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Genetics and Genomics of Cotton

Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Author Andrew H. Paterson
ISBN-10 0387708103
Release 2009-03-11
Pages 518
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The Gossypium (cotton) genus presents novel opportunities to advance our understanding of the natural world and its organic evolution. In this book, advances of the past decade are summarized and synthesized to elucidate the current state of knowledge of the structure, function, and evolution of the Gossypium genome, and progress in the application of this knowledge to cotton improvement. This book provides the first comprehensive reference on cotton genomics.



Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae

Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae Author Kevin M. Folta
ISBN-10 0387774912
Release 2009-05-28
Pages 636
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This is the first book on Rosaceae genomics. It covers progress in recent genomic research among the Rosaceae, grounding this firmly in the historical context of genetic studies and in the application of genomics technologies for crop development.



Genetics and Genomics of Populus

Genetics and Genomics of Populus Author Stefan Jansson
ISBN-10 1441915419
Release 2010-03-02
Pages 384
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Genetics and Genomics of Populus provides an indepth description of the genetic and genomic tools and approaches for Populus, examines the biology that has been elucidated using genomics, and looks to the future of this unique model plant. This volume is designed to serve both experienced Populus researchers and newcomers to the field. Contributors to the volume are a blend of researchers, some who have spent most of their research career on Populus and others that have moved to Populus from other model systems. Research on Populus forms a useful complement to research on Arabidopsis. In fact, many plant species found in nature are – in terms of the life history and genetics – more similar to Populus than to Arabidopsis. Thus, the genetic and genomic strategies and tools developed by the Populus community, and showcased in this volume, will hopefully provide inspiration for researchers working in other, less well developed, systems.



Genetics and Genomics of Papaya

Genetics and Genomics of Papaya Author Ray Ming
ISBN-10 9781461480877
Release 2013-08-13
Pages 438
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This book reviews various aspects of papaya genomics, including existing genetic and genomic resources, recent progress on structural and functional genomics, and their applications in papaya improvement. Organized into four sections, the volume explores the origin and domestication of papaya, classic genetics and breeding, recent progress on molecular genetics, and current and future applications of genomic resources for papaya improvement. Bolstered by contributions from authorities in the field, Genetics and Genomics of Papaya is a valuable resource that provides the most up to date information for papaya researchers and plant biologists.



Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Author Catherine Feuillet
ISBN-10 0387774890
Release 2009-06-10
Pages 700
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Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related to wheat and barley in Triticeae evolution, the latest developments in wheat and barley genomics will be of great use for developing rye genomics and for providing tools for rye improvement. Finally, a new model for temperate grasses has emerged in the past year with the development of the genetics and genomics (including a 8x whole genome shotgun sequencing project) of Brachypodium, a member of the Poeae family that is more closely related to the Triticeae than rice and can provide valuable information for supporting Triticeae genomics in the near future. These recent breakthroughs have yet to be reviewed in a single source of literature and current handbooks on wheat, barley, or rye are dedicated mainly to progress in genetics. In "Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae", we will aim to comprehensively review the recent progress in the development of structural and functional genomics tools in the Triticeae species and review the understanding of wheat, barley, and rye biology that has resulted from these new resources as well as to illuminate how this new found knowledge can be applied for the improvement of these essential species. The book will be the seventh volume in the ambitious series of books, Plant Genetics and Genomics (Richard A. Jorgensen, series editor) that will attempt to bring the field up-to-date on the genetics and genomics of important crop plants and genetic models. It is our hope that the publication will be a useful and timely tool for researchers and students alike working with the Triticeae.



Genetics and Genomics of Rice

Genetics and Genomics of Rice Author Qifa Zhang
ISBN-10 9781461479031
Release 2013-08-21
Pages 402
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This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the advances in genetics and genomics research on rice. The chapters feature the latest developments in rice research and cover such topics as the tools and resources for the functional analysis of rice genes, the identification of useful genes for rice improvement, the present understanding of rice development and biological processes, and the application of this present understanding towards rice improvement. The volume also features a perspective on synthesis and prospects, laying the groundwork for future advances in rice genetics and genomics. Written by authorities in the field, Genetics and Genomics of Rice will serve as an invaluable reference for rice researchers for years to come.



Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees

Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees Author Andrew Groover
ISBN-10 9783319493299
Release 2017-11-21
Pages 366
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Marking the change in focus of tree genomics from single species to comparative approaches, this book covers biological, genomic, and evolutionary aspects of angiosperm trees that provide information and perspectives to support researchers broadening the focus of their research. The diversity of angiosperm trees in morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry has been described and cataloged by various scientific disciplines, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this diversity have only recently been explored. Excitingly, advances in genomic and sequencing technologies are ushering a new era of research broadly termed comparative genomics, which simultaneously exploits and describes the evolutionary origins and genetic regulation of traits of interest. Within tree genomics, this research is already underway, as the number of complete genome sequences available for angiosperm trees is increasing at an impressive pace and the number of species for which RNAseq data are available is rapidly expanding. Because they are extensively covered by other literature and are rapidly changing, technical and computational approaches—such as the latest sequencing technologies—are not a main focus of this book. Instead, this comprehensive volume provides a valuable, broader view of tree genomics whose relevance will outlive the particulars of current-day technical approaches. The first section of the book discusses background on the evolution and diversification of angiosperm trees, as well as offers description of the salient features and diversity of the unique physiology and wood anatomy of angiosperm trees. The second section explores the two most advanced model angiosperm tree species (poplars and eucalypts) as well as species that are soon to emerge as new models. The third section describes the structural features and evolutionary histories of angiosperm tree genomes, followed by a fourth section focusing on the genomics of traits of biological, ecological, and economic interest. In summary, this book is a timely and well-referenced foundational resource for the forest tree community looking to embrace comparative approaches for the study of angiosperm trees.



Genetics and Genomics of Soybean

Genetics and Genomics of Soybean Author Gary Stacey
ISBN-10 0387722998
Release 2008-05-07
Pages 407
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Soybean genomics is of great interest as one of the most economically important crops and a major food source. This book covers recent advances in soybean genome research, including classical, RFLP, SSR, and SNP markers; genomic and cDNA libraries; functional genomics platforms; genetic and physical maps; and gene expression profiles. The book is for researchers and students in plant genetics and genomics, plant biology and pathology, agronomy, and food sciences.



Genetics and Genomics of Brachypodium

Genetics and Genomics of Brachypodium Author John P. Vogel
ISBN-10 9783319269443
Release 2016-02-17
Pages 353
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Grasses dominate many natural ecosystems and produce the bulk calories consumed by humans either directly in the form of grains or indirectly through forage/grain fed animals. In addition, grasses grown as biomass crops are poised to become a significant source of renewable energy. Despite their economic and environmental importance, research into the unique aspects of grass biology has been hampered by the lack of a truly tractable experimental model system. Over that past decade, the small, annual grass Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a viable model system for the grasses. This book describes the development of extensive experimental resources (e.g. whole genome sequence, efficient transformation methods, insertional mutant collections, large germplasm collections, recombinant inbred lines, resequenced genomes) that have led many laboratories around the world to adopt B. distachyon as a model system. The use of B. distachyon to address a wide range of biological topics (e.g. disease resistance, cell wall composition, abiotic stress tolerance, root growth and development, floral development, natural diversity) is also discussed.



Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology

Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology Author Palmiro Poltronieri
ISBN-10 9780081000717
Release 2015-01-27
Pages 356
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Applied plant genomics and biotechnology reviews the recent advancements in the post-genomic era, discussing how different varieties respond to abiotic and biotic stresses, investigating epigenetic modifications and epigenetic memory through analysis of DNA methylation states, applicative uses of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant physiology and in experimental transgenics, and plants modified to produce high-value pharmaceutical proteins. The book provides an overview of research advances in application of RNA silencing and RNA interference, through Virus-based transient gene expression systems, Virus induced gene complementation (VIGC), Virus induced gene silencing (Sir VIGS, Mr VIGS) Virus-based microRNA silencing (VbMS) and Virus-based RNA mobility assays (VRMA); RNA based vaccines and expression of virus proteins or RNA, and virus-like particles in plants, the potential of virus vaccines and therapeutics, and exploring plants as factories for useful products and pharmaceuticals are topics wholly deepened. The book reviews and discuss Plant Functional Genomic studies discussing the technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants and the production of plant varieties more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several important crops are analysed providing a glimpse on the most up-to-date methods and topics of investigation. The book presents a review on current state of GMO, the cisgenesis-derived plants and novel plant products devoid of transgene elements, discuss their regulation and the production of desired traits such as resistance to viruses and disease also in fruit trees and wood trees with long vegetative periods. Several chapters cover aspects of plant physiology related to plant improvement: cytokinin metabolism and hormone signaling pathways are discussed in barley; PARP-domain proteins involved in Stress-Induced Morphogenetic Response, regulation of NAD signaling and ROS dependent synthesis of anthocyanins. Apple allergen isoforms and the various content in different varieties are discussed and approaches to reduce their presence. Euphorbiaceae, castor bean, cassava and Jathropa are discussed at genomic structure, their diseases and viruses, and methods of transformation. Rice genomics and agricultural traits are discussed, and biotechnology for engineering and improve rice varieties. Mango topics are presented with an overview of molecular methods for variety differentiation, and aspects of fruit improvement by traditional and biotechnology methods. Oilseed rape is presented, discussing the genetic diversity, quality traits, genetic maps, genomic selection and comparative genomics for improvement of varieties. Tomato studies are presented, with an overview on the knowledge of the regulatory networks involved in flowering, methods applied to study the tomato genome-wide DNA methylation, its regulation by small RNAs, microRNA-dependent control of transcription factors expression, the development and ripening processes in tomato, genomic studies and fruit modelling to establish fleshy fruit traits of interest; the gene reprogramming during fruit ripening, and the ethylene dependent and independent DNA methylation changes. provides an overview on the ongoing projects and activities in the field of applied biotechnology includes examples of different crops and applications to be exploited reviews and discusses Plant Functional Genomic studies and the future developments in the field explores the new technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants



Plant Cytogenetics

Plant Cytogenetics Author Hank Bass
ISBN-10 0387708693
Release 2011-12-02
Pages 350
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This reference book provides information on plant cytogenetics for students, instructors, and researchers. Topics covered by international experts include classical cytogenetics of plant genomes; plant chromosome structure; functional, molecular cytology; and genome dynamics. In addition, chapters are included on several methods in plant cytogenetics, informatics, and even laboratory exercises for aspiring or practiced instructors. The book provides a unique combination of historical and modern subject matter, revealing the central role of plant cytogenetics in plant genetics and genomics as currently practiced. This breadth of coverage, together with the inclusion of methods and instruction, is intended to convey a deep and useful appreciation for plant cytogenetics. We hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come. Hank W. Bass is a Professor in the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University. James A. Birchler is a Professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri.



Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants

Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants Author Paul H. Moore
ISBN-10 9780387712192
Release 2008-01-03
Pages 582
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For a long time there has been a critical need for a book to assess the genomics of tropical plant species. At last, here it is. This brilliant book covers recent progress on genome research in tropical crop plants, including the development of molecular markers, and many more subjects. The first section provides information on crops relevant to tropical agriculture. The book then moves on to lay out summaries of genomic research for the most important tropical crop plant species.



Genomics of the Saccharinae

Genomics of the Saccharinae Author Andrew Paterson
ISBN-10 9781441959461
Release 2012-09-13
Pages 568
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The Saccharinae clade of the Poaceae (grass) family of flowering plants includes several important crops with a rich history of contributions to humanity and the promise of still-greater contributions, as a result of some of the highest biomass productivity levels known, resilience to drought and other environmental challenges that are likely to increase, amenability to production systems that may mitigate or even reverse losses of ecological capital such as topsoil erosion, and the recent blossoming of sorghum as a botanical and genomic model for the clade. In Genomics of the Saccharinae, advances of the past decade and earlier are summarized and synthesized to elucidate the current state of knowledge of the structure, function, and evolution of the Sorghum, Saccharum, and Miscanthus genera, and progress in the application of this knowledge to crop improvement. As a backdrop, it is important to understand the naturally occurring diversity in each genus, its organization and distribution, and its evolutionary history. Genomic tools and methods for Saccharinae biology and improvement have improved dramatically in the past few years – a detailed summary of these tools and their applications is a central element of this book. Application of genomic tools to priorities in crop improvement, including understanding and manipulating plant growth and development, composition, and defense, as well as increasing the quality and productivity of seed/grain, sugar, biomass, and other value-added products under a range of conditions and inputs, are addressed. In particular, as the first native African crop to emerge as a genomic model, sorghum offers an excellent case study of challenges and opportunities in linking new advances in biosciences to solving some of Africa’s major agricultural problems. Several members of the clade, exemplified by Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) offer insights into weediness and invasion biology. The first sequence for a member of the clade, sorghum, as well as progress and challenges toward sequencing of additional members and the new opportunities that this will create, are also explored. Indeed, the very complexities that have hindered study of some clade members also offer intriguing opportunities to gain insight into fundamental questions such as roles of polyploidy in agricultural productivity and post-polyploidy evolution.



Abiotic Stress Molecular Genetics and Genomics

Abiotic Stress  Molecular Genetics and Genomics Author Mukesh Jain
ISBN-10 9782889193592
Release 2014-12-03
Pages
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.



Genetics and Genomics of Cucurbitaceae

Genetics and Genomics of Cucurbitaceae Author Rebecca Grumet
ISBN-10 9783319493329
Release 2017-10-13
Pages 430
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This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the genetics and genomics of the agriculturally important Cucurbitaceae plant family, which includes crops such as watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer and winter squashes, pumpkins, and gourds. Recent years have resulted in tremendous increases in our knowledge of these species due to large scale genomic and transcriptomic studies and production of draft genomes for the four major species, Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, and Cucurbita spp. This text examines genetic resources and structural and functional genomics for each species group and across species groups. In addition, it explores genomic-informed understanding and commonalities in cucurbit biology with respect to vegetative growth, floral development and sex expression, fruit growth and development, and important fruit quality traits.



Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding Author George Acquaah
ISBN-10 9781118313695
Release 2012-08-16
Pages 760
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To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors



Molecular Techniques in Crop Improvement

Molecular Techniques in Crop Improvement Author S.Mohan Jain
ISBN-10 9789401723565
Release 2013-10-14
Pages 616
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This book provides comprehensive information on the latest tools and techniques of molecular genetics and their applications in crop improvement. It thoroughly discusses advanced techniques used in molecular markers, QTL mapping, marker-assisted breeding, and molecular cytogenetics.