages 129
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The book covers the topic of geopolymers, in particular it highlights the relationship between structural differences as a result of variations during the geopolymer synthesis and its physical and chemical properties. In particular, the book describes the optimization of the thermal properties of geopolymers by adding micro-structural modifiers such as fibres and/or fillers into the geopolymer matrix. The range of fibres and fillers used in geopolymers, their impact on the microstructure and thermal properties is described in great detail. The book content will appeal to researchers, scientists, or engineers who are interested in geopolymer science and technology and its industrial applications.



Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool Enveco Tool for Fire Events

Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool  Enveco Tool  for Fire Events Author Francine Amon
ISBN-10 9781493965595
Release 2016-08-02
Pages 111
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This book investigates the feasibility of developing a tool that enables fire departments to estimate the value of their services to a community in terms of environmental and financial impact. This book provides a summary of this effort, which resulted in development of a prototype tool for fire department use. The impact of fire on a community is usually measured in terms of the number of fires, human casualties, and property damage. There are, however, more subtle impacts of fire that are not so easily estimated but contribute to the measure of overall performance of the fire service in protecting a community. While environmental and economic impact assessment methodologies exist as separate systems, they generally require a high level of knowledge that is outside the scope of most fire departments. A relatively simple methodology for estimating the environmental and economic impact of fires helps communities understand the degree to which fire department activities can benefit a community’s environmental and economic well-being. The scope and approach for this prototype tool is explained, including risk assessment, cost benefit analysis, life cycle assessment, integration and implementation, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. It includes multiple case studies and offers statistical support for future expansion of the tool. Fire service professionals will find this a useful new approach to presenting value in a community, as well as a method for examining their own financial and environmental plans.



Vehicle Dynamics and Control

Vehicle Dynamics and Control Author Rajesh Rajamani
ISBN-10 9781461414322
Release 2011-12-21
Pages 498
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Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicles. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability control has been enhanced. The use of feedback control systems on automobiles is growing rapidly. This book is intended to serve as a useful resource to researchers who work on the development of such control systems, both in the automotive industry and at universities. The book can also serve as a textbook for a graduate level course on Vehicle Dynamics and Control.



Regulatory Theory

Regulatory Theory Author Peter Drahos
ISBN-10 9781760461027
Release 2017-02-23
Pages 783
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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.



Fire Safety of Historical Buildings

Fire Safety of Historical Buildings Author Gabriele Bernardini
ISBN-10 9783319557441
Release 2017-05-10
Pages 111
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This book applies a behavioral point of view to individuals’ fire safety in historic buildings. It outlines theoretical and operative issues, based on recent studies and international guidelines. Firstly, critical issues for Building Heritage fire safety are widely discussed, by including the modelling of human factor and man-environment-fire interference in these architectural spaces. A significant part of the book includes a discussion on emergency modeling and simulation. A source code for representing the fire evacuation process (including man-evacuation facilities interactions) is offered to the reader. Methods for effectiveness assessment of risk-reducing solutions are provided and tested in a case-study. Being a structured approach to occupants-related problems during a fire in heritage buildings, it offers an innovative methodology and practical examples that researchers and designers can use as a guide when proposing and testing solutions. Evaluation indexes for effectiveness assessment (also useful for future guidelines or handbooks) are included. Readers are encouraged to understand these indexes within the proposed approach, so as to extend their applications and possibilities of how to introduce human behaviors-based solutions in other fields. Lastly, attention is focused on the proposal and evaluation of low-impact and not-invasive strategies, such as ones based on wayfinding elements. From this point of view, the pros and cons of wayfinding systems are discussed: these are important today, especially for fire-safety designers, because of the ongoing innovations in this field.



Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Fundamentals of Power Electronics Author Erickson
ISBN-10 9781461576464
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 773
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In many university curricula, the power electronics field has evolved beyond the status of comprising one or two special-topics courses. Often there are several courses dealing with the power electronics field, covering the topics of converters, motor drives, and power devices, with possibly additional advanced courses in these areas as well. There may also be more traditional power-area courses in energy conversion, machines, and power systems. In the breadth vs. depth tradeoff, it no longer makes sense for one textbook to attempt to cover all of these courses; indeed, each course should ideally employ a dedicated textbook. This text is intended for use in introductory power electronics courses on converters, taught at the senior or first-year graduate level. There is sufficient material for a one year course or, at a faster pace with some material omitted, for two quarters or one semester. The first class on converters has been called a way of enticing control and electronics students into the power area via the "back door". The power electronics field is quite broad, and includes fundamentals in the areas of • Converter circuits and electronics • Control systems • Magnetics • Power applications • Design-oriented analysis This wide variety of areas is one of the things which makes the field so interesting and appealing to newcomers. This breadth also makes teaching the field a challenging undertaking, because one cannot assume that all students enrolled in the class have solid prerequisite knowledge in so many areas.



Petroleum Geosciences Indian Contexts

Petroleum Geosciences  Indian Contexts Author Soumyajit Mukherjee
ISBN-10 9783319031194
Release 2015-05-19
Pages 294
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This book incorporates original and review articles on several aspects of petroleum geosciences from Indian terrains, both onshore and offshore, and includes diverse geological (tectonic, sedimentological, organic geochemical, paleontological, stratigraphic, modelling and various others), geophysical methods and policy aspects.



Novel Catalysts in Advanced Oxidation of Organic Pollutants

Novel Catalysts in Advanced Oxidation of Organic Pollutants Author Süheyda Atalay
ISBN-10 9783319289502
Release 2016-01-27
Pages 60
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This brief summarizes the role of certain catalysts and associated processes that are involved in the reduction or elimination of hazardous substances from wastewater and the exploitation of renewable raw materials. The authors begin by providing a summary of the most recent developments in catalysts used in the advanced oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous phase. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPS) are described in terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Some emphasis is placed on the role nanocatalysts, perovskite-type catalysts, and green catalysts play in several AOPs such as Fenton Chemistry, photocatalytic oxidation, and the hybrid technologies that combine different processes. Catalyst preparation, characterization, reaction chemistry, and process technology are described. Specific wastewater case studies which illustrate the role of these catalysts in AOPs completes the brief.



Video Image Detection Systems Installation Performance Criteria

Video Image Detection Systems Installation Performance Criteria Author Daniel T. Gottuk
ISBN-10 9781461442028
Release 2012-06-02
Pages 56
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Computer processing and image analysis technologies have improved substantially over the course of the past decade. This rapidly advancing technology along with the emphasis on video surveillance since 911 has propelled the development of effective video image detection (VID) systems for ?re. Fire protection system designers initially employed these VID systems for use in large facilities, outdoor locations and tunnels. However, video-based detection is being used for a broadening range of applications [e. g. , 1]. For example, these systems are c- rently installed in electrical power plants, paper mills, document storage facilities, historic municipal buildings, nuclear research facilities, automotive plants, wa- house/distribution centers, and onshore and offshore oil platforms. The 2007 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code [2], recognized the use of VID systems for ?ame and smoke detection. Although recognized, there is limited prescriptive installation and use requirements and there is a general desire by many for the development of performance criteria that ultimately could be utilized for the design of systems or the creation of standards. Since the underlying VID technology and development of standard and network-based camera systems are in a period of fairly rapid advancement [3–5], it is not possible to de?ne a comprehensive set of stand-alone prescriptive requirements. The performance of VID systems depends on both the video hardware and the software algorithms; there is no basic underlying principle, such as there is for ionization or pho- electric detection for smoke detectors. Consequently, performance-based inst- lation and operation requirements are needed.



Law Economics and Finance of the Real Estate Market

Law  Economics and Finance of the Real Estate Market Author Rita Yi Man Li
ISBN-10 9783642542459
Release 2014-03-10
Pages 146
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The symbiosis between the law, economics and finance is evidenced in our daily lives. This book elucidates the relationship between these factors in Singapore and Hong Kong in direct and indirect real estate market. In Singapore, for example, there is an inseparable relationship between law, economics, finance and the HDB market. The book also showcases the concept of invitation to treat and offer, monetary compensation for environmental externalities under the lens of institutional economics. It also sheds light on the relationship between financial crisis, regulations, housing prices and indirect real estate market.



Lithium Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment

Lithium Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment Author Celina Mikolajczak
ISBN-10 9781461434856
Release 2012-03-23
Pages 115
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Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment examines the usage of lithium-ion batteries and cells within consumer, industrial and transportation products, and analyzes the potential hazards associated with their prolonged use. This book also surveys the applicable codes and standards for lithium-ion technology. Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for lithium-ion batteries and cells. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.



Paul J Crutzen A Pioneer on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change in the Anthropocene

Paul J  Crutzen  A Pioneer on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change in the Anthropocene Author Paul J. Crutzen
ISBN-10 9783319274607
Release 2016-04-15
Pages 248
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This book contains texts by the Nobel laureate Paul J. Crutzen who is best known for his research on ozone depletion. It comprises Crutzen’s autobiography, several pictures documenting important stages of his life, and his most important scientific publications. The Dutch atmospheric chemist is one of the world’s most cited scientists in geosciences. His political engagement makes him a tireless ambassador for environmental issues such as climate change. He popularized the term ‘Anthropocene’ for the current geological era acknowledging the enduring influence of humankind on planet Earth. This concept conceives humans to be a geologic factor, influencing the evolution of our globe and the living beings populating it. The selection of texts is representing Paul Crutzen ́s scientific oeuvre as his research interests span from ozone depletion to the climatic impacts of biomass burning, the consequences of a worldwide atomic war – the Nuclear Winter - to geoengineering and the Anthropocene.



America s Most Sustainable Cities and Regions

America   s Most Sustainable Cities and Regions Author John W. Day
ISBN-10 9781493932436
Release 2016-01-23
Pages 348
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This book takes you on a unique journey through American history, taking time to consider the forces that shaped the development of various cities and regions, and arrives at an unexpected conclusion regarding sustainability. From the American Dream to globalization to the digital and information revolutions, we assume that humans have taken control of our collective destinies in spite of potholes in the road such as the Great Recession of 2007-2009. However, these attitudes were formed during a unique 100-year period of human history in which a large but finite supply of fossil fuels was tapped to feed our economic and innovation engine. Today, at the peak of the Oil Age, the horizon looks different. Cities such as Los Angeles, Phoenix and Las Vegas are situated where water and other vital ecological services are scarce, and the enormous flows of resources and energy that were needed to create the megalopolises of the 20th century will prove unsustainable. Climate change is a reality, and regional impacts will become increasingly severe. Economies such as Las Vegas, which are dependent on discretionary income and buffeted by climate change, are already suffering the fate of the proverbial canary in the coal mine. Finite resources will mean profound changes for society in general and the energy-intensive lifestyles of the US and Canada in particular. But not all regions are equally vulnerable to these 21st-century megatrends. Are you ready to look beyond “America’s Most Livable Cities” to the critical factors that will determine the sustainability of your municipality and region? Find out where your city or region ranks according to the forces that will impact our lives in the next years and decades. Find out how: ·resource availability and ecological services shaped the modern landscape ·emerging megatrends will make cities and regions more or less livable in the new century ·your city or region ranks on a “sustainability” map of the United States ·urban metabolism puts large cities at particular risk ·sustainability factors will favor economic solutions at a local, rather than global, level ·these principles apply to industrial economies and countries globally. This book should be cited as follows: J. Day, C. Hall, E. Roy, M. Moersbaecher, C. D'Elia, D. Pimentel, and A. Yanez. 2016. America's most sustainable cities and regions: Surviving the 21st century megatrends. Springer, New York. 348 p.



Principles of Systems Science

Principles of Systems Science Author George E Mobus
ISBN-10 9781493919208
Release 2014-11-10
Pages 755
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This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving