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Formal Languages in Logic

Formal Languages in Logic Author Catarina Dutilh Novaes
ISBN-10 9781139789523
Release 2012-11-08
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Formal languages are widely regarded as being above all mathematical objects and as producing a greater level of precision and technical complexity in logical investigations because of this. Yet defining formal languages exclusively in this way offers only a partial and limited explanation of the impact which their use (and the uses of formalisms more generally elsewhere) actually has. In this book, Catarina Dutilh Novaes adopts a much wider conception of formal languages so as to investigate more broadly what exactly is going on when theorists put these tools to use. She looks at the history and philosophy of formal languages and focuses on the cognitive impact of formal languages on human reasoning, drawing on their historical development, psychology, cognitive science and philosophy. Her wide-ranging study will be valuable for both students and researchers in philosophy, logic, psychology and cognitive and computer science.

Syntactic Structures

Syntactic Structures Author Noam Chomsky
ISBN-10 9783110218329
Release 2002-01-01
Pages 135
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Syntactic Structures has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Syntactic Structures also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Syntactic Structures book for free.

An Introduction to Formal Logic

An Introduction to Formal Logic Author Peter Smith
ISBN-10 0521008042
Release 2003-11-06
Pages 357
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Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.

Language Truth and Logic

Language  Truth and Logic Author Alfred Jules Ayer
ISBN-10 9780486113098
Release 2012-04-18
Pages 160
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"A delightful book … I should like to have written it myself." — Bertrand Russell First published in 1936, this first full-length presentation in English of the Logical Positivism of Carnap, Neurath, and others has gone through many printings to become a classic of thought and communication. It not only surveys one of the most important areas of modern thought; it also shows the confusion that arises from imperfect understanding of the uses of language. A first-rate antidote for fuzzy thought and muddled writing, this remarkable book has helped philosophers, writers, speakers, teachers, students, and general readers alike. Mr. Ayers sets up specific tests by which you can easily evaluate statements of ideas. You will also learn how to distinguish ideas that cannot be verified by experience — those expressing religious, moral, or aesthetic experience, those expounding theological or metaphysical doctrine, and those dealing with a priori truth. The basic thesis of this work is that philosophy should not squander its energies upon the unknowable, but should perform its proper function in criticism and analysis.

Logics and Languages

Logics and Languages Author M. J. Cresswell
ISBN-10 9781134874118
Release 2016-08-12
Pages 284
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Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning. Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 show that these formal languages are rich enought to be used in the precise description of natural languages. Appendices describe some of the concepts discussed in the text.

The Meaning of Meaning

The Meaning of Meaning Author Charles Kay Ogden
ISBN-10 1614275262
Release 2013-11
Pages 388
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2013 Reprint of 1927 American Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Revised second edition of this classic text. Although the original text was published in 1923 it has been used as a textbook in many fields including linguistics, philosophy, language, cognitive science and most recently semantics and semiotics in general. The book has been in print continuously since 1923. Richards sets forth a contextual theory of Signs: that Words and Things are connected through their occurrence together with things. The book would later influence A.J. Ayer's "Language, Truth and Logic, " and both the Richards-Ogden book and the Ayer book would, in turn, influence Alec King and Martin Ketley in the writing of their book "The Control of Language," which appeared in 1939. This book would in turn influence C.S. Lewis in the writing of his defense of natural law and objective values, "The Abolition of Man (1943)." It is accompanied by the two supplementary essays by Bronis aw Malinowski and F. G. Crookshank.

Rationality and Logic

Rationality and Logic Author Hanna
ISBN-10 9780262263115
Release 2009-01-23
Pages 344
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In Rationality and Logic, Robert Hanna argues that logic is intrinsically psychological and that human psychology is intrinsically logical. He claims that logic is cognitively constructed by rational animals (including humans) and that rational animals are essentially logical animals. In order to do so, he defends the broadly Kantian thesis that all (and only) rational animals possess an innate cognitive "logic faculty." Hanna's claims challenge the conventional philosophical wisdom that sees logic as a fully formal or "topic-neutral" science irreconcilably separate from the species- or individual-specific focus of empirical psychology.Logic and psychology went their separate ways after attacks by Frege and Husserl on logical psychologism--the explanatory reduction of logic to empirical psychology. Hanna argues, however, that--despite the fact that logical psychologism is false--there is an essential link between logic and psychology. Rational human animals constitute the basic class of cognizers or thinkers studied by cognitive psychology; given the connection between rationality and logic that Hanna claims, it follows that the nature of logic is significantly revealed to us by cognitive psychology. Hanna's proposed "logical cognitivism" has two important consequences: the recognition by logically oriented philosophers that psychologists are their colleagues in the metadiscipline of cognitive science; and radical changes in cognitive science itself. Cognitive science, Hanna argues, is not at bottom a natural science; it is both an objective or truth-oriented science and a normative human science, as is logic itself.

Philosophy in the Flesh

Philosophy in the Flesh Author George Lakoff
ISBN-10 UOM:39015046908979
Release 1999
Pages 624
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Reexamines the Western philosophical tradition, looking at the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science Author Keith Stenning
ISBN-10 9780262293532
Release 2012-01-13
Pages 422
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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.

Language Cognition and Human Nature

Language  Cognition  and Human Nature Author Steven Pinker
ISBN-10 9780199328741
Release 2013-11
Pages 378
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Pinker's seminal research explores the workings of language and its connections to cognition, perception, social relationships, child development, human evolution, and theories of human nature. This eclectic collection spans Pinker's thirty-year career, exploring his favorite themes in greater depth and scientific detail. It includes thirteen of Pinker's classic articles, ranging over topics such as language development in children, mental imagery, the recognition of shapes, the computational architecture of the mind, the meaning and uses of verbs, the evolution of language and cognition, the nature-nurture debate, and the logic of innuendo and euphemism. Each outlines a major theory or takes up an argument with another prominent scholar, such as Stephen Jay Gould, Noam Chomsky, or Richard Dawkins.

Bridging the Analytical Continental Divide

Bridging the Analytical Continental Divide Author Tiziana Andina
ISBN-10 9789004269347
Release 2014-02-24
Pages 378
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In this volume edited by Tiziana Andina and the contributors addresses some of the most compelling philosophical questions today, offering an exhaustive companion to Western philosophy through the past fifty years that bridges the Analytical Continental divide.

Foundations of Language

Foundations of Language Author Ray Jackendoff
ISBN-10 9780191574016
Release 2002-01-24
Pages 498
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How does human language work? How do we put ideas into words that others can understand? Can linguistics shed light on the way the brain operates? Foundations of Language puts linguistics back at the centre of the search to understand human consciousness. Ray Jackendoff begins by surveying the developments in linguistics over the years since Noam Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. He goes on to propose a radical re-conception of how the brain processes language. This opens up vivid new perspectives on every major aspect of language and communication, including grammar, vocabulary, learning, the origins of human language, and how language relates to the real world. Foundations of Language makes important connections with other disciplines which have been isolated from linguistics for many years. It sets a new agenda for close cooperation between the study of language, mind, the brain, behaviour, and evolution.

Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author Jay Friedenberg
ISBN-10 9781483347424
Release 2015-09-23
Pages 576
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In Cognitive Science 3e Friedenberg and Silverman provide a solid understanding of the major theoretical and empirical contributions of cognitive science. Their text, thoroughly updated for this new third edition, describes the major theories of mind as well as the major experimental results that have emerged within each cognitive science discipline. Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is the mind? How do we see, think, and remember? Can we create machines that are conscious and capable of self-awareness? This books examines these questions and many more. Focusing on the approach of a particular cognitive science field in each chapter, the authors describe its methodology, theoretical perspective, and findings and then offer a critical evaluation of the field. Features: Offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary introduction to the field of cognitive science and issues of mind. Interdisciplinary Crossroads” sections at the end of each chapter focus on research topics that have been investigated from multiple perspectives, helping students to understand the link between varying disciplines and cognitive science. End-of-chapter “Summing Up” sections provide a concise summary of the major points addressed in each chapter to facilitate student comprehension and exam preparation “Explore More” sections link students to the Student Study Site where the authors have provided activities to help students more quickly master course content and prepare for examinations Supplements: A password-protected Instructor’s Resource contains PowerPoint lectures, a test bank and other pedagogical material.The book's Study Site features Web links, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes.

Language Semantics and Ideology

Language  Semantics and Ideology Author Michel Pecheux
ISBN-10 9781349068111
Release 1975-01-01
Pages 244
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Language Semantics and Ideology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Language Semantics and Ideology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Language Semantics and Ideology book for free.

Construing Experience Through Meaning

Construing Experience Through Meaning Author M.A.K. Halliday
ISBN-10 9781441131737
Release 2006-05-16
Pages 672
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The subject of this book is how human beings construe their experience of the world. The construction of experience is usually thought of as knowledge, represented in the form of conceptual taxonomies, schemata, scripts and the like. The authors offer an interpretation that is complementary to this, treating experience not as knowing but as meaning; and hence as something that is construed in language. In other words, the concern is with the construal of human experience as a semantic system; and since language plays the central role not only in storing and exchanging experience but also in construing it, language is taken as the interpretative base. The focus of the book is both theoretical and descriptive. The authors consider it important that theory and description should develop in parallel, with constant interchange between the two. The major descriptive component is an account of the most general features of the ideational semantics of English, which is then exemplified in two familiar text types (recipes and weather forecasts). There is also a brief reference to the semantics of Chinese. Theoretical issues are raised throughout as they become relevant to the discussion, with the theoretical base being drawn from systemic functional linguistics. Both the theoretical and descriptive proposals offered in the book are compared and contrasted with approaches deriving from AI, cognitive science and cognitive linguistics.

Language and Reality

Language and Reality Author Michael Devitt
ISBN-10 0262540991
Release 1999-01
Pages 342
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What is language? How does it relate to the world? How does it relate to the mind? Should our view of language influence our view of the world? These are among the central issues covered in this spirited and unusually clear introduction to the philosophy of language.Making no pretense of neutrality, Michael Devitt and Kim Sterelny take a definite theoretical stance. Central to that stance is naturalism--that is, they treat a philosophical theory of language as an empirical theory like any other and see people as nothing but complex parts of the physical world. This leads them, controversially, to a deflationary view of the significance of the study of language: they dismiss the idea that the philosophy of language should be preeminent in philosophy.This highly successful textbook has been extensively rewritten for the second edition to reflect recent developments in the field.

Encyclopedia of Phenomenology

Encyclopedia of Phenomenology Author
ISBN-10 9789401588812
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 765
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This encyclopedia presents phenomenological thought and the phenomenological movement within philosophy and within more than a score of other disciplines on a level accessible to professional colleagues of other orientations as well as to advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Entries average 3,000 words. In practically all cases, they include lists of works "For Further Study." The Introduction briefly chronicles the changing phenomenological agenda and compares phenomenology with other 20th Century movements. The 166 entries are a baut matters of seven sorts: ( 1) the faur broad tendencies and periods within the phenomenological movement; (2) twenty-three national traditions ofphenomenology; (3) twenty-two philosophical sub-disciplines, including those referred to with the formula "the philosophy of x"; (4) phenomenological tendencies within twenty-one non-philosophical dis ciplines; (5) forty major phenomenological topics; (6) twenty-eight leading phenomenological figures; and (7) twenty-seven non-phenomenological figures and movements ofinteresting sim ilarities and differences with phenomenology. Conventions Concern ing persons, years ofbirth and death are given upon first mention in an entry ofthe names of deceased non-phenomenologists. The names of persons believed tobe phenomenologists and also, for cross-referencing purposes, the titles of other entries are printed entirely in SMALL CAPITAL letters, also upon first mention. In addition, all words thus occurring in all small capital letters are listed in the index with the numbers of all pages on which they occur. To facilitate indexing, Chinese, Hungarian, and Japanese names have been re-arranged so that the personal name precedes the family name.