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Fluorine and the Environment Agrochemicals Archaeology Green Chemistry and Water

Fluorine and the Environment  Agrochemicals  Archaeology  Green Chemistry and Water Author
ISBN-10 0080465617
Release 2006-10-04
Pages 296
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Advances in Fluorine Science is a new book series presenting critical multidisciplinary overviews on areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. In the present volume, the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture is reviewed, since a large percentage of agro-chemicals and pesticides contain at least one fluorine atom. However, improvements in the use of fluorine-based products in agrochemicals cannot be developed without taking into consideration a safer environment, on both levels of greener synthesis routes and a reduction of the negative impact on plants and organisms. Within this scope, fluorine has a very peculiar place, since its high reactivity yields several advantages, for instance in by-passing various polluting multi-step reactions. Fluorine-based materials are reviewed as efficient tools for protecting our cultural heritage. Also using up-to-date techniques such as ion beam analysis, this element can help relative dating applications, ranging from burial durations of archaeological bones and teeth to the determination of exposure ages of meteorites on the Antarctic ice shield. Providing an original approach of the complex relationships between chemistry and the environment Reviewing the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs



Fluorine and Health

Fluorine and Health Author Alain Tressaud
ISBN-10 0080558119
Release 2008-06-06
Pages 816
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics



Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory Author Andrew P. Dicks
ISBN-10 9781439840764
Release 2011-08-29
Pages 299
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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.



Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds

Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds Author Henri Groult
ISBN-10 9780128037904
Release 2016-11-04
Pages 760
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Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds focuses on the exceptional character of fluorine and fluorinated compounds. This comprehensive work explores examples taken from all classes of fluorine chemistry and illustrates the extreme reactivity of fluorinating media and the peculiar synthesis routes to fluorinated materials. The book provides advanced and updated information on the latest synthesis routes to fluorocompounds and the involved reaction mechanisms. Special attention is given to the unique reactivity of fluorine and fluorinated media, along with the correlation of those properties to valuable applications of fluorinated compounds. Contains quality content edited, and contributed, by leading scholars in the field Presents applied guidance on the preparation of original fluorinated compounds, potentially transferable from the lab scale to industrial applications Provides practical synthesis information for a wide audience interested in fluorine compounds in many branches of chemistry, materials science, and physics



Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research

Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research Author Peter Jeschke
ISBN-10 9783527655922
Release 2013-02-05
Pages 442
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This handbook and ready reference highlights a couple of basic aspects of recently developed new methods in modern crop protection research, authored by renowned experts from major agrochemical companies. Organized into four major parts that trace the key phases of the compound development process, the first section addresses compound design, while the second covers newly developed methods for the identification of the mode of action of agrochemical compounds. The third part describes methods used in improving the bioavailability of compounds, and the final section looks at modern methods for risk assessment. As a result, the agrochemical developer will find here a valuable toolbox of advanced methods, complete with first-hand practical advice and copious examples from current industrial practice.



Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology Author A. M. Pollard
ISBN-10 0521655722
Release 2007
Pages 404
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This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.



Radiocarbon Dating Second Edition

Radiocarbon Dating  Second Edition Author R.E. Taylor
ISBN-10 9781598745900
Release 2014-11
Pages 404
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This volume is a major revision and expansion of Taylor s seminal book Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective, again providing a benchmark for the method and critically reflecting on the data that underpins the chronologies used to understand the prehistoric archaeological record."



Tea in Health and Disease Prevention

Tea in Health and Disease Prevention Author Victor R. Preedy
ISBN-10 9780123849380
Release 2012-10-01
Pages 1612
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While there have been many claims of the benefits of teas through the years, and while there is nearly universal agreement that drinking tea can benefit health, there is still a concern over whether the lab-generated results are representative of real-life benefit, what the risk of toxicity might be, and what the effective-level thresholds are for various purposes. Clearly there are still questions about the efficacy and use of tea for health benefit. This book presents a comprehensive look at the compounds in black, green, and white teas, their reported benefits (or toxicity risks) and also explores them on a health-condition specific level, providing researchers and academics with a single-volume resource to help in identifying potential treatment uses. No other book on the market considers all the varieties of teas in one volume, or takes the disease-focused approach that will assist in directing further research and studies. Interdisciplinary presentation of material assists in identifying potential cross-over benefits and similarities between tea sources and diseases Assists in identifying therapeutic benefits for new product development Includes coverage and comparison of the most important types of tea - green, black and white



Green Chemistry and Catalysis

Green Chemistry and Catalysis Author R. A. Sheldon
ISBN-10 9783527611010
Release 2007-06-27
Pages 448
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This first book to focus on catalytic processes from the viewpoint of green chemistry presents every important aspect: ? Numerous catalytic reductions and oxidations methods ? Solid-acid and solid-base catalysis ? C-C bond formation reactions ? Biocatalysis ? Asymmetric catalysis ? Novel reaction media like e.g. ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 ? Renewable raw materials Written by Roger A. Sheldon -- without doubt one of the leaders in the field with much experience in academia and industry -- and his co-workers, the result is a unified whole, an indispensable source for every scientist looking to improve catalytic reactions, whether in the college or company lab.



Advances in Microbial Biotechnology

Advances in Microbial Biotechnology Author Pradeep Kumar,
ISBN-10 1771886676
Release 2018-04-30
Pages 650
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Over the last few decades, the rapid and vast development of advanced microbial bioresources and metagenomics techniques has completely transformed the field of microbial biotechnology. Our understanding of microbial diversity, evolutionary biology, and microbial interaction with their animal and plant hosts at molecular level has been revolutionized with an abundance of new research. This new volume, Advances in Microbial Biotechnology: Current Trends and Future Prospect, focuses on the application of microorganisms for several purposes: for plant protection and improvement, for environmental remediation purposes, and for the improvement of human health. Various applications of microorganisms are covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in different chapters. The book is divided into four major sections: applied microbiology in agriculture microbes in the environment microbes in human health microbes in nanotechnology The book provides insight into the diverse microorganisms that have been explored and exploited in the development of various applications for agricultural improvements. The book also looks at the application of microbes for the removal of pollutants and the recovery of metals and oils. Also discussed is the detection and exploitation of microorganisms in the diagnosis of human diseases, providing possible holistic approaches to health. This new volume will provide a wealth of information on new research on the application of microbial biotechnology today.



Pollutants in Buildings Water and Living Organisms

Pollutants in Buildings  Water and Living Organisms Author Eric Lichtfouse
ISBN-10 9783319192765
Release 2015-08-31
Pages 348
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This book presents advanced methods to analyse and clean pollutants, such as nanotechnology to treat water, techniques to remediate building materials, and bioindicators. It is very important that the understanding of these methods are brought to the attention of scientists, as cities and ecosystems are still polluted by toxic compounds despite efforts to clean the planet.



Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research

Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research Author Ajay Kumar Mishra
ISBN-10 9781118939284
Release 2014-06-09
Pages 552
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Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being ‘tuned’ to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.



Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context Saph Pani

Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context  Saph Pani Author Thomas Wintgens
ISBN-10 9781780408385
Release 2016-07-15
Pages 342
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Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context is based on the work from the Saph Pani project (Hindi word meaning potable water). The book aims to study and improve natural water treatment systems, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), and wetlands in India, building local and European expertise in this field. The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework (FP7) scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international cooperation partner countries. Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context provides: an introduction to the concepts of natural water treatment systems (MAR, RBF, wetlands) at national and international level knowledge of the basics of MAR, RBF and wetlands, methods and hydrogeological characterisation an insight into case studies in India and abroad. This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference.



Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride

Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride Author Subcommittee on Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride
ISBN-10 9780309049757
Release 1993-01-01
Pages 206
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This book reviews the effects on health of fluoride ingested from various sources. Those health effects reviewed include dental fluorosis; bone fracture; effects on renal, reproductive, and gastrointestinal systems; and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The book also reviews the Environmental Protection Agency's current drinking-water standard for fluoride and considers future research needs.



Insect Repellents

Insect Repellents Author Mustapha Debboun
ISBN-10 9781420006650
Release 2006-10-25
Pages 495
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Drawing together information previously found only in articles, reviews, symposia proceedings, commercial literature, and medical entomology texts, Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, and Uses is a one-volume source on the development, evaluation, and use of repellents. It provides a thoughtful analysis of old and new information, from the ancient history of people’s attempts to avoid bites, through the use of synthetic and botanical products, to pioneering techniques for development of repellent products. After reading this book, you will be able to perform the next step in research, thoroughly evaluate data on repellents, and choose the best products for any situation. The editors introduce and define the word “phagomone” to fill the gap created by the many different meanings attributed to the word “repellent.” They present the history of repellent production that has led to the formulations currently in use and discuss the biological variety of phagomones as they function in nature. The book then delineates the methods used to assess the activity of phagomones and repellent products. A special feature of the book is its coverage of what many consider the cutting-edge in repellent testing: automated tests of the arthropods’ responses, the use of computer models of chemistry, and the use of molecular biology methods. The book comprehensively compares active ingredients and includes an index of illustrated chemical structures that lists most chemicals involved in repellent development. A thought-provoking discussion of the process of testing formulated products and comprehensive reviews of natural and synthetic active ingredients round out the book’s coverage. It supplies an in-depth understanding of the variety of purposes served by repellent bioassays and lays the foundation for evaluating data and designing new tests as well as developing and delivering new tools and approaches. This book provides all the information you need to give evidence-based recommendations.



Treatise on geochemistry

Treatise on geochemistry Author Heinrich D. Holland
ISBN-10 0080437516
Release 2004
Pages 7800
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The "Treatise on Geochemistry" is the first work providing a comprehensive, integrated summarry of the present state of geochemistry. It deals with all the major subjects in the field, ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The "Treatise on Geochemistry" has drawn on the expertise of outstanding scientists throughout the world, creating "the" reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. Each volume consists of fifteen to twenty-five chapters written by recognized authorities in their fields, and chosen by the Volume Editors in consultation with the Executive Editors. Particular emphasis has been placed on integrating the subject matter of the individual chapters and volumes. Elsevier also offers the "Treatise on Geochemistry" in electronic format via the online platform ScienceDirect(R), the most comprehensive database of academic research on the Internet today, enhanced by a suite of sophisticated linking, searching and retrieval tools.



Environmental Applications of Instrumental Chemical Analysis

Environmental Applications of Instrumental Chemical Analysis Author Mahmood Barbooti
ISBN-10 9781482262643
Release 2015-04-15
Pages 604
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This book is a comprehensive review of the instrumental analytical methods and their use in environmental monitoring site assessment and remediation follow-up operations. The increased concern about environmental issues such as water pollution, air pollution, accumulation of pollutants in food, global climate change, and effective remediation processes necessitate the precise determination of various types of chemicals in environmental samples. In general, all stages of environmental work start with the evaluation of organic and inorganic environmental samples. This important book furnishes the fundamentals of instrumental chemical analysis methods to various environmental applications and also covers recent developments in instrumental chemical methods. Covering a wide variety of topics in the field, the book: • Presents an introduction to environmental chemistry • Presents the fundamentals of instrumental chemical analysis methods that are used mostly in the environmental work. • Examines instrumental methods of analysis including UV/Vis, FTIR, atomic absorption, induced coupled plasma emission, electrochemical methods like potentiometry, voltametry, coulometry, and chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC • Presents newly introduced chromatographic methodologies such as ion electrophoresis, and combinations of chromatography with pyrolysis methods are given • Discusses selected methods for the determinations of various pollutants in water, air, and land Readers will gain a general review of modern instrumental method of chemical analysis that is useful in environmental work and will learn how to select methods for analyzing certain samples. Analytical instrumentation and its underlying principles are presented, along with the types of sample for which each instrument is best suited. Some noninstrumental techniques, such as colorimetric detection tubes for gases and immnosassays, are also discussed.