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From Headwaters to the Ocean

From Headwaters to the Ocean Author Makoto Taniguchi
ISBN-10 9780415472791
Release 2008-09-11
Pages 696
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The vulnerability of water resources due to climate change and human activities is globally increasing. The phenomenon of hydrological change is complicated because of the combinations and interactions between natural climate fluctuation, global warming and human activities including changes in land utilization. The impact areas of hydrological changes are also not only within the basin, but reach to the ocean through coastal water exchanges. This book presents contributions focused on integrated water management from headwater to the ocean in a time of climate change and increasing population.

Management of Mountain Watersheds

Management of Mountain Watersheds Author Josef Krecek
ISBN-10 9789400724761
Release 2012-04-24
Pages 269
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The book aims to address the interdisciplinary targets of watershed management in mountain regions based on the current knowledge of the subject. The focus of the book is particularly on monitoring, research, and modelling the interactions between the climate, water cycle, and aquatic ecosystem. The issues of watershed management in mountain regions in different parts of Europe, Africa, America and Asia have been the central theme of the book, which is basically divided into five sections: Institutional aspects in control of mountain regions; Stream-flow processes in mountain catchments; Water chemistry and biota in mountain streams and lakes; Effects of forest practices and climate change on hydrological phenomena; and Soil conservation and control of floods and landslides. The contributions have been peer-reviewed and the interdisciplinary team of authors includes experts from the specialised areas of geography, hydrology, chemistry, biology, forestry, ecology, economy and sociology. The practical applications and management strategies mentioned in the book, deal with the integrated resource management approach, based on the compromise between the development, conservation/ protection of the nature. Finally, the socio-economic and cultural aspects, and ecosystem prevalent in a mountain catchment are discussed in detail.

Multiscale Hydrologic Remote Sensing

Multiscale Hydrologic Remote Sensing Author Ni-Bin Chang
ISBN-10 9781439877630
Release 2012-03-23
Pages 568
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Multiscale Hydrologic Remote Sensing: Perspectives and Applications integrates advances in hydrologic science and innovative remote sensing technologies. Raising the visibility of interdisciplinary research on water resources, it offers a suite of tools and platforms for investigating spatially and temporally continuous hydrological variables and processes. Illustrated in color, this book examines components in the hydrologic cycle with a range of space and time scales. Organized into five parts, it explores hydrologic remote sensing at the local, urban, watershed, and regional scales, as well as the continental and global scale. Contributors address questions such as What are the local, watershed, and regional differences in soil moisture and evapotranspiration when using different measurement methods and models? How can we fit the scenarios of global warming potential and the remote sensing products of snow water equivalent into hydrologic modeling to address the changing flood and drought conditions in a watershed? How can we fuse the images collected by different satellites to improve the accuracy of predictions at the global scale? Tackling these and many other topics, the book presents new techniques and methods for spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based measurements and mathematical modeling. It also discusses remote sensing image processing tools and features a wealth of real-world applications and case studies. This book is a useful reference for students, professionals, scientists, and policy makers involved in the study of global change, hydrologic science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, and the agricultural and forest sciences. It shows how hydrologic remote sensing technologies can be used more effectively to explore global change impacts and improve the design of hydrologic observatories.

Remote Sensing of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content

Remote Sensing of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content Author George P. Petropoulos
ISBN-10 9781466505797
Release 2013-10-28
Pages 562
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Integrating decades of research conducted by leading scientists in the field, Remote Sensing of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and modeling techniques employed for deriving spatio-temporal estimates of energy fluxes and soil surface moisture from remote sensing. It also underscores the range of such techniques available nowadays as well as the operationally distributed networks that provide today in-situ validated relevant observations. The book brings together three types of articles: Comprehensive reviews that examine the developments in concepts, methods, and techniques employed in deriving land surface heat fluxes as well as soil surface moisture on field, regional, and large scales, paying particular emphasis to the techniques exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology Detailed insights into the principles and operation of the most widely applied approaches for the quantification and analysis of surface fluxes and soil moisture with case studies that directly show the great applicability of remote sensing in this field, or articles discussing specific issues in the retrievals of those parameters from space Focused articles integrating current knowledge and scientific understanding in the remote sensing of energy fluxes and soil moisture, that are highlighting the main issues, challenges, and future prospects of this emerging technology. Designed with different users in mind, the book is organized in four more or less independent units that make specific information easy to find. It presents a discussion on the future trends and prospects, underlying the scientific challenges that need to be addressed adequately in order to derive more accurate estimates of those parameters from space.

Groundwater surface Water Interaction

Groundwater surface Water Interaction Author Corinna Abesser
ISBN-10 UVA:X030475773
Release 2008-01-01
Pages 214
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Selected papers from a symposium on A new Focus on Integrated Analysis of Groundwater-Surface Water Systems, held during the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics XXIV General Assembly in Perugia, Italy, 11-13 July 2007.

Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing

Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing Author Eni G. Njoku
ISBN-10 0387366989
Release 2013-12-24
Pages 939
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Remote sensing has revolutionized the scientific study of the Earth by enabling measurements of more detailed and hitherto unexplored phenomena with spatially-extensive and global perspectives. Various disciplines and industries have benefited from the dramatic discoveries enabled by remote sensing. This volume cuts across these disciplines and describes the basic foundations, principles and state of the art of remote sensing. It covers the development of remote sensing, the theoretical underpinnings, forward modeling, commercial applications, and global and international coordination and policy. This first encyclopaedic reference on remote sensing describes the concepts, techniques, instrumentation, data analysis, interpretation, and applications of remote sensing, both airborne and space-based. Scientists, engineers, academics, and students can quickly access answers to their reference questions and direction for further study.

The Messina Strait Bridge

The Messina Strait Bridge Author Fabio Brancaleoni
ISBN-10 0415468140
Release 2009-09-23
Pages 334
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This book describes the enormous depth of work carried out since the early 1970s on the Messina Strait Bridge, up to the recent award of the detailed design and construction contract. This important work has included extensive studies, concepts and design developments, with far reaching applications, which have all confirmed the feasibility of this huge endeavour and have led to the optimisation of costs and expected performance levels. Attention is focused not only on the design itself, but also on the context for the project (e.g. historical, geological, seismo-tectonic and wind conditions; structural and mechanical properties; project management and financial aspects; and environmental considerations), and on the great challenges involved. Thus, considering the innovations and specific solutions adopted in overcoming the challenges presented by constructing a world record span of 3,300 metres at this site, it becomes clear how the Messina Strait Crossing will take its place as a masterpiece in bridge engineering history. This book will be of interest to bridge and structural engineers, geotechnical and wind engineers, mechanical and earthquake engineers, graduate students in all these areas and all others with a broad interest in bridge design and engineering.

Water and Society

Water and Society Author Darrell W. Pepper
ISBN-10 9781845645564
Release 2012
Pages 552
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This book contains the papers presented at a conference co-organized by the University of Nevada-Las Vegas and the Wessex Institute of Technology to facilitate trans-disciplinary communication on issues related to the nature of water, and its use and exploitation by society. With adequate water supply becoming a critical issue in more and more area, \there is a great and urgent need to bridge the gap between the broad spectrum of social sciences and humanistic disciplines and the specialists in physical and natural sciences, biology, environmental sciences, and health. Many issues are also trans-national in nature and relate to rights of states and hence it is essential to discuss these at international level to arrive at equitable and binding solutions that will ensure the rights of society to quality water supplies. The book discusses The nature of water; Water as a human right; Water as the source of life; Water in a changing climate; Future water demands and adaptation strategies; Water resources contamination; Surface and sub-surface water resources; Irrigation and desertification; Water, sanitation and health; Transnational water rights; Legislation and controls; Water through the ages; Lessons to be learnt; and Water and disaster management.

Vulnerable Cities

Vulnerable Cities Author Tetsuo Kidokoro
ISBN-10 9784431781493
Release 2008-08-25
Pages 330
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All cities are vulnerable. They have economically, socially, institutionally vulnerable urban space. In developing countries, vulnerable urban space can be observed typically as substandard informal settlements such as slums or areas occupied by squatters. At present, slum dwellers comprise one-third of the world's urban population of 3 billion, and it has been estimated that the number of slum dwellers will double in the next 30 years if no effective action is taken. Improvement of vulnerable urban areas, which is one of the targets of Millennium Development Goals, is thus an urgent worldwide challenge in our age. This book combines empirical and comparative analysis of improvement of vulnerable urban space and post-disaster rehabilitation in Asian and Latin American countries. The discussions presented herein will serve as a useful, thought-provoking source for researchers, practitioners and students, especially for those who are working to alleviate the vulnerability of urban space.

Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems

Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems Author George F. Pinder
ISBN-10 0471275530
Release 2002-11-20
Pages 248
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Cutting-edge techniques for groundwater modeling using GIS technology Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems covers fundamental information on flow and mass transport modeling and demonstrates how GIS technology makes these models and analyses more accurate than ever before. GIS technology allows for swift organization, quantification, and interpretation of large quantities of geohydrological data with computer accuracy and minimal risk of human error. This book's companion Web site provides the Princeton Transport Code, as well as the plug-in extensions required to interface this code with the Argus ONE numerical environment software enclosed with this book. Plug-in extensions for MODFLOW and MT3D computer codes can be found at the Argus ONE Web site ( The process for using the Geographic Modeling Approach (GMA) to model groundwater flow and transport is demonstrated step by step with a field example from Tucson, Arizona. The GMA is composed of the Argus ONE Geographic Information Modeling system and the Princeton Transport Code groundwater flow and transport model, interfaced through the plug-in extension available on Argus ONE. Enhanced with more than 150 illustrations and screen captures, Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems is a fundamental book for civil engineers, hydrologists, environmental engineers, geologists, and students in these fields, as well as software engineers working on GIS applications and environmental attorneys and regulators. When used in combination with the free modeling software, this book provides an excellent student text.

Earth Life and Isotopes

Earth  Life  and Isotopes Author 大河内直彦
ISBN-10 4876989605
Release 2010-08
Pages 430
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Section 3. Method development: 21. Ultra-sensitive elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses / Ogawa, N.O. ... [et al.] -- 22. An improved method for precise determination of carbon isotopic composition of amino acids / Chikaraishi, Y. and Ohkouchi, N. -- 23. Instrumental optimization of compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of amino acids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry / Chikaraishi, Y. ... [et al.] -- 24. Enantiomer-specific isotope analysis of D-and L-alanine / Takano, Y., Chikaraishi, Y. and Ohkouchi, N. -- Appendix. Summary of methods for measuring isotopic compositions presented in this book / Ohkouchi, N., Tayasu, I., and Koba, K.

Hydrological Cycle Volume II

Hydrological Cycle Volume II Author Igor Alekseevich Shiklomanov
ISBN-10 9781848260252
Release 2009-07-10
Pages 364
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The Hydrological Cycle theme is a component of Encyclopedia of Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Hydrological Cycle is a process of constant water exchange or water circulation in the hydrosphere, i.e. in the system of the atmosphere - Earth's surface – soil cover - upper lithosphere (to a depth of 2000 m). Water in the hydrosphere is liquid, solid or gaseous; during the hydrological cycle it moves under the effect of heat energy, gravitation and capillary forces, converting from a liquid to its solid state or gas, and back. The hydrological cycle is one of the major geophysical processes on the planet providing relative stability of natural conditions and continuous distribution of water between ocean, land and atmosphere. The content of the Theme on The Hydrological Cycle is organized with state-of-the-art presentations covering several topics: Exchanges of Water in the Hydrosphere; Hydrosphere Components; World Water Balance; evaporation; Precipitation; Surface Water Runoff; Groundwater Hydrogeology; Glaciers and Their Significance for the Earth Nature, which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. These four volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, Managers, and Decision makers and NGOs

Climate Change Policies and Challenges in Indonesia

Climate Change Policies and Challenges in Indonesia Author Shinji Kaneko
ISBN-10 9784431559948
Release 2016-03-30
Pages 322
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This book demonstrates the challenges and opportunities of climate change actions in developing countries and primarily focuses on case studies in Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous country. The most important feature of the book is its examination of multiple facets of climate change issues in Indonesia, which allows readers to understand the complexity of climate change in developing countries: the synergies and trade-offs between different climate change actions as well as between climate and development priorities. Another unique feature is that it was jointly written by Indonesian and international authors, as well as by academics and development practitioners. This book addresses questions concerning mitigation measures in major sectors with original analyses of aspects including energy subsidies, sectoral energy efficiencies in manufacturing sectors, forest concessions, energy-saving labeling schemes, policy mixes for the urban transportation sector, and the introduction of waste-to-energy technologies. The book provides first-hand knowledge and data on energy and the institutional realities in Indonesia, which are not widely and readily available to an international audience. It offers a valuable reference guide for professionals working for governments and NGOs and donor agencies in the fields of climate change and development in developing countries. This work is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of economics and environmental and development studies, in particular those who are interested in the synergies and conflicts between climate change and development.

Groundwater Resources Assessment

Groundwater Resources Assessment Author J. Balek
ISBN-10 0080870295
Release 1989-09-07
Pages 246
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The development of environmentally sound groundwater resources has recently become a high priority throughout the world. Many countries are currently developing comprehensive regulations for the management of groundwater resources. Within this framework an assessment of renewable groundwater resources is one of the most important factors. This book is based on the author's many years of experience in the assessment of surface and subsurface water resources, field experiments and computer oriented work, in both developed and developing countries. An environmental approach is followed. Groundwater resources are seen as a part of the aquatic ecosystem in which not only geology but the whole lithosphere, vegetation, surface resources and atmosphere play an equally important role. Both simple and advanced models are presented, which can also be applied to complicated geological structures where standard groundwater models fail to operate. Conceptual and stochastic models are presented in a form which the reader can use as a guide for further model development - an approach much in demand in regions where many different features and a variety of data are available. Experimental work leading to the identification of groundwater resources is also broadly discussed. The book will prove valuable to students at university level, researchers, institutes, departments, and consultancies involved in water resources.

Groundwater and Subsurface Environments

Groundwater and Subsurface Environments Author Makoto Taniguchi
ISBN-10 4431539042
Release 2011-02-24
Pages 312
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Excessive groundwater pumping, groundwater contamination, and subsurface thermal anomalies have occurred frequently in Asian coastal cities, greatly disturbing the urban aquifer and the subsurface environment. In this volume, the relationship between the stage of a city’s development and subsurface environment issues have been explored. Intensive field surveys were done in Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Bangkok, Jakarta, and Manila. New, advanced methods, including satellite, tracer techniques, and the social economy model, were developed to evaluate subsurface conditions. Groundwater storage and groundwater recharge rates, as well as the accumulation and transport of pollutants, have been compiled as integrated indices of natural capacities under climate and social changes, and used to evaluate the vulnerability risk for all cities. The indices have been made on a yearly basis for seven cities for a century (1900–2000). Using these indicators it is now possible to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable fashion. This volume is indispensable to researchers in hydrology, coastal oceanography, civil engineering, urban geography, social economy, climatology, geothermics, and urban management.

Energy and Innovation

Energy and Innovation Author M. S. van Geenhuizen
ISBN-10 9781557535788
Release 2010
Pages 411
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These books offer the work of leading representatives of academic, business, and government sectors worldwide who discuss current and future issues of critical importance for using science and technology to foster regional economic development and shared prosperity at home and abroad. Multidisciplinary perspectives provide state-of-the-art and useful knowledge to decision makers in both the private and public sectors---including informed and effective education, business, and government policies and strategies for the global knowledge economy.

Environmental Taxation and Climate Change

Environmental Taxation and Climate Change Author Hope Ashiabor
ISBN-10 9780857937872
Release 2011
Pages 236
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'Whilst green taxes face new challenges, there is now an accumulated international experience on which to reflect. This new collection of papers, providing material for further vigorous argument, evinces a keen appreciation of these realities. I recommend this generally very readable book as a helpful reflection of some recent key concerns in the environmental policy area. It constitutes a welcome addition to the literature, inviting critical responses from the specialist, but also drawing in the newcomer to the subject.' – John Snape, University of Warwick, UK 'The level of public and political debate on carbon taxes is low. Politicians fear the impact of a carbon tax on businesses and low income groups, as well as on their popularity among voters. This valuable book studies carbon taxes from many angles with ample attention paid to practical examples and shows that a smartly designed carbon tax is an indispensable instrument in the transition to a less carbon dependent economy.' – Jonathan Verschuuren, The University of Sydney, Australia and Tilburg University, The Netherlands Containing an authoritative set of original essays, Environmental Taxation and Climate Change provides fresh insights and analysis on how environmental sustainability can be achieved through fiscal policy. Written by distinguished environmental taxation scholars from around the world, this timely volume covers a range of hotly debated subjects including carbon related taxation in OECD countries, implications of environmental tax reforms, innovative environmental taxation and behavioural strategies, as well as many other relevant topics. This up-to-date and well-informed book will appeal to policymakers in government as well as students, researchers and academics in environmental law and other academic disciplines.