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Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context

Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context Author Sana Loue
ISBN-10 9781461467380
Release 2013-04-02
Pages 157
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As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.



Legal Issues in Social Work Practice and Research

Legal Issues in Social Work Practice and Research Author Sana Loue
ISBN-10 9783319774145
Release 2018-05-17
Pages 327
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This highly practical text surveys the myriad legal and ethical issues that social workers encounter both in daily practice and under special circumstances. Its initial section presents concepts in law and ethics that unite practitioners, researchers, and academics in the field, such as confidentiality, informed consent, and the interplay between social work and administrative and judicial systems. A selection of representative cases illustrates legal aspects involved in providing services to families, children, elders, and persons with disabilities. Also included are chapters on advocacy in social work, both in its potential to influence policy and on the global stage as part of the ongoing struggle for human rights and dignity. Among the topics covered: Confidentiality and the social worker-client relationship Liability issues for social workers in the clinical context Legal issues arising in the context of social work research The social worker and forensic social work Social worker involvement in access to school and school services Social work in the context of health care Legal issues working with immigrants, refugees, and asylees The interface between social work and human rights Legal Issues in Social Work Practice and Research is an interdisciplinary text aimed at social work, mental health, and legal professionals. It enhances the power of social work as an integrative system to support clients’ rights and agency.



Public Health Law

Public Health Law Author John Coggon
ISBN-10 9781317653035
Release 2016-12-08
Pages 206
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Public health activity, and the state’s public health responsibilities to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy, can only be achieved through different means of social coordination. This places law and regulation at the heart of public health. They are fundamental both to methods of achieving public health goals and to constraints that may be put on public health activity. As such, trainees, practitioners, and leaders in public health need to understand the breadth and nature of wide-ranging legal and regulatory approaches and the place of ethics in public health. Public Health Law, written by three leading scholars in the field, defines and examines this crucial area of study and practice. It advances an agenda whose scope extends far beyond that covered in traditional medical law and health care law texts. The authors provide an account of the scale of contemporary public health policy and practice and explain its philosophical depths and implications and its long legislative and regulatory history. They advance a definition of the field and explore how different legal approaches may serve and advance or constrain and delimit public health agendas. This ground-breaking book presents the field of public health ethics and law and goes on to examine the impact within the UK of private law, criminal law, public law, EU and international law, and ‘softer’ regulatory approaches. It is a primary point of reference for scholars, practitioners, and leaders working in public health, particularly those with an interest in law, policy, and ethics.



Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Author Bruce Budowle
ISBN-10 0123820073
Release 2010-10-27
Pages 744
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Microbial Forensics is a rapidly evolving scientific discipline. In the last decade, and particularly due to the anthrax letter attacks in the United States, microbial forensics has become more formalized and has played an increasingly greater role in crime investigations. This has brought renewed interest, development and application of new technologies, and new rules of forensic and policy engagement. It has many applications ranging from biodefense, criminal investigations, providing intelligence information, making society more secure, and helping protect precious resources, particularly human life. A combination of diverse areas is investigated, including the major disciplines of biology, microbiology, medicine, chemistry, physics, statistics, population genetics, and computer science. Microbial Forensics, Second Edition is fully revised and updated and serves as a complete reference of the discipline. It describes the advances, as well as the challenges and opportunities ahead, and will be integral in applying science to help solve future biocrimes. A collection of microbiology, virology, toxicology and mycology as it relates to forensics, in one reference New and expanded content to include statistical analysis of forensic data and legal admissibility and the standards of evidence, to name a few Includes research information and application of that research to crime scene analysis, which will allow practitioners to understand and apply the knowledge to their practice with ease



Forensic Epidemiology

Forensic Epidemiology Author Sana Loue
ISBN-10 9780763738495
Release 2010-10-25
Pages 195
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Events on local, national, and international levels have highlighted the need for joint investigation and collaboration between public health and law enforcement. Domestic violence and partner homicide, intentional infection of individuals with HIV, and the anthrax attacks of 2001 are examples that underscore the need for forensic epidemiology in the investigation of criminal acts. Forensic Epidemiology focuses specifically on the integration of the principles and methods of epidemiology with law enforcement functions in the administrative and criminal contexts. Ideal for students and professi



Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology

Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology Author Sana Loue
ISBN-10 9780306475245
Release 2007-05-08
Pages 203
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Epidemiology has often been defined as the study of the distribution of disease, together with the distribution of factors that may modify that risk of disease. As such, epidemiology has often been reduced to a methodology only, providing a mechanism for the study of disease that is somehow removed, separate and apart from the populations that serve as its focus. Epidemiology, however, is much more than that. The discipline p- vides a way of perceiving and knowing the world, and of relating to the c- munities whose health and disease patterns we are trying to understand. As such, its usefulness extends past the construction of questionnaires, the detective work inherent in tracing the source of an infection or the analysis of data. Rather, epidemiology serves as a point of reference and a linkage between various domains of reality: in the courtroom, between a com- nity’s injuries and those alleged to be responsible for those violations; between the community striving to effectuate changes to improve its health and environment and the lawmakers and policymakers whose actions may dictate or control the likelihood of that change; and between “mainstream” populations and those who become or remain marginalized and stigmatized due to disease or perceived disease.



Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence

Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence Author Gemma Turton
ISBN-10 9781509900336
Release 2016-05-19
Pages 264
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This book undertakes an analysis of academic and judicial responses to the problem of evidential uncertainty in causation in negligence. It seeks to bring clarity to what has become a notoriously complex area by adopting a clear approach to the function of the doctrine of causation within a corrective justice-based account of negligence liability. It first explores basic causal models and issues of proof, including the role of statistical and epidemiological evidence, in order to isolate the problem of evidential uncertainty more precisely. Application of Richard Wright's NESS test to a range of English case law shows it to be more comprehensive than the 'but for' test that currently dominates, thereby reducing the need to resort to additional tests, such as the Wardlaw test of material contribution to harm, the scope and meaning of which are uncertain. The book builds on this foundation to explore the solution to a range of problems of evidential uncertainty, focusing on the Fairchild principle and the idea of risk as damage, as well as the notion of loss of a chance in medical negligence which is often seen as analogous with 'increase in risk', in an attempt to bring coherence to this area of the law.



Proof of Causation in Tort Law

Proof of Causation in Tort Law Author Sandy Steel
ISBN-10 9781316381076
Release 2015-09-11
Pages
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Causation is a foundational concept in tort law: in claims for compensation, a claimant must demonstrate that the defendant was a cause of the injury suffered in order for compensation to be awarded. Proof of Causation in Tort Law provides a critical, comparative and theoretical analysis of the general proof rules of causation underlying the tort laws of England, Germany and France, as well as the exceptional departures from these rules which each system has made. Exploring the different approaches to uncertainty over causation in tort law, Sandy Steel defends the justifiability of some of these exceptions, and categorises and examines the kinds of exceptional rules suggested by the case law and literature. Critically engaged with both the theoretical literature and current legal doctrine, this book will be of interest to private law scholars, judges and legal practitioners.



Forensic Epidemiology

Forensic Epidemiology Author Michael Freeman
ISBN-10 9780124046443
Release 2016-03-10
Pages 434
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It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense



Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine

Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine Author
ISBN-10 9780128000557
Release 2015-09-29
Pages 3120
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Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volumes 1-4, Second Edition is a pioneering four volume encyclopedia compiled by an international team of forensic specialists who explore the relationship between law, medicine, and science in the study of forensics. This important work includes over three hundred state-of-the-art chapters, with articles covering crime-solving techniques such as autopsies, ballistics, fingerprinting, hair and fiber analysis, and the sophisticated procedures associated with terrorism investigations, forensic chemistry, DNA, and immunoassays. Available online, and in four printed volumes, the encyclopedia is an essential reference for any practitioner in a forensic, medical, healthcare, legal, judicial, or investigative field looking for easily accessible and authoritative overviews on a wide range of topics. Chapters have been arranged in alphabetical order, and are written in a clear-and-concise manner, with definitions provided in the case of obscure terms and information supplemented with pictures, tables, and diagrams. Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading. Brings together all appropriate aspects of forensic medicine and legal medicine Contains color figures, sample forms, and other materials that the reader can adapt for their own practice Also available in an on-line version which provides numerous additional reference and research tools, additional multimedia, and powerful search functions Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading



Handbook Of Forensic Genetics Biodiversity And Heredity In Civil And Criminal Investigation

Handbook Of Forensic Genetics  Biodiversity And Heredity In Civil And Criminal Investigation Author Amorim Antonio
ISBN-10 9781786340795
Release 2016-08-30
Pages 652
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The use of genetics for the resolution of legal conflicts has recently been gaining a higher profile, largely as a result of scientific and technological advancements and the substantial broadening of applications. The theoretical framework underlying forensic genetics is the same irrespective of the materials and technology involved, however a great divide still exists in the manner and processes related to human and non-human analyses.This advanced handbook intends to overcome the historical barriers between the scientific fields of legal medicine, biodiversity and conservation, and food analysis by presenting a unifying, global perspective on the implications of genetic analyses on forensic affairs. This global perspective is presented in three parts: modes of inheritance and reproduction and taxonomic implications; current technological approaches and future perspectives; and a comprehensive systematization of the types of applications and organisms. Finally, a critical revision of the current investigative/expert systems and future perspectives is undertaken.This book provides a collection of international research, thereby constituting a reference platform for the forensic community and an advanced textbook for graduate students. It encompasses the theoretical bases of the field, and presents in the context of both perspectives of forensic action — probative and investigative — a comprehensive coverage of the current applications and technological state of the art.



Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics

Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics Author Karl Ritz
ISBN-10 9781402092046
Release 2008-12-23
Pages 519
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Soils have important roles to play in criminal and environmental forensic science. Since the initial concept of using soil in forensic investigations was mooted by Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes stories prior to real-world applications, this branch of forensic science has become increasingly sophisticated and broad. New techniques in chemical, physical, biological, ecological and spatial analysis, coupled with informatics, are being applied to reducing areas of search by investigators, site identification, site comparison and measurement for the eventual use as evidence in court. Soils can provide intelligence, in assisting the determination of the provenance of samples from artifacts, victims or suspects, enabling their linkage to locations or other evidence. They also modulate change in surface or buried cadavers and hence affect the ability to estimate post-mortem or post-burial intervals, and locate clandestine graves. This interdisciplinary volume explores the conceptual and practical interplay of soil and geoforensics across the scientific, investigative and legal fields. Supported by reviews, case-studies from across the world, and reports of original research, it demonstrates the increasing convergence of a wide range of knowledge. It covers conceptual issues, evidence (from recovery to use in court), geoforensics, taphonomy, as well as leading-edge technologies. The application of the resultant soil forensics toolbox is leading to significant advances in improving crime detection, and environmental and national security.



Epidemiology and the People s Health

Epidemiology and the People s Health Author Nancy Krieger
ISBN-10 9780199750351
Release 2011-03-23
Pages 400
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This concise, conceptually rich, and accessible book is a rallying cry for a return to the study and discussion of epidemiologic theory: what it is, why it matters, how it has changed over time, and its implications for improving population health and promoting health equity. By tracing its history and contours from ancient societies on through the development of--and debates within--contemporary epidemiology worldwide, Dr. Krieger shows how epidemiologic theory has long shaped epidemiologic practice, knowledge, and the politics of public health.



Forensic and Medico legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices

Forensic and Medico legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices Author Anil Aggrawal
ISBN-10 9781420043099
Release 2008-12-22
Pages 424
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From sexual abuse and fetishism to necrophilia and sadomasochism, this unique volume identifies fourteen classifications of unusual sexual pathologies. Emphasizing the physical and psychological aspects of sexuality itself, the book presents detailed comparisons of legal and medical definitions, historical aspects, current incidence, and geographical prevalence of these offenses. It also explores the potential causes, discussing etiological theories and reviewing psychopathology. Highlighting the cross-cultural nature of the forensic aspects of human sexuality, the book examines various case studies in the context of international legislation. It also covers minor aberrant behavior such as coprolalia and troilism.



Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences Author
ISBN-10 9780123821669
Release 2012-12-28
Pages 2250
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association



Forensic Pathology

Forensic Pathology Author Max M. Houck
ISBN-10 9780128025017
Release 2017-02-12
Pages 250
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The Advanced Forensic Science Series grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report: Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward. This volume, Forensic Pathology will serve as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic pathology, as well as an excellent reference for forensic pathologists' libraries or use in their casework. Coverage includes postmortem interval, autopsy, trauma, causes of death, identification and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the Advanced Forensic Science Series is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic pathology Contains sections on postmortem interval, autopsy, trauma, causes of death and identification Includes a section on professional issues, such as: from crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, health and safety, deaths in custody and suicide Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions and additional reading suggestions



Italian Constitutional Justice in Global Context

Italian Constitutional Justice in Global Context Author Vittoria Barsotti
ISBN-10 9780190214562
Release 2015-10-26
Pages 256
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Italian Constitutional Justice in Global Context is the first book ever published in English to provide an international examination of the Italian Constitutional Court (ItCC), offering a comprehensive analysis of its principal lines of jurisprudence, historical origins, organization, procedures, and its current engagement with transnational European law. The ItCC represents one of the strongest and most successful examples of constitutional judicial review, and is distinctive in its structure, institutional dimensions, and well-developed jurisprudence. Moreover, the ItCC has developed a distinctive voice among global constitutional actors in its adjudication of a broad range of topics from fundamental rights and liberties to the allocations of governmental power and regionalism. Nevertheless, in global constitutional dialog, the voice of the ItCC has been almost entirely absent due to a relative lack of both English translations of its decisions and of focused scholarly commentary in English. This book describes the "Italian Style" in global constitutional adjudication, and aims to elevate Italian constitutional jurisprudence to an active participant role in global constitutional discourse. The authors have carefully structured the work to allow the ItCC's own voice to emerge. It presents broad syntheses of major areas of the Court's case law, provides excerpts from notable decisions in a narrative and analytical context, addresses the tension between the ItCC and the Court of Cassation, and positions the development, character, and importance of the ItCC's jurisprudence in the larger arc of global judicial dialog.