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Genetic Resources as Natural Information

Genetic Resources as Natural Information Author Manuel Ruiz Muller
ISBN-10 9781317624158
Release 2015-09-16
Pages 138
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Demonstrating the shortcomings of current policy and legal approaches to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this book recognizes that genetic resources are widely distributed across countries and that bilateral contracts undermine fairness and equity. The book offers a practical and feasible regulatory alternative to ensure the goal of fairness and equity is effectively and efficiently met. Through a legal analysis that also incorporates historic, economic and sociological perspectives, the book argues that genetic resources are not tangible resources but information. It shows that the existing preference for bilateralism and contracts reflects resistance on the part of many of the stakeholders involved in the CBD process to recognize them as such. ABS issues respond very well to the economics of information, yet as the author explains, these have been either sidelined or overlooked. At a time when the Nagoya Protocol on ABS has renewed interest in feasible policy options, the author provides a constructive and provocative critique. The institutional, policy and regulatory framework constitute "bounded openness" under which fairness and equity emerge.



Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law

Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law Author Charles R. McManis
ISBN-10 9781315530833
Release 2017-11-27
Pages 422
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This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources. Contributors include leading academics, policy-makers and practitioners reviewing a range of socio-legal issues concerning the relationships between humankind and the natural world. The Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law includes chapters on fundamental and cutting-edge issues, including discussion of major legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. The book is divided into six distinct parts based around the major objectives which have emerged from legal frameworks concerned with protecting biodiversity. Following introductory chapters, Part II examines issues relating to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with Part III focusing on access and benefit-sharing. Part IV discusses legal issues associated with the protection of traditional knowledge, cultural heritage and indigenous human rights. Parts V and VI focus on a selection of intellectual property issues connected to the commercial exploitation of biological resources, and analyse ethical issues, including viewpoints from economic, ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical and other scientific industry perspectives.



An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing

An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing Author
ISBN-10 9782831715292
Release 2012
Pages 394
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An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full An explanatory guide to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing book for free.



Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property

Biodiversity  Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Author Kamalesh Adhikari
ISBN-10 9781351580335
Release 2018-03-09
Pages 262
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Debates about Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) have moved on in recent years. An initial focus on the legal obligations established by international agreements like the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the form of obligations for collecting physical biological materials have now moved to a far more complex series of disputes and challenges about the ways ABS should be implemented and enforced: repatriation of resources, technology transfer, traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; open access to information and knowledge, naming conventions, farmers’ rights, new schemes for accessing pandemic viruses and sharing DNA sequences, and so on. Unfortunately, most of this debate is now crystallised into apparently intractable discussions such as implementing the certificates of origin, recognising traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression as a form of intellectual property, and sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. Not everything in this new marketplace of ABS has been created de novo. Like most new entrants, ABS has disrupted existing legal and governance arrangements. This collection of chapters examines what is new, what has been changed, and what might be changed in response to the growing acceptance and prevalence of ABS of genetic resources. Biodiversity, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Developments in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources addresses current issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates about managing genetic resources through the ABS regime. The book explores key historical, doctrinal, and theoretical issues in the field, at the same time developing new ideas and perspectives around ABS. It shows the latest state of knowledge and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students in the fields of intellectual property, governance, biodiversity and conservation, sustainable development, and agriculture.



Contracting for ABS

Contracting for ABS Author Shakeel Bhatti
ISBN-10 9782831709826
Release 2009
Pages 307
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The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.



Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol

Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol Author Elisa Morgera
ISBN-10 9789004217188
Release 2014-07-25
Pages 444
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The Nagoya Protocol is an unprecedented international environmental agreement that equally addresses development, distributive justice, and environmental sustainability. With a balanced view of the various possible interpretations of the Protocol provisions, in light of different national and regional perspectives, and a systematic highlighting of its legal innovations, Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol: A Commentary on the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing to the Convention on Biological Diversity will serve as a seminal work for all those interested in the environment, human rights, economics and both legal and scientific innovations.



The Custodians of Biodiversity

The Custodians of Biodiversity Author Manuel Ruiz
ISBN-10 9781136582172
Release 2012-03-15
Pages 224
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Globally, local and indigenous approaches to conserving biodiversity, crop improvement, and managing precious natural resources are under threat. Many communities have to deal with 'biopiracy,' for example. As well, existing laws are usually unsuitable for protecting indigenous and traditional knowledge and for recognizing collective rights, such as in cases of participatory plant breeding, where farmers, researchers and others join forces to improve existing crop varieties or develop new ones, based on shared knowledge and resources. This book addresses these issues. It outlines the national and international policy processes that are currently underway to protect local genetic resources and related traditional knowledge and the challenges these initiatives have faced. In particular these themes are addressed within the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The authors broaden the policy and legal debates beyond the sphere of policy experts to include the knowledge-holders themselves. These are the 'custodians of biodiversity': farmers, herders and fishers in local communities. Their experience in sharing access and benefits to genetic resources is shown to be crucial for the development of effective national and international agreements. The book presents and analyzes this experience, including case studies from China, Cuba, Honduras, Jordan, Nepal, Peru and Syria. Copublished with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).



Governing Digitally Integrated Genetic Resources Data and Literature

Governing Digitally Integrated Genetic Resources  Data  and Literature Author Jerome H. Reichman
ISBN-10 9781316380994
Release 2016-05-19
Pages 655
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The free exchange of microbial genetic information is an established public good, facilitating research on medicines, agriculture, and climate change. However, over the past quarter-century, access to genetic resources has been hindered by intellectual property claims from developed countries under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement (1994) and by claims of sovereign rights from developing countries under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (1992). In this volume, the authors examine the scientific community's responses to these obstacles and advise policymakers on how to harness provisions of the Nagoya Protocol (2010) that allow multilateral measures to support research. By pooling microbial materials, data, and literature in a carefully designed transnational e-infrastructure, the scientific community can facilitate access to essential research assets while simultaneously reinforcing the open access movement. The original empirical surveys of responses to the CBD included here provide a valuable addition to the literature on governing scientific knowledge commons.



Implementing the Nagoya Protocol

Implementing the Nagoya Protocol Author Brendan Coolsaet
ISBN-10 9789004293212
Release 2015-04-13
Pages 434
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Implementing the Nagoya Protocol compares existing ABS regimes in ten European countries, including one non-EU member and one EU candidate country, and critically explores several cross-cutting issues related to the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the EU.



Biodiversity Access and Benefit Sharing

Biodiversity  Access and Benefit Sharing Author Daniel F. Robinson
ISBN-10 9781134689590
Release 2014-11-13
Pages 216
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The Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is rapidly receiving signatures and ratifications. Many countries are preparing to implement the protocol through national research permit systems and/or biodiversity laws. Yet there is still considerable confusion about how to implement the Protocol, regarding access and benefit-sharing (ABS) procedures, and minimal experience in many countries. This book seeks to remedy this gap in understanding by analysing a number of ABS case studies in light of the Nagoya Protocol. The case studies are wide-ranging, with examples of plants for medicinal, cosmetic, biotech and food products from or for development in Australia, North Africa, Madagascar, Switzerland, Thailand, USA and Oceania. These will encourage countries to develop national systems which maximise their benefits (both monetary and non-monetary) towards conservation and support for local communities that hold traditional knowledge. In addition, the author analyses new expectations raised by the Nagoya Protocol, such as the encouragement of the development of community protocols by indigenous and local communities. As a result, stakeholders and policy-makers will be able to learn the steps involved in establishing ABS agreements, issues that arise between stakeholders, and the types of benefits that might be realistic.



Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons

Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons Author Michael Halewood
ISBN-10 9781844078929
Release 2013
Pages 399
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The Earth's plant genetic resources are a common inheritance of all humankind, which should be held in shared trust for a common future. A key component of the global genetic commons is agricultural biodiversity. Our food and livelihood security depend on the sustained management of these diverse biological resources that are important for food and agriculture. Whilst agricultural biodiversity originates in specific farming communities, it has been shared widely and is considered by many to be part of the much-threatened global commons.This book is about the creation, management and use of the global crop commons. It focuses primarily on the legal and administrative construct that provides the basis of the global crop commons, that is, the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing created by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This is particularly significant because it transcends the traditional dichotomy between privatization and total governmental control. It came into effect in 2006 and the book describes its origins and implementation since then, showing how many international organizations and some developing countries are moving quickly with implementation, while other countries are moving slowly and some multinational corporations are expressing misgivings about the system overall. The authors further analyze current challenges and how they might be resolved.



The Future Control of Food

The Future Control of Food Author Geoff Tansey
ISBN-10 9781844074303
Release 2008
Pages 266
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Advances in Solar Energy: an Annual Review of Research and Development– is an annual publication organized by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES). Its goal is to provide a review journal of significant research and development in renewable en



A Moving Target

A Moving Target Author Manuel Ruiz Muller
ISBN-10 9782831709819
Release 2007
Pages 124
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Current discussions over the "Certificate of Origin, Source and Legal Provenance" include the legal and practical implications associated with tracking the flow of genetic resources. Knowing what is where, how it got there, and whether conditions and restrictions were complied with, is a critical aspect if an ABS regime is to be effective in its implementation. This book provides insights into options and components for the development of a national/international system for the tracking and monitoring of genetic resources to ensure compliance with the ABS provisions of the CBD. It includes discussions addressing the practical options for such a system, its costs and economic impacts, and its possible role in the ABS framework.



Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance

Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance Author Jean-Frédéric Morin
ISBN-10 9781136777042
Release 2014-07-11
Pages 252
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Aligning global governance to the challenges of sustainability is one of the most urgent environmental issues to be addressed. This book is a timely and up-to-date compilation of the main pieces of the global environmental governance puzzle. The book is comprised of 101 entries, each defining a central concept in global environmental governance, presenting its historical evolution, introducing related debates and including key bibliographical references and further reading. The entries combine analytical rigour with empirical description. The book: offers cutting edge analysis of the state of global environmental governance, raises an up-to-date debate on global governance for sustainable development, gives an in-depth exploration of current international architecture of global environmental governance, examines the interaction between environmental politics and other fields of governance such as trade, development and security, elaborates a critical review of the recent literature in global environmental governance. This unique work synthesizes writing from an internationally diverse range of well-known experts in the field of global environmental governance. Innovative thinking and high-profile expertise come together to create a volume that is accessible to students, scholars and practitioners alike.



Research and Development on Genetic Resources

Research and Development on Genetic Resources Author Evanson Chege Kamau
ISBN-10 9781317511182
Release 2015-06-05
Pages 370
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National implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) provisions has yielded enough challenges for providers and users of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge alike. The Nagoya Protocal brings novel ideas for resolving the challenges plaguing the Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) process in general and non-commercial research in particular. This is one of the first books to address research cooperation and facilitated access for non-commercial biodiversity research. It uniquely offers concrete and practicable solutions based on experiences of researchers and administrative officials with ABS, and on the interpretation of the Nagoya Protocol on how free and lively taxonomic research can be ensured while at the same time observing obligations of obtaining prior informed consent and sharing of benefits. This book will be useful to students of International Environmental Law, International Biodiversity Law, Intellectual Property Law, Climate Law and Law of Indigenous Populations. With foreword from Executive Secretary CBD, Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias.



Conservation for a New Era

Conservation for a New Era Author Jeffrey A. McNeely
ISBN-10 9782831711782
Release 2009
Pages 219
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Conservation for a New Era outlines the critical issues facing us in the 21st century, developed from the results of the World Conservation Congress in Barcelona in October 2008. The landmark publication takes on the pressing issues of today and highlights the solutions to be found through investing in nature. The book is essential reading for governments, businesses and decision makers. It provides a snapshot of the current situation, split into 21 easy-to-read sections, as well as a roadmap for the future.



NGO Diplomacy

NGO Diplomacy Author Michele Merrill Betsill
ISBN-10 9780262524766
Release 2008
Pages 244
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Provides an analytical framework for assessing the impact of NGOs onintergovernmental negotiations on the environment and identifying the factors that determine thedegree of NGO influence, with case studies that apply the framework to negotiations on climatechange, biosafety, desertification, whaling, and forests.