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Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics

Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics Author Mario Capitelli
ISBN-10 9781441981851
Release 2015-11-26
Pages 318
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Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the book will assess fundamental concepts and theoretical formulations, based on a unified methodological approach, and explore the insight in related scientific problems still opened for the research community.



Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics

Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics Author Mario Capitelli
ISBN-10 9781441981721
Release 2013-04-02
Pages 352
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Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Transport develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples are provided to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is the second of a series of three published by the Bari group on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The first book, Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Thermodynamics, is dedicated to plasma thermodynamics; and the third, Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Kinetics, deals with plasma kinetics.



Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics

Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics Author Mario Capitelli
ISBN-10 1441981829
Release 2011-12-02
Pages 310
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Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The next books will discuss transport and kinetics.



Plasma Physics for Controlled Fusion

Plasma Physics for Controlled Fusion Author Kenro Miyamoto
ISBN-10 9783662497814
Release 2016-05-12
Pages 495
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This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.



Surface Flute Waves in Plasmas

Surface Flute Waves in Plasmas Author Volodymyr Girka
ISBN-10 9783319020273
Release 2013-11-12
Pages 163
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The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i.e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.



Theory of Reflection of Electromagnetic and Particle Waves

Theory of Reflection of Electromagnetic and Particle Waves Author John Lekner
ISBN-10 9024734185
Release 1987-02-28
Pages 279
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This book is written for scientists and engineers whose work involves wave reflec tion or transmission. Most of the book is written in the language of electromagnetic theory, but, as the title suggests, many of the results can be applied to particle waves, specifically to those satisfying the Schr6dinger equation. The mathematical connection between electromagnetic s (or TE) waves and quantum particle waves is established in Chapter 1. The main results for s waves are translated into quantum mechanical language in the Appendix. There is also a close analogy between acoustic waves and electromagnetic p (or TM) waves, as shown in Section 1-4. Thus the book, though primarily intended for those working in optics, microwaves and radio, will be of use to physicists, chemists and electrical engineers studying reflection and transmission of particles at potential barriers. The tech niques developed here can also be used by those working in acoustics, ocean ography and seismology. Chapter 1 is recommended for all readers: it introduces reflection phenomena, defines the notation, and previews (in Section 1-6) the contents of the rest of the book. This preview will not be duplicated here. We note only that applied topics do appear: two examples are the important phenomenon of attenuated total reflection in Chapter 8, and the reflectivity of multilayer dielectric mirrors in Chapter 12. The subject matter is restricted to linear classical electrodynamics in non-magnetic media, and the corresponding particle analogues.



Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics Author J. A. Bittencourt
ISBN-10 9781483293196
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 730
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A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.



Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems

Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems Author Jan Weiland
ISBN-10 9781461437437
Release 2012-06-27
Pages 230
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Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems provides an advanced introduction to the fields of stability and transport in tokamaks. It serves as a reference for researchers with its highly-detailed theoretical background, and contains new results in the areas of analytical nonlinear theory of transport using kinetic theory and fluid closure. The use of fluid descriptions for advanced stability and transport problems provide the reader with a better understanding of this topic. In addition, the areas of nonlinear kinetic theory and fluid closure gives the researcher the basic knowledge of a highly relevant area to the present development of transport physics.



Plasma Material Interaction in Controlled Fusion

Plasma Material Interaction in Controlled Fusion Author Dirk Naujoks
ISBN-10 9783540321491
Release 2006-08-25
Pages 268
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This book deals with the specific contact between the fourth state of matter, i.e. plasma, and the first state of matter, i.e. a solid wall, in controlled fusion experiments. A comprehensive analysis of the main processes of plasma-surface interaction is given together with an assessment of the most critical questions within the context of general criteria and operation limits. It also contains a survey on other important aspects in nuclear fusion.



Plasma Kinetics in Atmospheric Gases

Plasma Kinetics in Atmospheric Gases Author M. Capitelli
ISBN-10 9783662041581
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 300
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Emphasis is placed on the analysis of translational, rotational, vibrational and electronically excited state kinetics, coupled to the electron Boltzmann equation.



Cathodic Arcs

Cathodic Arcs Author André Anders
ISBN-10 0387791086
Release 2009-07-30
Pages 544
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Cathodic arcs are among the longest studied yet least understood objects in science. Plasma-generating, tiny spots appear on the cathode; they are highly dynamic and hard to control. With an approach emphasizing the fractal character of cathode spots, strongly fluctuating plasma properties are described such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. Richly illustrated, the book also deals with practical issues, such as arc source construction, macroparticle removal, and the synthesis of dense, well adherent coatings. The book spans a bridge from plasma physics to coatings technology based on energetic condensation, appealing to scientists, practitioners and graduate students alike.



Kinetics of Complex Plasmas

Kinetics of Complex Plasmas Author Mahendra Singh Sodha
ISBN-10 9788132218203
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 298
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The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.



Magnetic Stochasticity in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

Magnetic Stochasticity in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas Author Sadrilla Abdullaev
ISBN-10 9783319018904
Release 2013-11-19
Pages 412
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This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and statistical properties. The numerous references to articles on the latest development in the area are provided. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers who interested in the modern problems of magnetic stochasticity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. It is also useful for physicists and mathematicians interested in new methods of Hamiltonian dynamics and their applications.



Free Energy Calculations

Free Energy Calculations Author Christophe Chipot
ISBN-10 9783540384472
Release 2007-01-08
Pages 517
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Presenting an account of the concepts that underly different approaches devised for the determination of free energies, this book aims to give the reader, an insight into the theoretical and computational foundations of the subject. It is aimed at students and researchers having a background in chemistry, physics, engineering and physical biology.



Charged Particle Traps II

Charged Particle Traps II Author Günther Werth
ISBN-10 9783540922612
Release 2009-09-16
Pages 276
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This second volume of the Charged Particle Traps deals with the rapidly expanding body of research exploiting the electromagnetic con?nement of ions, whose principles and techniques were the subject of volume I. These applications include revolutionary advances in diverse ?elds, ranging from such practical ?elds as mass spectrometry, to the establishment of an ult- stable standard of frequency and the emergent ?eld of quantum computing made possible by the observation of the quantum behavior of laser-cooled con?nedions. Bothexperimentalandtheoreticalactivity intheseapplications has proliferated widely, and the number of diverse articles in the literature on its many facets has reached the point where it is useful to distill and organize the published work in a uni?ed volume that de?nes the current status of the ?eld. As explained in volume I, the technique of con?ning charged particles in suitable electromagnetic ?elds was initially conceived by W. Paul as a thr- dimensional version of his rf quadrupole mass ?lter. Its ?rst application to rf spectroscopy on atomic ions was completed in H. G. Dehmelt’s laboratory where notable work was later done on the free electron using the Penning trap. The further exploitation of these devices has followed more or less - dependently along the two initial broad areas: mass spectrometry and high resolution spectroscopy. In volume I a detailed account is given of the theory of operation and experimental techniques of the various forms of Paul and Penning ion traps.



Geometrical Charged Particle Optics

Geometrical Charged Particle Optics Author Harald Rose
ISBN-10 9783642321191
Release 2013-02-02
Pages 507
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This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton’s principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern-Gerlach effect is revisited for atomic and free electrons.



Theory of Low Temperature Plasma Physics

Theory of Low Temperature Plasma Physics Author Shi Nguyen-Kuok
ISBN-10 9783319437217
Release 2016-11-11
Pages 498
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This book offers the reader an overview of the basic approaches to the theoretical description of low-temperature plasmas, covering numerical methods, mathematical models and modeling techniques. The main methods of calculating the cross sections of plasma particle interaction and the solution of the kinetic Boltzmann equation for determining the transport coefficients of the plasma are also presented. The results of calculations of thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients, the equilibrium particle-interaction cross sections and two-temperature plasmas are also discussed. Later chapters consider applications, and the results of simulation and calculation of plasma parameters in induction and arc plasma torches are presented. The complex physical processes in high-frequency plasmas and arc plasmas, the internal and external parameters of plasma torches, near-electrode processes, heat transfer, the flow of solid particles in plasmas and other phenomena are considered. The book is intended for professionals involved in the theoretical study of low-temperature plasmas and the design of plasma torches, and will be useful for advanced students in related areas.