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Functional Nanostructured Materials and Membranes for Water Treatment

Functional Nanostructured Materials and Membranes for Water Treatment Author Mikel Duke
ISBN-10 9783527668489
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 318
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Membranes have emerged over the last 30 years as a viable water treatment technology. Earth's population is growing and the need for alternative ways to generate potable water is rising. The recent advent of nanotechnology opens the door to improving processes in membrane technology, which is a promising step on the way to solving the earth's potable water problem. Current performance is enhanced and new concepts are possible by engineering on the nanoscale. This book presents key areas of nanotechnology such as fouling tolerant and robust membranes, enhanced destruction of pollutants and faster monitoring of water quality. 'Functional Nanostructured Materials and Membranes for Water Treatment' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. G.Q. Max Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.



Photocatalysis and Water Purification

Photocatalysis and Water Purification Author Pierre Pichat
ISBN-10 9783527645411
Release 2013-03-26
Pages 438
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Water is one of the essential resources on our planet. Therefore, fresh water and the recycling of waste-water are very important topics in various areas. Energy-saving green technologies are a demand in this area of research. Photocatalysis comprises a class of reactions which use a catalyst activated by light. These reactions include the decomposition of organic compounds into environmental friendly water and carbon dioxide, leading to interesting properties of surfaces covered with a photocatalyst: they protect e.g. against incrustation of fouling matter, they are self-cleaning, antibacterial and viricidal. Therefore, they are attractive candidates for environmental applications such as water purification and waste-water treatment. This book introduces scientists and engineers to the fundamentals of photocatalysis and enlightens the potentials of photocatalysis to increase water quality. Also, strategies to improve the photocatalytic efficacy are pointed out: synthesis of better photocatalysts, combination of photocatalysis with other technologies, and the proper design of photocatalytic reactors. Implementation of applications and a chapter on design approaches for photocatalytic reactors round off the book. 'Photocatalysis and Water Purification' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. G.Q. Max Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.



Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells

Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells Author San Ping Jiang
ISBN-10 9783527644285
Release 2013-06-26
Pages 350
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The world's ever-growing demand for power has created an urgent need for new efficient and sustainable sources of energy and electricity. Today's consumers of portable electronics also demand devices that not only deliver more power but are also environmentally friendly. Fuel cells are an important alternative energy source, with promise in military, commercial and industrial applications, for example power vehicles and portable devices. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that directly converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy. Fuel cells represent the most efficient energy conversion technologies to-date and are an integral part in the new and renewable energy chain (e.g., solar, wind and hydropower). Fuel cells can be classified as either high-temperature or lowtemperature, depending on their operating temperature, and have different materials requirements. This book is dedicated to the study of high temperature fuel cells. In hightemperature fuel cells, the electrolyte materials are ceramic or molten carbonate, while the electrode materials are ceramic or metal (but not precious metal). High operation temperature fuel cells allow internal reforming, promote rapid kinetics with non-precious materials and offer high flexibilities in fuel choice, and are potential and viable candidate to moderate the fast increase in power requirements and to minimize the impact of the increased power consumption on the environment. 'Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. Max Q. Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.



Materials for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

Materials for Low Temperature Fuel Cells Author Bradley Ladewig
ISBN-10 9783527330423
Release 2015-03-09
Pages 272
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There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part of the "Materials for Sustainable Energy & Development" series. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells brings together world leaders and experts in this field and provides a lucid description of the materials assessment of fuel cell technologies. With an emphasis on the technical development and applications of key materials in low-temperature fuel cells, this text covers fundamental principles, advancement, challenges, and important current research themes. Topics covered include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, direct methanol and ethanol fuel cells, microfluidic fuel cells, biofuel cells, alkaline membrane fuel cells, functionalized carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports, nanostructured Pt catalysts, non-PGM catalysts, membranes, and materials modeling. This book is an essential reference source for researchers, engineers and technicians in academia, research institutes and industry working in the fields of fuel cells, energy materials, electrochemistry and materials science and engineering.



Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water Author Anita Street
ISBN-10 9781455731855
Release 2014-05-15
Pages 704
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Nanotechnology is already having a dramatic impact on improving water quality and the second edition of Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water highlights both the challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection. This book presents detailed information on cutting-edge technologies, current research, and trends that may impact the success and uptake of the applications. Recent advances show that many of the current problems with water quality can be addressed using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle enhanced filtration. The book describes these technologies in detail and demonstrates how they can provide clean drinking water in both large scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems. In addition, the book addresses the societal factors that may affect widespread acceptance of the applications. Sections are also featured on carbon nanotube arrays and graphene-based sensors for contaminant sensing, nanostructured membranes for water purification, and multifunctional materials in carbon microspheres for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Addresses both the technological aspects of delivering clean water supplies and the societal implications that affect take-up Details how the technologies are applied in large-scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems Highlights challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection



Application of Nanotechnology in Membranes for Water Treatment

Application of Nanotechnology in Membranes for Water Treatment Author Alberto Figoli
ISBN-10 9781351715263
Release 2017-07-04
Pages 366
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The book focuses on Application of Nanotechnology in Membranes for Water Treatment but not only provides a series of innovative solutions for water reclamation through advanced membrane technology but also serves as a medium to promote international cooperation and networking for the development of advanced membrane technology for Universal well-being and to achieve the common goal of supplying economically, environmentally and societally sustainable freshwater and better sanitation systems. This book is unique because the chapters were authored by established researchers all around the globe based on their recent research findings. In addition, this book provides a holistic coverage of membrane development for water treatment, from the membrane preparation and characterizations to the performance for specific processes and applications. Since that water scarcity has become a global risk and one of the most serious challenges for the scientific community in this century, the publication of this book is therefore significant as it will serve as a medium for a good reference of an alternative solution in water reclamation. This book will provide the readers with a thorough understanding of the different available approaches for manufacturing membranes both with innovative polymeric systems and inorganic nano-materials which could give enhanced functionalities, catalytic and antimicrobial activities to improve the performance of the existing membranes. It will be useful for leading decision and policy makers, water sector representatives and administrators, policy makers from the governments, business leaders, business houses in water treatment, and engineers/ scientists from both industrialized and developing countries as well.



Electrochemical Energy

Electrochemical Energy Author Pei Kang Shen
ISBN-10 9781482227284
Release 2016-01-05
Pages 622
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Electrochemical Energy: Advanced Materials and Technologies covers the development of advanced materials and technologies for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. The book was created by participants of the International Conference on Electrochemical Materials and Technologies for Clean Sustainable Energy (ICES-2013) held in Guangzhou, China, and incorporates select papers presented at the conference. More than 300 attendees from across the globe participated in ICES-2013 and gave presentations in six major themes: Fuel cells and hydrogen energy Lithium batteries and advanced secondary batteries Green energy for a clean environment Photo-Electrocatalysis Supercapacitors Electrochemical clean energy applications and markets Comprised of eight sections, this book includes 25 chapters featuring highlights from the conference and covering every facet of synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of the advanced materials for electrochemical energy. It thoroughly describes electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, hydrogen generation, and their associated materials. The book contains a number of topics that include electrochemical processes, materials, components, assembly and manufacturing, and degradation mechanisms. It also addresses challenges related to cost and performance, provides varying perspectives, and emphasizes existing and emerging solutions. The result of a conference encouraging enhanced research collaboration among members of the electrochemical energy community, Electrochemical Energy: Advanced Materials and Technologies is dedicated to the development of advanced materials and technologies for electrochemical energy conversion and storage and details the technologies, current achievements, and future directions in the field.



Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy Production and Storage

Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy Production and Storage Author Edson Roberto Leite
ISBN-10 0387493239
Release 2010-03-20
Pages 250
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Here is an authoritative reference from world-renowned research groups for those working in materials science and electrochemistry. The authors describe properties of nanostructured materials that can improve performance in alternative energy devices.



Supercapacitors

Supercapacitors Author Francois Beguin
ISBN-10 9783527646685
Release 2013-04-02
Pages 568
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Supercapacitors are a relatively new energy storage system that provides higher energy density than dielectric capacitors and higher power density than batteries. They are particularly suited to applications that require energy pulses during short periods of time, e.g., seconds or tens of seconds. They are recommended for automobiles, tramways, buses, cranes, fork-lifts, wind turbines, electricity load leveling in stationary and transportation systems, etc. Despite the technological maturity of supercapacitors, there is a lack of comprehensive literature on the topic. Many high performance materials have been developed and new scientific concepts have been introduced. Taking into account the commercial interest in these systems and the new scientific and technological developments now is the ideal time to publish this book, capturing all this new knowledge. The book starts by giving an introduction to the general principles of electrochemistry, the properties of electrochemical capacitors, and electrochemical characterization techniques. Electrical double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors are then discussed, followed by the various electrolyte systems. Modelling, manufacture of industrial capacitors, constraints, testing, and reliability as well as applications are also covered. 'Supercapacitors - Materials, Systems, and Applications' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. G.Q. Max Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.



One dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

One dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications Author Shangfeng Du
ISBN-10 9780128111130
Release 2017-08-07
Pages 96
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One-dimensional Nanostructures for PEM Fuel Cell Applications provides a review of the progress made in 1D catalysts for applications in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. It highlights the improved understanding of catalytic mechanisms on 1D nanostructures and the new approaches developed for practical applications, also including a critical perspective on current research limits. The book serves as a reference for the design and development of a new generation of catalysts to assist in the realization of successful commercial use that have the potential to decarbonize the domestic heat and transport sectors. In addition, a further commercialization of this technology requires advanced catalysts to address major obstacles faced by the commonly used Pt/C nanoparticles. The unique structure of one-dimensional nanostructures give them advantages to overcome some drawbacks of Pt/C nanoparticles as a new type of excellent catalysts for fuel cell reactions. In recent years, great efforts have been devoted in this area, and much progress has been achieved. Provides a review of 1D catalysts for applications in polymer electrolyte fuel cells Presents an ideal reference for the design and development of a new generation of catalysts to assist in the realization of successful commercial use Highlights the progress made in recent years in this emerging field



Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications

Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications Author Zhanhu Guo
ISBN-10 9783527342495
Release 2018-01-02
Pages 704
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Focusing on real applications of nanocomposites and nanotechnologies for sustainable development, this book shows how nanocomposites can help to solve energy and environmental problems, including a broad overview of energy-related applications and a unique selection of environmental topics. Clearly structured, the first part covers such energy-related applications as lithium ion batteries, solar cells, catalysis, thermoelectric waste heat harvesting and water splitting, while the second part provides unique perspectives on environmental fields, including nuclear waste management and carbon dioxide capture and storage. The result is a successful combination of fundamentals for newcomers to the field and the latest results for experienced scientists, engineers, and industry researchers.



Water Purification

Water Purification Author Alexandru Grumezescu
ISBN-10 9780128043714
Release 2016-12-28
Pages 772
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Water Purification, a volume in the Nanotechnology in the Food Industry series, provides an in-depth review of the current technologies and emerging application of nanotechnology in drinking water purification, also presenting an overview of the common drinking water contaminants, such as heavy metals, organics, microorganisms, pharmaceuticals, and their occurrences in drinking water sources. As the global water crisis has motivated the industry to look for alternative water supplies, nanotechnology presents significant potential for utilizing previously unacceptable water sources. This books explores the practical methodologies for transforming water using nanotechnologies, and is a comprehensive reference to a wide audience of food science research professionals, professors, and students who are doing research in this field. Includes the most up-to-date information on nanotechnology applications and research methods for water purification and treatment Presents applications of nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials in drinking water purification to improve efficiency and reduce cost Provides water purification research methods that are important to water quality, including precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation, and ion exchange Covers the potential risks of nanotechnology, such as the toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials in water and how to minimize risks based on research studies



Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Technologies

Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Technologies Author Shuhui Sun
ISBN-10 9781351648042
Release 2017-11-20
Pages 313
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This book offers comprehensive coverage of carbon-based nanomaterials and electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and hydrogen generation and storage, as well as the latest material and new technology development. It addresses a variety of topics such as electrochemical processes, materials, components, assembly and manufacturing, degradation mechanisms, challenges, and strategies. With in-depth discussions ranging from electrochemistry fundamentals to engineering components and applied devices, this all-inclusive reference offers a broad view of various carbon nanomaterials and technologies for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices.



Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World

Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World Author Eric Lichtfouse
ISBN-10 940072442X
Release 2011-11-27
Pages 410
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Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Nanotechnology applications for alternative energies such as solar power, fuel cells, hydrogen and lithium batteries are reviewed in the first section. Recent investigations on carbon nanotubes, nanocatalysts and cyclodextrins disclose unprecedented techniques to monitor and clean pollutants such as greenhouse gases, heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens occurring in water, air and soil. The second section reviews the risks for human health of critical pollutants such as endocrine disruptors, dioxins and heavy metals contaminating seafood and sediments. An exhaustive review of DDT isomers reveals unexpected mechanisms of DDT transfer to fishes. A chapter on pollutant geochronology using river sedimentary archives provides novel insights on pollution history since the beginning of the anthropocene. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.



Nanoporous Materials for Energy and the Environment

Nanoporous Materials for Energy and the Environment Author Gilbert Rios
ISBN-10 9789814303125
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 322
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This book disseminates and discusses relevant best case examples and research practices that show how nanomaterial research and related engineering concepts may provide answers and viable solutions to a variety of socioeconomic issues and concerns. The first section is dedicated to the development of new materials and their characterization. The second section addresses modeling and scale transition (from and to nanoscale) processes, and the third section presents applications in the environmental and energy sectors. Nanoporous Materials for Energy and the Environment covers a wide selection of subjects ranging from modeling and material design to the preparation and use of nanoporous catalysts, adsorbents, and membranes. The topics discussed include proton exchange membranes; carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes for fuel cells; advanced design of lithium batteries and supercapacitors using CNTs; multifunctional catalyst for biomass conversion; advanced characterization and modeling of nanomaterials and membranes (including gas transport and multiscale modeling); use of membranes in energy applications, gas treatment, and separations; and development of multifunctional photoactive membranes and of nanoordered 2D photoactive titania films and membranes.



Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering

Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering Author Enrico Drioli
ISBN-10 9780444637963
Release 2017-07-20
Pages 1720
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Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering, Second Edition is an interdisciplinary and innovative reference work on membrane science and technology. Written by leading researchers and industry professionals from a range of backgrounds, chapters elaborate on recent and future developments in the field of membrane science and explore how the field has advanced since the previous edition published in 2010. Chapters are written by academics and practitioners across a variety of fields, including chemistry, chemical engineering, material science, physics, biology and food science. Each volume covers a wide spectrum of applications and advanced technologies, such as new membrane materials (e.g. thermally rearranged polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity and new hydrophobic fluoropolymer) and processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, membrane contractors, membrane crystallization, membrane condenser, membrane dryers and membrane emulsifiers) that have only recently proved their full potential for industrial application. This work covers the latest advances in membrane science, linking fundamental research with real-life practical applications using specially selected case studies of medium and large-scale membrane operations to demonstrate successes and failures with a look to future developments in the field. Contains comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage, helping readers understand the latest theory Offers readers a variety of perspectives on how membrane science and engineering research can be best applied in practice across a range of industries Provides the theory behind the limits, advantages, future developments and failure expectations of local membrane operations in emerging countries



Membrane Characterization

Membrane Characterization Author Nidal Hilal
ISBN-10 9780444637918
Release 2017-02-18
Pages 458
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Membrane Characterization provides a valuable source of information on how membranes are characterized, an extremely limited field that is confined to only brief descriptions in various technical papers available online. For the first time, readers will be able to understand the importance of membrane characterization, the techniques required, and the fundamental theory behind them. This book focuses on characterization techniques that are normally used for membranes prepared from polymeric, ceramic, and composite materials. Features specific details on many membrane characterization techniques for various membrane materials of industrial and academic interest Contains examples of international best practice techniques for the evaluation of several membrane parameters, including pore size, charge, and fouling Discusses various membrane models more suitable to a specific application Provides examples of ab initio calculations for the design, optimization, and scale-up of processes based on characterization data