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From Marks Spencer to X Holding

From Marks   Spencer to X Holding Author Dennis Manolito Weber
ISBN-10 9789041133991
Release 2011
Pages 229
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Group taxation - special schemes according to which a group of companies meeting certain requirements may be assimilated for tax purposes to a single company - exists in several European Member States and is now under consideration in an EU proposal conce



Optimization of Tax Sovereignty and Free Movement

Optimization of Tax Sovereignty and Free Movement Author Sjoerd Douma
ISBN-10 9789087221126
Release 2011
Pages 340
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The book argues that the notions of tax sovereignty and EU free movement should be regarded as two fundamentally equal principles. The conflict between these two principles is resolved by establishing, in individual cases, the optimum position between two extremes: a general unrestricted freedom of action by states versus a prohibition of any obstacle to the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital. The process of reconciliation of these competing principles is structured by the theoretical optimization model developed in the present study. This model is external to the present case law. The application of the theoretical optimization model to the ECJ’s case law in the area of direct taxation reveals that this case law is largely in line with the model. It is certainly not as internally inconsistent as claimed in some of the tax literature. Many jigsaw pieces seem to fit after all if the case law is assessed in the light of the model. A number of future developments could be expected on the basis of the model and extensive case law analysis. The most important of these is that, in some cases, truly non-discriminatory tax measures should give rise to a prima facie restriction on free movement.



Taxation of Foreign Business Income Within the European Internal Market

Taxation of Foreign Business Income Within the European Internal Market Author
ISBN-10 9789087221133
Release 2011
Pages 396
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The rules of the Member States on the taxation of the foreign business income of companies, whether such rules are based on the fiscal principle of territoriality or on the principle of worldwide taxation, are in conflict with the objective of achievement of the internal market. This objective is indeed difficult to reach when it comes to the taxation of foreign income, given that the Member States are far from taxing companies doing business cross-border as if their operations were purely domestic. Areas of conflict include particularly the taxation of foreign profits, the deduction of foreign losses, the elimination of international double taxation and the attribution of profits to permanent establishments. This dissertation analyses this conflict on the basis of a study of the case law of the European Court of Justice as well as some of the key provisions of the European treaties. It appears that both the fiscal principle of territoriality and the principle of worldwide taxation give rise to complex issues of compatibility with the law of the European Union. Although the analysis conducted throughout the dissertation provides some guidance for the taxation of the foreign business income of companies, it is concluded that the Court cannot, by itself, efficiently resolve the conflict between such taxation and the objective of achievement of the internal market.



Limitation on Benefits Clauses in Double Taxation Conventions

Limitation on Benefits Clauses in Double Taxation Conventions Author Félix Alberto Vega Borrego
ISBN-10 9789041123701
Release 2006
Pages 298
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In accordance with Article 22 of its 1996 Model Treaty, most double taxation conventions entered into by the United States contain a number of rules called limitation on benefits clauses, the purpose of which is to prevent the application of the benefits of the treaties to treaty shopping structures. Following the changes in the Commentaries on Article 1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention in 2003, a number of clauses similar to those provided in the United States Model Treaty have been included. In this study, the legal framework and application of these rules is analysed in depth, and particularly, taking into account those rules included in the double taxation conventions concluded between the United States and European Union member states. In this respect, the compatibility of these rules with European Community Law is also analysed in the last chapter. This study is based on the authors doctoral thesis, which was awarded the prize for the best doctoral thesis on financial and tax law by the Spanish Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (Ministerio de Economia y Hacienda) in 2002.



Fiscal Sovereignty of the Member States in an Internal Market

Fiscal Sovereignty of the Member States in an Internal Market Author Jacobus Johannes Maria Jansen
ISBN-10 9789041134035
Release 2011
Pages 247
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Although EU Member States have retained national sovereignty in tax matters, a consistent line of decisions by the European Court of Justice requires them to exercise these powers consistent with superseding Community law. In other words, the Member States are not wholly autonomous. This in turn creates serious tensions. This timely resource covers a variety of critical issues, including the current and possible future effects of the internal market on the fiscal sovereignty of Member States; the limits that European law imposes on Member States' policy sovereignty in matters of international tax law; the effect of European law on taxes levied by local authorities; and the consequences the Treaty of Lisbon may have for Member States' fiscal sovereignty.



Sharing the Pie Taxing Multinationals in a Global Market

 Sharing the Pie    Taxing Multinationals in a Global Market Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:950064460
Release 2015
Pages 472
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The current international corporate tax regime for taxing the business proceeds of firms operates arbitrarily. The aggregates of the nation states' international corporate tax systems seem to distort a global efficient allocation of resources. The current model of corporate taxation finds its origins in the 1920s. It well suited the economic realities of the early days of international trade and commerce; the times when international business primarily revolved around bulk trade and bricks-and-mortar industries. But those days are long gone. Globalization, European integration, the rise of multinational enterprises, e-commerce, and intangible assets have changed the world considerably. These developments have caused the model to operate inconsistently with the economic reality of today. Corporate taxation and economic reality are no longer aligned. The model is ill-suited to current market realities. As a result multinational business decisions are distorted by tax considerations. The arbitrage may work to the benefit or detriment of nationally and internationally active firms. It also seems to put pressure on nation state corporate tax revenue levels. This may lead to spill-over effects and welfare losses at the end of the day. Matters seem to worsen in today's increasingly globalizing economy. The question arises as to whether a proper alternative for taxing multinationals can be modeled. How should business proceeds of multinationals be taxed? Can we create something that suits the nature of a global marketplace somewhat better? What would such an alternative tax system look like? How would it operate? This study seeks to set forth an alternative to the corporate taxation framework currently found in international taxation. The aim is to develop some building blocks for an optimal approach towards taxing the business proceeds of multinationals, i.e., a 'corporate tax 2.0'. As a starting point the authority of currently applicable national, international, and European tax law are not necessarily accepted. Accordingly, applicable tax law serves illustrative rather than argumentative purposes in this research.



The Taxation of Corporate Groups Under Consolidation

The Taxation of Corporate Groups Under Consolidation Author Antony Ting
ISBN-10 9781107033498
Release 2013
Pages 321
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Antony Ting presents the first comprehensive comparative study of the tax consolidation regimes adopted in eight countries.



Double Non Taxation and Eu Law

Double  Non  Taxation and Eu Law Author Christoph Marchgraber
ISBN-10 904119410X
Release 2017-11-13
Pages 472
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Double (Non-)Taxation and EU Law provides a comprehensive analysis of EU law's impact on double taxation and double non-taxation. Everywhere new tax rules are under development to engage with the ever-increasing complexity and sophistication of aggressive tax planning and to reverse the tax base erosion it leads to. The most prominent initiative in this context is the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project of the OECD. Although the European Commission and the OECD's BEPS project have been a hot topic for some time, and double non-taxation being among the main issues the BEPS project intends to address, there has been little discussion of the effect of EU law on their implementation. This book aims to remedy that omission by addressing this crucial subject and its practical impact. What's in this book: Among the issues dealt with in the course of the analysis are the following: locating the gaps and inconsistencies among domestic tax systems exploited by taxpayers; hybrid mismatch arrangements as a prime example of double non-taxation; political efforts undertaken within the EU in order to address double taxation and double non-taxation; double non-taxation in the European VAT system; the convergence of the fundamental freedoms and the State aid rules; the ECJ's dilemma concerning juridical double taxation; the deviating approach with regard to economic double taxation; the potential impact of the ECJ's case law on the EU law compatibility of double non-taxation. The tax jurisprudence of the ECJ is referred to and comprehensively analysed throughout the book. The final chapter provides an outlook on possible developments in the future. How this will help you: Focusing on the fundamental freedoms and the State aid rules of the EU, this book thoroughly explains the nature of double non-taxation from an EU law perspective, its relation to double taxation, and the impact of EU law on these phenomena. Thus, this book serves as a navigator in light of the ongoing implementation of BEPS measures. As a giant step towards greater legal certainty in this challenging area of tax law, this book is a practical handbook for tax authorities, scholars, and tax practitioners across Europe and even beyond.



EU Citizenship and Direct Taxation

EU Citizenship and Direct Taxation Author Erik Ros
ISBN-10 9041185844
Release 2017-09-18
Pages 424
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EUCOTAX Series on European Taxation Volume 54 EU Citizenship and Direct Taxation is the first book to investigate in detail how the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) has tried to reconcile specific national direct tax rules with the general European Union (EU) principle of free movement of persons from the perspective of EU citizenship. Freedom of movement is a key principle of the EU resulting in the right of every EU citizen to move and reside freely within the EU. Many EU citizens work in the other Member States than their Member State of origin. Direct taxes are not as such covered in the treaties and therefore have a much smaller basis for harmonization at EU level than indirect taxes. As a result, decisions of ECJ on the clash between the EU principle of free movement and Member States' direct tax rules have a significant effect on national direct tax systems. This book focuses on the relation between free movement rights of EU citizens and the legal autonomy of Member States in the area of direct taxation. What's in this book The book's incomparably thorough analysis of the distinctive evolution, mainly via ECJ case law, of the relation between the EU principle of free movement of persons and Member States' direct tax rules includes in-depth discussion of the following elements and more: the concept of EU citizenship in the EU's constitutional and institutional development; how the ECJ has interpreted the concept of free movement with regard to economically inactive persons; how the notion of EU citizenship has widened the ECJ's view on treaty access; how the ECJ has addressed the clash between free movement of persons and direct taxation in the EU's constitutional context; and numerous tax policy initiatives with regard to EU citizens before and after the Treaty of Lisbon. The willingness at EU level to make EU citizenship a key driver behind the European integration process relates to the purpose of this study. This book explains that the ECJ is reconceptualizing the market freedoms relating to the free movement of persons as part of a broader EU citizenship right for all economically active EU citizens to pursue an economic activity in a cross-border context; a right beyond the aim of realization of the internal market. How this will help you: This book proceeds confidently through the maze of rules that relate to the notion of EU citizenship and gives a broad understanding of the concept of EU citizenship in the EU's constitutional and institutional development. As an extremely important analysis of the influence of EU law on the direct tax autonomy of Member States, this book will be a great influence in the practice and study of taxation in the EU.



Transfer Pricing in the US

Transfer Pricing in the US Author Felix I. Lessambo
ISBN-10 9041191968
Release 2017
Pages 240
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This concise, practical guide to the latest issues in the rapidly evolving legal regime on transfer pricing in the US context fills the need to gain a firm grasp of transfer pricing rules and practice for corporate counsel and practitioners worldwide, enabling them to prepare compliant solutions and strategies and avoid pitfalls. The book begins with a general introduction to transfer pricing and then discusses the current OECD's Transfer Pricing Guidelines, which form the basis for most transfer pricing rules around the world. The book describes in detail the approved methods for tangible and intangible property, cost sharing, services and the best method rule. Then the book discusses functional analysis for the various methods, including the necessary documentation and penalty rules. This book is an indispensable resource for practitioners and academics, and it will be very useful to state tax authorities.



Shortcomings in the EU Merger Directive

Shortcomings in the EU Merger Directive Author G. Frederik Boulogne
ISBN-10 9041167137
Release 2016
Pages 434
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The European Union (EU) Merger Directive removes certain tax disadvantages encountered by companies and their shareholders in the course of a restructuring operation. However, in spite of amendments and European Court of Justice's (ECJ) interpretations of its provisions, various shortcomings remain. This thoroughgoing analysis, broader and deeper than any prior work on the subject, addresses all the Directive's subtopics methodically, following the paragraphs of Articles 1-15 in their logical succession. The author analyses the points in which the Merger Directive falls short of attaining its stated objective, and he also examines how these shortcomings could be scaled. To do so, he tests the Merger Directive against its own objective, primary EU law (the fundamental freedoms and the unwritten general principles of EU law) and non-discrimination provisions in relevant treaties. Each of the following questions is addressed and responded to in depth: - Which entities have access to the Merger Directive and which entities should have access to it? - Which operations are covered by the Merger Directive and which operations should be covered? - Which tax disadvantages to cross-border restructuring operations does the Merger Directive aim to remove, which tax disadvantages have been actually removed, which tax disadvantages remain, and how should the Merger Directive be amended to remove the remaining tax disadvantages? - How tax avoidance should be combated under Article 15(1)(a) of the Merger Directive, which possible types of tax avoidance can be identi¬fied, and how the Merger Directive should be amended? - Which cases of double taxation does a taxpayer engaging in cross-border restructuring operations potentially encounter, and how they can be taken away by the Merger Directive? The key shortcomings that are identifi¬ed are: the Merger Directive's objective is not stated precisely; minimum harmonisation does not lead to a common tax system; exhaustive lists are used as legislative technique; the Merger Directive does not add much to the outcomes reached through negative harmonisation; and the de¬finitions of qualifying operations are not fully aligned with corporate law. Chapter 6 contains a deeply informed and viable proposal for the amendment of the Merger Directive. This is the fi¬rst treatment not only to evaluate the Directive's effi¬cacy in detail but also to offer real solutions to its shortcomings. It will be welcomed by policymakers, judges, practitioners and academics, and the recommendations it contains are sure to affect ongoing amendments and jurisprudence on the Merger Directive.



The Influence of European Law on Direct Taxation

The Influence of European Law on Direct Taxation Author Dennis Weber
ISBN-10 9041126678
Release 2007
Pages 220
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This book showcases the practical insights of some of Europeand’s foremost tax advisers and lawyers on recent case law issuing from the European Court of Justice. It also provides readers with informed analysis on how the Court may rule on future controversies impacting direct taxation. This timely and useful resource will examine each of the following topics, inter alia: and• CFC Legislation and Abuse of Law in the Community and• Free movement of capital and non-member countries and– consequences for direct taxation and• Striking a proper balance between the national fiscal interests and the Community interest and– a perpetual struggle? and• Personal income taxation of non-residents and the increasing impact of the EC Treaty Freedoms and• Why the European Court of Justice should interpret directly applicable Community law as a right to most-favoured nation treatment and a prohibition of double taxation and• Fiscal Cohesion, Fiscal Territoriality, and Preservation of the (Balanced) Allocation of Taxing Power; What is the Difference? and• Limitation of the Temporal Effects of Judgments of the ECJ and• Tax Facilities for State-induced Costs under the State Aid Rules and• EU Law and rules of tax procedure



Globalization Tax Competition and the Future of Tax Systems

Globalization  Tax Competition and the Future of Tax Systems Author Vito Tanzi
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822024139123
Release 1996
Pages 21
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Globalization Tax Competition and the Future of Tax Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Globalization Tax Competition and the Future of Tax Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Globalization Tax Competition and the Future of Tax Systems book for free.



The Impact of Community Law on Tax Treaties Issues and Solutions

The Impact of Community Law on Tax Treaties Issues and Solutions Author Pasquale Pistone
ISBN-10 9789041198600
Release 2002-03-11
Pages 405
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In this book, Dr. Pistone discusses such matters as: how Member States must comply with EC law as they apply their tax treaties; how EC law regulates cross-border tax issues within the Community; and how EC law affects tax treaties between EU Member States and third countries. The analysis is undertaken in the context of the work of European tax scholars writing in most EU languages, thus bringing numerous important theories and proposals into the spotlight for the first time. The author provides expert commentary on 27 leading tax cases from the European Court of Justice, from Avoir fiscal (1986) to Hoechst and Metallgesellschaft (2001). He clearly delineates the legal framework built by these cases, and the repercussions on national, Community, and international tax law and practice. However, the major contribution of this book, above and beyond its full-scale analysis of a crucial European legal regime as currently constituted, is the author's proposed EC Model Tax Convention, presented in Chapter Five. This Model combines existing provisions of international tax law, as embodied in the OECD Model, with the principles of Community tax law as enunciated by the European Court of Justice, and at the same time converts the body of recent scholarship into viable action programs.



Europe China Tax Treaties

Europe China Tax Treaties Author Dr. Michael Lang
ISBN-10 9789041132161
Release 2010
Pages 298
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This network aims at initiating and coordinating both comparative education in taxation, through the organisation of activities such as winter courses and guest lectures, and comparative research in the field, by means of joint research projects, international conferences and exchange of researchers between various countries. --



WTO and Direct Taxation

WTO and Direct Taxation Author Michael Lang
ISBN-10 9789041123718
Release 2005
Pages 772
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WTO Law and Direct Taxation are linked in numerous ways. The WTO Agreements, thereof especially the GATT and GATS Agreements, contain several explicit provisions on the subject of direct taxes or even on its delimitation from Tax Treaty Law. To some extent, the scope of application of WTO Law has been broadened by case law to comprise also direct taxes. This entails overlappings particularly with regard to the law of subsidies, prohibitions of discrimination, and most-favoured-nation obligations. This book highlights increasingly relevant interdependencies between WTO Law and Direct Taxation from the viewpoint of 21 States. Special emphasis is placed on the conformity of national taxes on profits with WTO Law as well as on specifics of interpretation in several Member States. 21 National Reports from nearly all EU countries as well as Colombia, Israel, New Zealand, Norway and the USA dealt with this topic and were compiled and published in this volume. Additionally, a General Report prepared by Servatius van Thiel summarises the results of the National Reports. Moreover, experts in this field joining the Conference among them Reuven Avi-Yonah, Michael Lennard and Raymond Luja have volunteered contributions dealing with specific problems of WTO and Direct Taxation.



Corporate Income Taxation in Europe

Corporate Income Taxation in Europe Author Michael Lang
ISBN-10 9781782545422
Release 2013-10-31
Pages 384
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The book considers the impact of the CCCTB from the perspective of non-EU-based enterprises that are carrying on business in the EU through the operation of branches or subsidiaries in member states. It incorporates the perspectives of leading scholars