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Forensic Science Advances and Their Application in the Judiciary System

Forensic Science Advances and Their Application in the Judiciary System Author Danielle Sapse
ISBN-10 9781439829592
Release 2011-08-01
Pages 295
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This volume examines how new cutting edge forensic techniques are currently being applied or have the potential to be applied in judicial proceedings. Examples include new applications of Raman spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, lithium in DNA analysis, and the burgeoning area of toxicogenetics. In each case legal issues are addressed, including the such as admissibility of evidence resulting from these techniques. A comparison between the American Judiciary system and the European system is included. Contributors offer their expertise from scientific and legal perspectives.



Forensic Science Under Siege

Forensic Science Under Siege Author Kelly Pyrek
ISBN-10 0080471072
Release 2010-07-27
Pages 568
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Forensic science laboratories' reputations have increasingly come under fire. Incidents of tainted evidence, false reports, allegations of negligence, scientifically flawed testimony, or - worse yet - perjury in in-court testimony, have all served to cast a shadow over the forensic sciences. Instances of each are just a few of the quality-related charges made in the last few years. Forensic Science Under Siege is the first book to integrate and explain these problematic trends in forensic science. The issues are timely, and are approached from an investigatory, yet scholarly and research-driven, perspective. Leading experts are consulted and interviewed, including directors of highly visible forensic laboratories, as well as medical examiners and coroners who are commandeering the discussions related to these issues. Interviewees include Henry Lee, Richard Saferstein, Cyril Wecht, and many others. The ultimate consequences of all these pressures, as well as the future of forensic science, has yet to be determined. This book examines these challenges, while also exploring possible solutions (such as the formation of a forensic science consortium to address specific legislative issues). It is a must-read for all forensic scientists. Provides insight on the current state of forensic science, demands, and future direction as provided by leading experts in the field Consolidates the current state of standards and best-practices of labs across disciplines Discusses a controversial topic that must be addressed for political support and financial funding of forensic science to improve



Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice

Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice Author Kevin J. Strom
ISBN-10 9781483324401
Release 2014-04-04
Pages 312
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Uniting forensics, law, and social science in meaningful and relevant ways, Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice, by Kevin J. Strom and Matthew J. Hickman, is structured around current research on how forensic evidence is being used and how it is impacting the justice system. This unique book—written by nationally known scholars in the field—includes five sections that explore the demand for forensic services, the quality of forensic services, the utility of forensic services, post-conviction forensic issues, and the future role of forensic science in the administration of justice. The authors offer policy-relevant directions for both the criminal justice and forensic fields and demonstrate how the role of the crime laboratory in the American justice system is evolving in concert with technological advances as well as changing demands and competing pressures for laboratory resources.



Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309142397
Release 2009-07-29
Pages 348
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.



DNA Technology in Forensic Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science Author Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science
ISBN-10 9780309045872
Release 1992-01-01
Pages 200
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Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.



The Lawyer s Guide to the Forensic Sciences

The Lawyer s Guide to the Forensic Sciences Author Caitlin Pakosh
ISBN-10 1552214125
Release 2016
Pages 969
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This guide provides criminal lawyers with a macroscopic view of multiple forensic science disciplines, specific to the Canadian legal system and written by Canadian experts. Facilitating further case-specific research, this guide seeks to reinvigorate dialogue and improve collaboration between the forensic and legal communities in Canada.



Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice

Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice Author Carole McCartney
ISBN-10 9781134013302
Release 2013-01-11
Pages 270
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This book provides an account of the development of forensic identification technologies and the way in which this has impacted upon the legal system. It traces the advent of forensic identification technologies, focusing on fingerprinting and forensic DNA typing, and their growing deployment within the criminal justice system. It also elucidates the ways in which these new technologies are accelerating procedural changes to investigative practices, and shows the ways in which in some areas human rights (such as privacy rights and rights against discrimination) are coming under threat. The use of forensic evidence in criminal investigations and trials is analysed in detail. This book uncovers the way in which this new reliance on forensic technologies has gained a foothold within the criminal justice system, and the risks and dangers that this can pose. The National DNA Database provides a particular focus of attention. The author seeks to move beyond an approach that has seen forensic DNA profiling as error free, situating her analysis within broader risk discourses.



Forensic DNA Applications

Forensic DNA Applications Author Dragan Primorac
ISBN-10 9781466580237
Release 2014-01-29
Pages 647
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome–based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains—including in mass disaster settings. It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.



The Global Practice of Forensic Science

The Global Practice of Forensic Science Author Douglas H. Ubelaker
ISBN-10 9781118724231
Release 2014-11-24
Pages 400
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The Global Practice of Forensic Science presents histories, issues, patterns, and diversity in the applications of international forensic science. Written by 64 experienced and internationally recognized forensic scientists, the volume documents the practice of forensic science in 28 countries from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and Europe. Each country’s chapter explores factors of political history, academic linkages, the influence of individual cases, facility development, types of cases examined, integration within forensic science, recruitment, training, funding, certification, accreditation, quality control, technology, disaster preparedness, legal issues, research and future directions. Aimed at all scholars interested in international forensic science, the volume provides detail on the diverse fields within forensic science and their applications around the world.



Professional Issues in Forensic Science

Professional Issues in Forensic Science Author Max M. Houck
ISBN-10 9780128006238
Release 2015-04-15
Pages 390
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Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field. Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues. Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions



Legal Aspects of Forensics

Legal Aspects of Forensics Author Danielle S. Sapse
ISBN-10 9781438103839
Release 2009-01-01
Pages 114
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Forensic science has made huge advances in recent years, leading to the solving of crimes that previously would have remained in the dark. Offering examples of cases that represent landmarks in types of evidence being considered admissible or not, as well as cases solved by the use of scientific methods, this handbook is ideal for students interested in a law career, or those intrigued by the forensic science methods used today.



Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences Author
ISBN-10 9780123821669
Release 2012-12-28
Pages 2250
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association



Failed Evidence

Failed Evidence Author David A. Harris
ISBN-10 9780814744666
Release 2012-09-03
Pages 269
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With the popularity of crime dramas like CSI focusing on forensic science, and increasing numbers of police and prosecutors making wide-spread use of DNA, high-tech science seems to have become the handmaiden of law enforcement. But this is a myth,asserts law professor and nationally known expert on police profiling David A. Harris. In fact, most of law enforcement does not embrace science—it rejects it instead, resisting it vigorously. The question at the heart of this book is why. »» Eyewitness identifications procedures using simultaneous lineups—showing the witness six persons together,as police have traditionally done—produces a significant number of incorrect identifications. »» Interrogations that include threats of harsh penalties and untruths about the existence of evidence proving the suspect’s guilt significantly increase the prospect of an innocent person confessing falsely. »» Fingerprint matching does not use probability calculations based on collected and standardized data to generate conclusions, but rather human interpretation and judgment.Examiners generally claim a zero rate of error – an untenable claim in the face of publicly known errors by the best examiners in the U.S. Failed Evidence explores the real reasons that police and prosecutors resist scientific change, and it lays out a concrete plan to bring law enforcement into the scientific present. Written in a crisp and engaging style, free of legal and scientific jargon, Failed Evidence will explain to police and prosecutors, political leaders and policy makers, as well as other experts and anyone else who cares about how law enforcement does its job, where we should go from here. Because only if we understand why law enforcement resists science will we be able to break through this resistance and convince police and prosecutors to rely on the best that science has to offer. Justice demands no less. Visit the author's blog here.



Forensic Testimony

Forensic Testimony Author C. Michael Bowers
ISBN-10 9780123972606
Release 2013-09-07
Pages 296
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Forensic Testimony: Science, Law and Expert Evidence—favored with an Honorable Mention in Law & Legal Studies at the Association of American Publishers' 2015 PROSE Awards—provides a clear and intuitive discussion of the legal presentation of expert testimony. The book delves into the effects, processes, and battles that occur in the presentation of opinion and scientific evidence by court-accepted forensic experts. It provides a timely review of the United States Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) regarding expert testimony, and includes a multi-disciplinary look at the strengths and weaknesses in forensic science courtroom testimony. The statutes and the effects of judicial uses (or non-use) of the FRE, Daubert, Kumho, and the 2009 NAS Report on Forensic Science are also included. The presentation expands to study case law, legal opinions, and studies on the reliability and pitfalls of forensic expertise in the US court system. This book is an essential reference for anyone preparing to give expert testimony of forensic evidence. Honorable Mention in the 2015 PROSE Awards in Law & Legal Studies from the Association of American Publishers A multi-disciplinary forensic reference examining the strengths and weaknesses of forensic science in courtroom testimony Focuses on forensic testimony and judicial decisions in light of the Federal Rules of Evidence, case interpretations, and the NAS report findings Case studies, some from the Innocence Project, assist the reader in distinguishing good testimony from bad



The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence Author Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update
ISBN-10 9780309121941
Release 1996-12-12
Pages 272
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In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.



Forensic Science Reform

Forensic Science Reform Author Wendy J Koen
ISBN-10 9780128027387
Release 2016-12-16
Pages 392
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Forensic Science Reform: Protecting the Innocent is written for the nonscientist to help make complicated scientific information clear and concise enough for attorneys and judges to master. This volume covers physical forensic science, namely arson, shaken baby syndrome, non-accidental trauma, bite marks, DNA, ballistics, comparative bullet lead analysis, fingerprint analysis, and hair and fiber analysis, and contains valuable contributions from leading experts in the field of forensic science. Offers training for prosecuting attorneys on the present state of the forensic sciences in order to avoid reliance on legal precedent that lags decades behind the science Provides defense attorneys the knowledge to defend their clients against flawed science Arms innocence projects and appellate attorneys with the latest information to challenge convictions that were obtained using faulty science Uses science-specific case studies to simplify issues in forensic science for the legal professional Offers a detailed overview of both the failures and progress made in the forensic sciences, making the volume ideal for law school courses covering wrongful convictions, or for undergraduate courses on law, legal ethics, or forensics



Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309142397
Release 2009-07-29
Pages 348
Download Link Click Here

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.