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From the Web to the Grid and Beyond

From the Web to the Grid and Beyond Author René Brun
ISBN-10 9783642231568
Release 2012-01-26
Pages 360
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Born after World War II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has found itself limited ever since by available accelerator, detector and computing technologies. Accordingly, HEP has made significant contributions to the development of these fields, more often than not driving their innovations. The invention of the World Wide Web at CERN is merely the best-known example out of many. This book is the first comprehensive account to trace the history of this pioneering spirit in the field of computing technologies. It covers everything up to and including the present-day handling of the huge demands imposed upon grid and distributed computing by full-scale LHC operations—operations which have for years involved many thousands of collaborating members worldwide and accordingly provide the original and natural testbed for grid computing concepts. This book takes the reader on a guided tour encompassing all relevant topics, including programming languages, software engineering, large databases, the Web, and grid- and cloud computing. The important issue of intellectual property regulations for distributed software engineering and computing is also addressed. Aptly, the book closes with a visionary chapter of what may lie ahead. Approachable and requiring only basic understanding of physics and computer sciences, this book is intended for both education and research.



The Seneca Effect

The Seneca Effect Author Ugo Bardi
ISBN-10 9783319572079
Release 2017-11-22
Pages 209
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The essence of this book can be found in a line written by the ancient Roman Stoic Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca: "Fortune is of sluggish growth, but ruin is rapid". This sentence summarizes the features of the phenomenon that we call "collapse," which is typically sudden and often unexpected, like the proverbial "house of cards." But why are such collapses so common, and what generates them? Several books have been published on the subject, including the well known "Collapse" by Jared Diamond (2005), "The collapse of complex societies" by Joseph Tainter (1998) and "The Tipping Point," by Malcom Gladwell (2000). Why The Seneca Effect? This book is an ambitious attempt to pull these various strands together by describing collapse from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint. The reader will discover how collapse is a collective phenomenon that occurs in what we call today "complex systems," with a special emphasis on system dynamics and the concept of "feedback." From this foundation, Bardi applies the theory to real-world systems, from the mechanics of fracture and the collapse of large structures to financial collapses, famines and population collapses, the fall of entire civilzations, and the most dreadful collapse we can imagine: that of the planetary ecosystem generated by overexploitation and climate change. The final objective of the book is to describe a conclusion that the ancient stoic philosophers had already discovered long ago, but that modern system science has rediscovered today. If you want to avoid collapse you need to embrace change, not fight it. Neither a book about doom and gloom nor a cornucopianist's dream, The Seneca Effect goes to the heart of the challenges that we are facing today, helping us to manage our future rather than be managed by it.



The Mass Gap And Its Applications

The Mass Gap And Its Applications Author Gogokhia Vakhtang
ISBN-10 9789814440721
Release 2013-03-06
Pages 252
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Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the most up-to-date theory of the strong interaction. Its predictions have been verified experimentally, and it is a cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics. However, standard perturbative procedures fail if applied to low-energy QCD. Even the discovery of the Higgs Boson will not solve the problem of masses originating from the non-perturbative behavior of QCD.This book presents a new method, the introduction of the ‘mass gap’, first suggested by Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten at the turn of the millennium. It attempts to show that, to explain the mass-spectrum of QCD, one needs the mass scale parameter (the mass gap) instead of other massive particles. The energy difference between the lowest order and the vacuum state in Yang-Mills quantum field theory, the mass gap is in principle responsible for the large-scale structure of the QCD ground state, and thus also for its non-perturbative phenomena at low energies. This book not only presents the mass gap, but also details the applications and outlook of the mass gap method. A detailed summary of references and problems are included as well.This book is best for scientists and highly advanced students interested in non-perturbative effects and methods in QCD.



Quantum Psyche

Quantum Psyche Author Giuliana Galli Carminati
ISBN-10 1501024078
Release 2015-03-02
Pages 332
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At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds." Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.



Data Intensive Distributed Computing Challenges and Solutions for Large scale Information Management

Data Intensive Distributed Computing  Challenges and Solutions for Large scale Information Management Author Kosar, Tevfik
ISBN-10 9781615209729
Release 2012-01-31
Pages 352
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"This book focuses on the challenges of distributed systems imposed by the data intensive applications, and on the different state-of-the-art solutions proposed to overcome these challenges"--Provided by publisher.



Frontiers of Fundamental Physics and Physics Education Research

Frontiers of Fundamental Physics and Physics Education Research Author Burra G. Sidharth
ISBN-10 9783319002972
Release 2014-03-20
Pages 615
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In a knowledge-based society, research into fundamental physics plays a vital role not only in the enhancement of human knowledge but also in the development of new technology that affects everyday life.The international symposium series Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP) regularly brings together eminent scholars and researchers working in various areas in physics to exchange expertise, ideas, results, and new research perspectives. The twelfth such symposium, FFP12, took place at the University of Udine, Italy, and covered diverse fields of research: astrophysics, high energy physics and particle physics, theoretical physics, gravitation and cosmology, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, computational physics, and mathematical physics. Importantly, it also devoted a great deal of attention to physics education research, teacher training in modern physics, and popularization of physics. The high scientific level of FFP12 was guaranteed by the careful selection made by scientific coordinators from among 250 submissions from 28 countries across the world. During the three days of the conference, nine general talks were delivered in plenary sessions, 29 invited talks were given in specific topic areas, and 59 oral presentations were made. This book presents a selection of the best contributions at FFP12 with the aim of acquainting readers with the most important recent advances in fundamental physics and in physics education and teacher development.



Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing Author Dan C. Marinescu
ISBN-10 9780128128114
Release 2017-11-20
Pages 588
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Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, provides students and IT professionals with an in-depth analysis of the cloud from the ground up. After an introduction to network-centric computing and network-centric content in Chapter One, the book is organized into four sections. Section One reviews basic concepts of concurrency and parallel and distributed systems. Section Two presents such critical components of the cloud ecosystem as cloud service providers, cloud access, cloud data storage, and cloud hardware and software. Section Three covers cloud applications and cloud security, while Section Four presents research topics in cloud computing. Specific topics covered include resource virtualization, resource management and scheduling, and advanced topics like the impact of scale on efficiency, cloud scheduling subject to deadlines, alternative cloud architectures, and vehicular clouds. An included glossary covers terms grouped in several categories, from general to services, virtualization, desirable attributes and security. Includes new chapters on concurrency, cloud hardware and software, challenges posed by big data and mobile applications and advanced topics Provides a new appendix that presents several cloud computing projects Presents more than 400 references in the text, including recent research results in several areas related to cloud computing



Extreme Events in Nature and Society

Extreme Events in Nature and Society Author Sergio Albeverio
ISBN-10 9783540286110
Release 2006-02-18
Pages 352
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Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.



Popular Science

Popular Science Author
ISBN-10
Release 2005-09
Pages 136
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Popular Science gives our readers the information and tools to improve their technology and their world. The core belief that Popular Science and our readers share: The future is going to be better, and science and technology are the driving forces that will help make it better.



Grid Computing

Grid Computing Author Fran Berman
ISBN-10 0470853190
Release 2003
Pages 1012
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Grid computing is applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time Grid computing appears to be a promising trend for three reasons: its ability to make more cost-effective use of a given amount of computer resources; as a way to solve problems that can't be approached without an enormous amount of computing power; and because it suggests that the resources of many computers can be cooperatively and perhaps synergistically harnessed and managed as a collaboration toward a common objective. This book features contributions from the major players in the field and covers all aspects of grid technology from motivation to applications. It provides an extensive state-of-the-art guide in grid computing and is essential reading for researchers in computing and engineering, physicists, statisticians, engineers and mathematicians and IT policy makers.



Beyond the Molecular Frontier

Beyond the Molecular Frontier Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 0309168392
Release 2003-03-19
Pages 238
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Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed significantly in the last decade. They have broadened their scopeâ€"into biology, nanotechnology, materials science, computation, and advanced methods of process systems engineering and controlâ€"so much that the programs in most chemistry and chemical engineering departments now barely resemble the classical notion of chemistry. Beyond the Molecular Frontier brings together research, discovery, and invention across the entire spectrum of the chemical sciencesâ€"from fundamental, molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing technology. This reflects the way the field has evolved, the synergy at universities between research and education in chemistry and chemical engineering, and the way chemists and chemical engineers work together in industry. The astonishing developments in science and engineering during the 20th century have made it possible to dream of new goals that might previously have been considered unthinkable. This book identifies the key opportunities and challenges for the chemical sciences, from basic research to societal needs and from terrorism defense to environmental protection, and it looks at the ways in which chemists and chemical engineers can work together to contribute to an improved future.



Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis

Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309287814
Release 2013-09-03
Pages 190
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Data mining of massive data sets is transforming the way we think about crisis response, marketing, entertainment, cybersecurity and national intelligence. Collections of documents, images, videos, and networks are being thought of not merely as bit strings to be stored, indexed, and retrieved, but as potential sources of discovery and knowledge, requiring sophisticated analysis techniques that go far beyond classical indexing and keyword counting, aiming to find relational and semantic interpretations of the phenomena underlying the data. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis examines the frontier of analyzing massive amounts of data, whether in a static database or streaming through a system. Data at that scale--terabytes and petabytes--is increasingly common in science (e.g., particle physics, remote sensing, genomics), Internet commerce, business analytics, national security, communications, and elsewhere. The tools that work to infer knowledge from data at smaller scales do not necessarily work, or work well, at such massive scale. New tools, skills, and approaches are necessary, and this report identifies many of them, plus promising research directions to explore. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis discusses pitfalls in trying to infer knowledge from massive data, and it characterizes seven major classes of computation that are common in the analysis of massive data. Overall, this report illustrates the cross-disciplinary knowledge--from computer science, statistics, machine learning, and application disciplines--that must be brought to bear to make useful inferences from massive data.



Desktop Grid Computing

Desktop Grid Computing Author Christophe Cerin
ISBN-10 9781439862148
Release 2012-06-25
Pages 388
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Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book’s first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical issues, offers details about implementation and experiments, and includes references to further reading and notes. One of the first books to give a thorough and up-to-date presentation of this topic, this resource describes various approaches and models as well as recent trends that underline the evolution of desktop grids. It balances the theory of designing desktop grid middleware and architecture with applications and real-world deployment on large-scale platforms.



Advanced General Relativity

Advanced General Relativity Author Claude Barrabès
ISBN-10 9780199680696
Release 2013-05-23
Pages 152
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The book covers mainstream topics at research level involving gravitational waves, spinning particles, and black holes, suitable for graduates and early postgraduates exploring avenues into research in general relativity.



The Zero Marginal Cost Society

The Zero Marginal Cost Society Author Jeremy Rifkin
ISBN-10 9781137437761
Release 2014-04-01
Pages 368
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In The Zero Marginal Cost Society, New York Times bestselling author Jeremy Rifkin describes how the emerging Internet of Things is speeding us to an era of nearly free goods and services, precipitating the meteoric rise of a global Collaborative Commons and the eclipse of capitalism. Rifkin uncovers a paradox at the heart of capitalism that has propelled it to greatness but is now taking it to its death—the inherent entrepreneurial dynamism of competitive markets that drives productivity up and marginal costs down, enabling businesses to reduce the price of their goods and services in order to win over consumers and market share. (Marginal cost is the cost of producing additional units of a good or service, if fixed costs are not counted.) While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring marginal costs to near zero, making goods and services priceless, nearly free, and abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. Now, a formidable new technology infrastructure—the Internet of things (IoT)—is emerging with the potential of pushing large segments of economic life to near zero marginal cost in the years ahead. Rifkin describes how the Communication Internet is converging with a nascent Energy Internet and Logistics Internet to create a new technology platform that connects everything and everyone. Billions of sensors are being attached to natural resources, production lines, the electricity grid, logistics networks, recycling flows, and implanted in homes, offices, stores, vehicles, and even human beings, feeding Big Data into an IoT global neural network. Prosumers can connect to the network and use Big Data, analytics, and algorithms to accelerate efficiency, dramatically increase productivity, and lower the marginal cost of producing and sharing a wide range of products and services to near zero, just like they now do with information goods. The plummeting of marginal costs is spawning a hybrid economy—part capitalist market and part Collaborative Commons—with far reaching implications for society, according to Rifkin. Hundreds of millions of people are already transferring parts of their economic lives to the global Collaborative Commons. Prosumers are plugging into the fledgling IoT and making and sharing their own information, entertainment, green energy, and 3D-printed products at near zero marginal cost. They are also sharing cars, homes, clothes and other items via social media sites, rentals, redistribution clubs, and cooperatives at low or near zero marginal cost. Students are enrolling in free massive open online courses (MOOCs) that operate at near zero marginal cost. Social entrepreneurs are even bypassing the banking establishment and using crowdfunding to finance startup businesses as well as creating alternative currencies in the fledgling sharing economy. In this new world, social capital is as important as financial capital, access trumps ownership, sustainability supersedes consumerism, cooperation ousts competition, and "exchange value" in the capitalist marketplace is increasingly replaced by "sharable value" on the Collaborative Commons. Rifkin concludes that capitalism will remain with us, albeit in an increasingly streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to flourish as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, says Rifkin, entering a world beyond markets where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent global Collaborative Commons.



Ultimate Horizons

Ultimate Horizons Author Helmut Satz
ISBN-10 9783642416576
Release 2014-02-04
Pages 172
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In the last hundred years, modern physics and cosmology have shown that there exist regions of the universe forever beyond our reach, hidden by truly ultimate horizons. Such regions exist in those remote parts of the universe where, from our point of view, space expands faster than the speed of light. They are found in black holes, where the gravity is strong enough to retain even light within its field of attraction. And in the realm of the very small, quarks must remain forever confined to their world of extreme density and can never be removed from it. The aim of this book is to describe these ultimate horizons, how they were discovered, how they shape our view of the world, and what clues we have about a world beyond them.



Energy Complexity and Wealth Maximization

Energy  Complexity and Wealth Maximization Author Robert Ayres
ISBN-10 9783319305455
Release 2016-07-14
Pages 593
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This book is about the mechanisms of wealth creation, or what we like to think of as evolutionary "progress." The massive circular flow of goods and services between producers and consumers is not a perpetual motion machine; it has been dependent for the past 150 years on energy inputs from a finite storage of fossil fuels. In this book, you will learn about the three key requirements for wealth creation, and how this process acts according to physical laws, and usually after some part of the natural wealth of the planet has been exploited in an episode of "creative destruction." Knowledge and natural capital, particularly energy, will interact to power the human wealth engine in the future as it has in the past. Will it sputter or continue along the path of evolutionary progress that we have come to expect? Can the new immaterial wealth of information and ideas, which makes up the so-called knowledge economy, replace depleted natural wealth? These questions have no simple answers, but this masterful book will help you to understand the grand challenge of our time. Praise for Energy, Complexity and Wealth Maximization: “... people who run the modern world (politicians, economists and lawyers) have a very poor grasp of how it really works because they do not understand the fundamentals of energy, exergy and entropy ... those decision-makers would greatly benefit from reading this book ...” - Vaclav Smil, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of Manitoba “... A grandiose design; impressive, worth reading and reflecting!” - Prof. Dr. Ernst Ulrich von Weizäcker, Founder of Wuppertal Institute; Co-President of the Club of Rome, Former Member of the German Bundestag, co-chair of the UN’s Resource Panel “... The book is a must read for concerned citizens and decision makers across the globe.” - RK Pachauri, Founder and Executive Vice Chairman, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and ex-chair, International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)