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Fluorine and the Environment Agrochemicals Archaeology Green Chemistry and Water

Fluorine and the Environment  Agrochemicals  Archaeology  Green Chemistry and Water Author
ISBN-10 0080465617
Release 2006-10-04
Pages 296
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Advances in Fluorine Science is a new book series presenting critical multidisciplinary overviews on areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. In the present volume, the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture is reviewed, since a large percentage of agro-chemicals and pesticides contain at least one fluorine atom. However, improvements in the use of fluorine-based products in agrochemicals cannot be developed without taking into consideration a safer environment, on both levels of greener synthesis routes and a reduction of the negative impact on plants and organisms. Within this scope, fluorine has a very peculiar place, since its high reactivity yields several advantages, for instance in by-passing various polluting multi-step reactions. Fluorine-based materials are reviewed as efficient tools for protecting our cultural heritage. Also using up-to-date techniques such as ion beam analysis, this element can help relative dating applications, ranging from burial durations of archaeological bones and teeth to the determination of exposure ages of meteorites on the Antarctic ice shield. Providing an original approach of the complex relationships between chemistry and the environment Reviewing the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs



Fluorine and Health

Fluorine and Health Author Alain Tressaud
ISBN-10 0080558119
Release 2008-06-06
Pages 816
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics



Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory Author Andrew P. Dicks
ISBN-10 9781439840764
Release 2011-08-29
Pages 299
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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.



Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds

Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds Author Henri Groult
ISBN-10 9780128037904
Release 2016-11-04
Pages 760
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Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds focuses on the exceptional character of fluorine and fluorinated compounds. This comprehensive work explores examples taken from all classes of fluorine chemistry and illustrates the extreme reactivity of fluorinating media and the peculiar synthesis routes to fluorinated materials. The book provides advanced and updated information on the latest synthesis routes to fluorocompounds and the involved reaction mechanisms. Special attention is given to the unique reactivity of fluorine and fluorinated media, along with the correlation of those properties to valuable applications of fluorinated compounds. Contains quality content edited, and contributed, by leading scholars in the field Presents applied guidance on the preparation of original fluorinated compounds, potentially transferable from the lab scale to industrial applications Provides practical synthesis information for a wide audience interested in fluorine compounds in many branches of chemistry, materials science, and physics



Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research

Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research Author Peter Jeschke
ISBN-10 9783527655922
Release 2013-02-05
Pages 442
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This handbook and ready reference highlights a couple of basic aspects of recently developed new methods in modern crop protection research, authored by renowned experts from major agrochemical companies. Organized into four major parts that trace the key phases of the compound development process, the first section addresses compound design, while the second covers newly developed methods for the identification of the mode of action of agrochemical compounds. The third part describes methods used in improving the bioavailability of compounds, and the final section looks at modern methods for risk assessment. As a result, the agrochemical developer will find here a valuable toolbox of advanced methods, complete with first-hand practical advice and copious examples from current industrial practice.



Fluorine and the Environment

Fluorine and the Environment Author Alain Tressaud
ISBN-10 0444528113
Release 2006
Pages 300
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Advances in Fluorine Science presents critical multidisciplinary overviews for areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. For each subject the contributors will clearly inform the reader on the nature of the problem (if any) and on the solutions, combining knowledge from different scientific disciplines, that have been proposed to solve each issue. This volume covers a wide scope of important issues about our atmospheric environment and contains contributions from both chemists and environmental scientists. Articles review the origin of fluorine-emissions either from natural or anthropogenic origin; the chemistry of fluorine- and halogen-based species in the atmosphere; the monitoring and characterization of atmospheric pollutants; new generations of halocarbons and improved destruction procedures of banned CFCs; the role of fluorides within both our geosphere: volcanic magmas and natural fluorine emissions, and effects on our biosphere: life cycle, plants and animals. * Examines the role of fluorine and fluoride products in our environment: from the geosphere to the atmosphere through the biosphere * Discusses the efforts of scientists and industry groups towards the improvement of environmental and sustainability issues * Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs



Green Chemistry and Catalysis

Green Chemistry and Catalysis Author R. A. Sheldon
ISBN-10 9783527611010
Release 2007-06-27
Pages 448
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This first book to focus on catalytic processes from the viewpoint of green chemistry presents every important aspect: ? Numerous catalytic reductions and oxidations methods ? Solid-acid and solid-base catalysis ? C-C bond formation reactions ? Biocatalysis ? Asymmetric catalysis ? Novel reaction media like e.g. ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 ? Renewable raw materials Written by Roger A. Sheldon -- without doubt one of the leaders in the field with much experience in academia and industry -- and his co-workers, the result is a unified whole, an indispensable source for every scientist looking to improve catalytic reactions, whether in the college or company lab.



Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology Author A. M. Pollard
ISBN-10 0521655722
Release 2007
Pages 404
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This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.



Tea in Health and Disease Prevention

Tea in Health and Disease Prevention Author Victor R. Preedy
ISBN-10 9780123849373
Release 2013
Pages 1573
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Examines the benefits of tea and its components, ranging from the anti-microbial to the anti-oxidant. Components such as catechins, theaflavins, polysaccharides, and others have been isolated and may have putative protective effects and modulate the biochemistry of a variety of cell types. 128 chapters explore improvements in the cardiovascular system, the brain, and other organs, and looks at possible applications in other disease areas --



Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research

Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research Author Ajay Kumar Mishra
ISBN-10 9781118939284
Release 2014-06-09
Pages 552
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Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being ‘tuned’ to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.



Fluorine and the Environment Atmospheric Chemistry Emissions Lithosphere

Fluorine and the Environment  Atmospheric Chemistry  Emissions   Lithosphere Author Alain Tressaud
ISBN-10 0080463754
Release 2006-08-17
Pages 318
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Advances in Fluorine Science presents critical multidisciplinary overviews for areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. For each subject the contributors will clearly inform the reader on the nature of the problem (if any) and on the solutions, combining knowledge from different scientific disciplines, that have been proposed to solve each issue. This volume covers a wide scope of important issues about our atmospheric environment and contains contributions from both chemists and environmental scientists. Articles review the origin of fluorine-emissions either from natural or anthropogenic origin; the chemistry of fluorine- and halogen-based species in the atmosphere; the monitoring and characterization of atmospheric pollutants; new generations of halocarbons and improved destruction procedures of banned CFCs; the role of fluorides within both our geosphere: volcanic magmas and natural fluorine emissions, and effects on our biosphere: life cycle, plants and animals. * Examines the role of fluorine and fluoride products in our environment: from the geosphere to the atmosphere through the biosphere * Discusses the efforts of scientists and industry groups towards the improvement of environmental and sustainability issues * Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs



Advances in Microbial Biotechnology

Advances in Microbial Biotechnology Author Pradeep Kumar,
ISBN-10 1771886676
Release 2018-04-30
Pages 650
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Over the last few decades, the rapid and vast development of advanced microbial bioresources and metagenomics techniques has completely transformed the field of microbial biotechnology. Our understanding of microbial diversity, evolutionary biology, and microbial interaction with their animal and plant hosts at molecular level has been revolutionized with an abundance of new research. This new volume, Advances in Microbial Biotechnology: Current Trends and Future Prospect, focuses on the application of microorganisms for several purposes: for plant protection and improvement, for environmental remediation purposes, and for the improvement of human health. Various applications of microorganisms are covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in different chapters. The book is divided into four major sections: applied microbiology in agriculture microbes in the environment microbes in human health microbes in nanotechnology The book provides insight into the diverse microorganisms that have been explored and exploited in the development of various applications for agricultural improvements. The book also looks at the application of microbes for the removal of pollutants and the recovery of metals and oils. Also discussed is the detection and exploitation of microorganisms in the diagnosis of human diseases, providing possible holistic approaches to health. This new volume will provide a wealth of information on new research on the application of microbial biotechnology today.



Insect Repellents

Insect Repellents Author Mustapha Debboun
ISBN-10 9781420006650
Release 2006-10-25
Pages 495
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Drawing together information previously found only in articles, reviews, symposia proceedings, commercial literature, and medical entomology texts, Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, and Uses is a one-volume source on the development, evaluation, and use of repellents. It provides a thoughtful analysis of old and new information, from the ancient history of people’s attempts to avoid bites, through the use of synthetic and botanical products, to pioneering techniques for development of repellent products. After reading this book, you will be able to perform the next step in research, thoroughly evaluate data on repellents, and choose the best products for any situation. The editors introduce and define the word “phagomone” to fill the gap created by the many different meanings attributed to the word “repellent.” They present the history of repellent production that has led to the formulations currently in use and discuss the biological variety of phagomones as they function in nature. The book then delineates the methods used to assess the activity of phagomones and repellent products. A special feature of the book is its coverage of what many consider the cutting-edge in repellent testing: automated tests of the arthropods’ responses, the use of computer models of chemistry, and the use of molecular biology methods. The book comprehensively compares active ingredients and includes an index of illustrated chemical structures that lists most chemicals involved in repellent development. A thought-provoking discussion of the process of testing formulated products and comprehensive reviews of natural and synthetic active ingredients round out the book’s coverage. It supplies an in-depth understanding of the variety of purposes served by repellent bioassays and lays the foundation for evaluating data and designing new tests as well as developing and delivering new tools and approaches. This book provides all the information you need to give evidence-based recommendations.



Environmental Encyclopedia

Environmental Encyclopedia Author
ISBN-10 1414487363
Release 2011-06-07
Pages
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Environmental Encyclopedia has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Environmental Encyclopedia also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Environmental Encyclopedia book for free.



Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment

Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment Author Eckhard Worch
ISBN-10 9783110240238
Release 2012-08-31
Pages 344
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This scientific monograph treats the theoretical fundamentals of adsorption technology for water treatment from a practical perspective. It presents all the basics needed for experimental adsorption studies as well as for process modeling and adsorber design. With the increasing importance of micropollutants in the water cycle, particular attention is paid to their competitive adsorption in presence of background organic matter. Clear illustrations, extensive literature references make this work indispensible for scientists and technicians involved in water treatment.



Advanced Structural Mechanics

Advanced Structural Mechanics Author Alberto Carpinteri
ISBN-10 9781482266702
Release 2017-07-04
Pages 545
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Building on the author’s Structural Mechanics Fundamentals, this text presents a complete and uniform treatment of the more advanced topics in structural mechanics, ranging from beam frames to shell structures, from dynamics to buckling analysis, from plasticity to fracture mechanics, from long-span to high-rise civil structures. Plane frames Statically indeterminate beam systems: Method of displacements Plates and shells Finite element method Dynamics of discrete systems Dynamics of continuous elastic systems Buckling instability Long-span structures High-rise structures Theory of plasticity Plane stress and plane strain conditions Mechanics of fracture This book serves as a text for graduate students in structural engineering, as well as a reference for practising engineers and researchers.



Practical Instrumental Analysis

Practical Instrumental Analysis Author Sergio Petrozzi
ISBN-10 9783527665914
Release 2012-09-24
Pages 492
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This practical book in instrumental analytics conveys an overview of important methods of analysis and enables the reader to realistically learn the (principally technology-independent) working techniques the analytical chemist uses to develop methods and conduct validation. What is to be conveyed to the student is the fact that analysts in their capacity as problem-solvers perform services for certain groups of customers, i.e., the solution to the problem should in any case be processed in such a way as to be "fit for purpose". The book presents sixteen experiments in analytical chemistry laboratory courses. They consist of the classical curriculum used at universities and universities of applied sciences with chromatographic procedures, atom spectrometric methods, sensors and special methods (e.g. field flow fractionation , flow injection analysis and N-determination according to Kjeldahl). The carefully chosen combination of theoretical description of the methods of analysis and the detailed instructions given are what characterizes this book. The instructions to the experiments are so detailed that the measurements can, for the most part, be taken without the help of additional literature. The book is complemented with tips for effective literature and database research on the topics of organisation and the practical workflow of experiments in analytical laboratory, on the topic of the use of laboratory logs as well as on writing technical reports and grading them (Evaluation Guidelines for Laboratory Experiments). A small introduction to Quality Management, a brief glance at the history of analytical chemistry as well as a detailed appendix on the topic of safety in analytical laboratories and a short introduction to the new system of grading and marking chemicals using the "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)", round off this book. This book is therefore an indispensable workbook for students, internship assistants and lecturers (in the area of chemistry, biotechnology, food technology and environmental technology) in the basic training programme of analytics at universities and universities of applied sciences.