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Forensic Evidence in Court

Forensic Evidence in Court Author Craig D. Adam
ISBN-10 9781119054412
Release 2016-09-19
Pages 336
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The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.



The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence Author Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update
ISBN-10 9780309121941
Release 1996-12-12
Pages 272
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In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.



Evidence

Evidence Author Andrew Choo
ISBN-10 9780198806844
Release 2018-04-05
Pages 456
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Choo's Evidence provides students with a lucid account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales, whilst also exploring the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. This clear and engaging text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a fascinating mix of critical and thought-provoking analysis for students and practitioners alike. Where appropriate the author draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. Also, thorough footnoting and further reading lists provide valuable signposting to a wealth of additional sources.



Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology Author C. Clifford Boyd, Jr.
ISBN-10 9781119226406
Release 2017-12-11
Pages 368
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Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the “Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology” symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.



Interpreting Evidence

Interpreting Evidence Author Bernard Robertson
ISBN-10 9781118492451
Release 2016-07-28
Pages 216
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This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.



Forensic Fraud

Forensic Fraud Author Brent E. Turvey
ISBN-10 9780124080584
Release 2013-03-18
Pages 296
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Forensic Fraud is the culmination of 12 years of research by author Brent E. Turvey. A practicing forensic scientist since 1996, Turvey has rendered this first of its kind study into the widespread problem of forensic fraud in the United States. It defines the nature and scope of the problem, the cultural attitudes and beliefs of those involved, and establishes clear systemic contributors. Backed up by scrupulous research and hard data, community reforms are proposed and discussed in light of the recently published National Academy of Sciences report on forensic science. An adaptation of Dr. Turvey’s doctoral dissertation, this volume relentlessly cites chapter and verse in support of its conclusions that law enforcement cultural and scientific values are incompatible, and that the problem of forensic fraud is systemic in nature. It begins with an overview of forensic fraud as a sub-type of occupational fraud, it explores the extent of fraud in both law enforcement and scientific employment settings, it establishes and then contrasts the core values of law enforcement and scientific cultures and then it provides a comprehensive review of the scientific literature regarding forensic fraud. The final chapters present data from Dr. Turvey’s original research into more than 100 fraudulent examiners between 2000 and 2010, consideration of significant findings, and a review of proposed reforms to the forensic science community based on what was learned. It closes with a chapter on the numerous crime lab scandals, and closures that occurred between 2010 and 2012 – an update on the deteriorating state of the forensic science community in the United States subsequent to data collection efforts in the present research. Forensic Fraud is intended for use as a professional reference manual by those working in the criminal system who encounter the phenomenon and want to understand its context and origins. It is intended to help forensic scientist and their supervisors to recognize, manage and expel it; to provide policy makers with the necessary understaffing for acknowledging and mitigating it; and to provide agents of the courts with the knowledge, and confidence, to adjudicate it. It is also useful for those at the university level seeking a strong secondary text for courses on forensic science, law and evidence, or miscarriages of justice. First of its kind overview of the cultural instigators of forensic fraud First of its kind research into the nature and impact of forensic fraud, with data (2000-2010) First of its kind typology of forensic fraud, for use in future case examination in research Numerous profiles of forensic fraudsters Review of major crime lab scandals between 2010 and 2012



Parenting Plan Evaluations

Parenting Plan Evaluations Author Leslie Drozd
ISBN-10 9780199396597
Release 2016-02-02
Pages 640
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More so than in any other form of forensic evaluation, mental health professionals who conduct parenting plan evaluations must have an understanding of the most current evidence in the areas of child development, optimal parenting plans across various populations, behavioral psychology, family violence, and legal issues to inform their opinions. In addition, family law judges and legal professionals require the best available evidence to support their decisions and positions. Parenting Plan Evaluations has become the go-to source for the most current empirical evidence in the field of child custody disputes. Fully updated in this Second Edition, the volume continues its focus on translating and implementing research associated with the most important topics within the family court. It presents an organized and in-depth analysis of the latest research and offers specific recommendations for applying these findings to the issues in child custody disputes. Written by international experts in the field, chapters cover the most important and complex issues that arise in family court, such as attachment and overnight timesharing with very young children, co-parenting children with chronic medical conditions and developmental disorders, domestic violence during separation and divorce, alienation, gay and lesbian co-parents, and relocation, among others. This volume assists forensic mental health professionals to proffer empirically based opinions, conclusions, and recommendations and assists family law judges and attorneys in evaluating the reliability of the information provided to the courts by mental health professionals in their reports and testimony. Not just for forensic evaluators, Parenting Plan Evaluations is a must-read for legal practitioners, family law judges and attorneys, and other professionals seeking to understand more about the science behind parenting plan evaluations.



Forensic Science in Court

Forensic Science in Court Author Donald Hon. Shelton, Chief Judge
ISBN-10 9781442201897
Release 2010-10-16
Pages 196
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Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the legal system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal issues, then examines the strengths and limitations of various kinds of forensic science, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Case studies illustrate the issues and their application in depth.



Scientific Evidence

Scientific Evidence Author Paul C. Giannelli
ISBN-10 UCAL:B4234647
Release 1986
Pages 1226
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This treatise comprehensively covers issues of scientific evidence and discusses frequently encountered types of scientific evidence. Modern scientific methodology is examined, including: laser techniques for visualizing fingerprints, electrophoresis, hypnotic enhancement of memory, voiceprints, and scanning electron microscopy.



Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists

Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists Author Colin G. G. Aitken
ISBN-10 0470843675
Release 2004-08-13
Pages 509
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The use of statistical and probabilistic ideas in forensic science is of increasing importance to the administration of justice. This is exemplified by their role in the evaluation and interpretation of trace evidence, such as glass, fibres and DNA. They allow the forensic scientist to evaluate and interpret evidence where there is an element of uncertainty. For many years, "Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists" has been considered the leading text in the statistical evaluation of forensic evidence. It is highly regarded amongst forensic scientists. This new edition is fully updated, covering many new topics of interest, and includes coverage of new fields of evidence. It features new examples concerned with up-to-date data sets, and a chapter on evidence evaluation using Bayesian nets. Provides a comprehensive introduction to the statistical evaluation of forensic evidence. Features new material on glass interpretation, fibres interpretation and Bayesian nets. Includes new material on the analysis of multi variate data, useful, for example, in problems involving elemental or chemical compositions. Illustrated throughout with examples using real up-to-date data. Assumes only a modest mathematical background. Includes a foreword by Dennis Lindley. The clarity of exposition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, lawyers and other professionals in related fields interested in the quantitative assessment and evaluation of forensic evidence. It is also suitable for graduate students studying courses in the statistical evaluation of evidence. "'There can be no doubt that the appreciation of some evidence in a court of law has been greatly enhanced by the sound use of statistical ideas and one can be confident that the next decade will see further developments, during which time this book will admirably serve those who have cause to use statistics in forensic science.'" D.V. Lindley



Handbook of Forensic Science

Handbook of Forensic Science Author Jim Fraser
ISBN-10 9781134028702
Release 2013-01-11
Pages 696
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Forensic science has become increasingly important within contemporary criminal justice, from criminal investigation through to courtroom deliberations, and an increasing number of agencies and individuals are having to engage with its contribution to contemporary justice. This Handbook aims to provide an authoritative map of the landscape of forensic science within the criminal justice system of the UK. It sets out the essential features of the subject, covering the disciplinary, technological, organizational and legislative resources that are brought together to make up contemporary forensic science practice. It is the first full-length publication which reviews forensic science in a wider political, economic, social, technological and legal context, identifying emerging themes on the current status and potential future of forensic science as part of the criminal justice system. With contributions from many of the leading authorities in the field it will be essential reading for both students and practitioners.



Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309142397
Release 2009-07-29
Pages 348
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.



Forensic Science Under Siege

Forensic Science Under Siege Author Kelly Pyrek
ISBN-10 0080471072
Release 2010-07-27
Pages 568
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Forensic science laboratories' reputations have increasingly come under fire. Incidents of tainted evidence, false reports, allegations of negligence, scientifically flawed testimony, or - worse yet - perjury in in-court testimony, have all served to cast a shadow over the forensic sciences. Instances of each are just a few of the quality-related charges made in the last few years. Forensic Science Under Siege is the first book to integrate and explain these problematic trends in forensic science. The issues are timely, and are approached from an investigatory, yet scholarly and research-driven, perspective. Leading experts are consulted and interviewed, including directors of highly visible forensic laboratories, as well as medical examiners and coroners who are commandeering the discussions related to these issues. Interviewees include Henry Lee, Richard Saferstein, Cyril Wecht, and many others. The ultimate consequences of all these pressures, as well as the future of forensic science, has yet to be determined. This book examines these challenges, while also exploring possible solutions (such as the formation of a forensic science consortium to address specific legislative issues). It is a must-read for all forensic scientists. Provides insight on the current state of forensic science, demands, and future direction as provided by leading experts in the field Consolidates the current state of standards and best-practices of labs across disciplines Discusses a controversial topic that must be addressed for political support and financial funding of forensic science to improve



Science on Trial

Science on Trial Author Marcia Angell
ISBN-10 0393316726
Release 1997
Pages 268
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A New York Times Notable Book of 1996 explores the different ways that medical science, the law, and the public weighed the evidence in the case of settlements awarded to women alleging illness caused by silicone breast implants. Reprint.



Psychological Science in the Courtroom

Psychological Science in the Courtroom Author Jennifer L. Skeem
ISBN-10 9781606233917
Release 2009-05-08
Pages 418
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This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.



The Cadaver King and the Country Dentist

The Cadaver King and the Country Dentist Author Radley Balko
ISBN-10 9781610396929
Release 2018-02-27
Pages 416
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A shocking and deeply reported account of the persistent plague of institutional racism and junk forensic science in our criminal justice system, and its devastating effect on innocent lives After two three-year-old girls were raped and murdered in rural Mississippi, law enforcement pursued and convicted two innocent men: Kennedy Brewer and Levon Brooks. Together they spent a combined thirty years in prison before finally being exonerated in 2008. Meanwhile, the real killer remained free. The Cadaver King and the Country Dentist recounts the story of how the criminal justice system allowed this to happen, and of how two men, Dr. Steven Hayne and Dr. Michael West, built successful careers on the back of that structure. For nearly two decades, Hayne, a medical examiner, performed the vast majority of Mississippi's autopsies, while his friend Dr. West, a local dentist, pitched himself as a forensic jack-of-all-trades. Together they became the go-to experts for prosecutors and helped put countless Mississippians in prison. But then some of those convictions began to fall apart. Here, Radley Balko and Tucker Carrington tell the haunting story of how the courts and Mississippi's death investigation system--a relic of the Jim Crow era--failed to deliver justice for its citizens. The authors argue that bad forensics, structural racism, and institutional failures are at fault, raising sobering questions about our ability and willingness to address these crucial issues.



Forensic Science

Forensic Science Author Stuart H. James
ISBN-10 9781439853863
Release 2014-01-13
Pages 614
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Covering a range of fundamental topics essential to modern forensic investigation, the fourth edition of the landmark text Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques presents contributions from experts in the field who discuss case studies from their own personal files. This edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the cutting edge of forensic science across many different areas. Designed for a single-term course at the lower undergraduate level, the book begins by discussing the intersection of law and forensic science, how things become evidence, and how courts decide if an item or testimony should be admissible. It takes the evidence from crime scene investigation into laboratory analysis and even onto the autopsy table for the fullest breadth of subject matter of any forensic text available. Topics include Forensic anthropology and the role of entomology in a death investigation Death investigation, including identifying the cause, manner, mechanism, and time of death Bloodstain pattern analysis, the identification of blood and body fluids, the work of forensic toxicologists, and seized drug analysis The history and development of DNA typing and the many ways it can be used Fingerprint, firearm and ballistic, tool mark, tread impression, and trace evidence The forensic analysis of questioned documents and computers Arson, fire, explosives, and the work of forensic engineers in vehicular accidents and structural collapses Forensic psychology and psychiatry, including criminal profiling The future of forensic science Going beyond theory to application, this text incorporates the wisdom of forensic practitioners who discuss the real cases they have investigated. Color-coded sidebars in each chapter provide historical notes, case studies, and current events as well as advice for career advancement. Each section and each chapter begins with an overview and ends with a summary, and key terms, review questions, and up-to-date references are provided. Appropriate for any sensibility, more than 300 photos from real cases give students a true-to-life learning experience. *Access to identical eBook version included