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Geomathematically Oriented Potential Theory

Geomathematically Oriented Potential Theory Author Willi Freeden
ISBN-10 9781439895429
Release 2012-10-30
Pages 468
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As the Earth`s surface deviates from its spherical shape by less than 0.4 percent of its radius and today’s satellite missions collect their gravitational and magnetic data on nearly spherical orbits, sphere-oriented mathematical methods and tools play important roles in studying the Earth’s gravitational and magnetic field. Geomathematically Oriented Potential Theory presents the principles of space and surface potential theory involving Euclidean and spherical concepts. The authors offer new insight on how to mathematically handle gravitation and geomagnetism for the relevant observables and how to solve the resulting potential problems in a systematic, mathematically rigorous framework. The book begins with notational material and the necessary mathematical background. The authors then build the foundation of potential theory in three-dimensional Euclidean space and its application to gravitation and geomagnetism. They also discuss surface potential theory on the unit sphere along with corresponding applications. Focusing on the state of the art, this book breaks new geomathematical grounds in gravitation and geomagnetism. It explores modern sphere-oriented potential theoretic methods as well as classical space potential theory.

Handbook of Mathematical Geodesy

Handbook of Mathematical Geodesy Author Willi Freeden
ISBN-10 9783319571812
Release 2018-06-11
Pages 932
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Written by leading experts, this book provides a clear and comprehensive survey of the “status quo” of the interrelating process and cross-fertilization of structures and methods in mathematical geodesy. Starting with a foundation of functional analysis, potential theory, constructive approximation, special function theory, and inverse problems, readers are subsequently introduced to today’s least squares approximation, spherical harmonics reflected spline and wavelet concepts, boundary value problems, Runge-Walsh framework, geodetic observables, geoidal modeling, ill-posed problems and regularizations, inverse gravimetry, and satellite gravity gradiometry. All chapters are self-contained and can be studied individually, making the book an ideal resource for both graduate students and active researchers who want to acquaint themselves with the mathematical aspects of modern geodesy.

Measure and Integral

Measure and Integral Author Richard L. Wheeden
ISBN-10 9781498702904
Release 2015-04-24
Pages 532
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Now considered a classic text on the topic, Measure and Integral: An Introduction to Real Analysis provides an introduction to real analysis by first developing the theory of measure and integration in the simple setting of Euclidean space, and then presenting a more general treatment based on abstract notions characterized by axioms and with less geometric content. Published nearly forty years after the first edition, this long-awaited Second Edition also: Studies the Fourier transform of functions in the spaces L1, L2, and Lp, 1 p Shows the Hilbert transform to be a bounded operator on L2, as an application of the L2 theory of the Fourier transform in the one-dimensional case Covers fractional integration and some topics related to mean oscillation properties of functions, such as the classes of Hölder continuous functions and the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation Derives a subrepresentation formula, which in higher dimensions plays a role roughly similar to the one played by the fundamental theorem of calculus in one dimension Extends the subrepresentation formula derived for smooth functions to functions with a weak gradient Applies the norm estimates derived for fractional integral operators to obtain local and global first-order Poincaré–Sobolev inequalities, including endpoint cases Proves the existence of a tangent plane to the graph of a Lipschitz function of several variables Includes many new exercises not present in the first edition This widely used and highly respected text for upper-division undergraduate and first-year graduate students of mathematics, statistics, probability, or engineering is revised for a new generation of students and instructors. The book also serves as a handy reference for professional mathematicians.

Mathematics of Planet Earth

Mathematics of Planet Earth Author Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza
ISBN-10 9783642324086
Release 2013-10-07
Pages 861
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It is widely recognized that the degree of development of a science is given by the transition from a mainly descriptive stage to a more quantitative stage. In this transition, qualitative interpretations (conceptual models) are complemented with quantification (numerical models, both, deterministic and stochastic). This has been the main task of mathematical geoscientists during the last forty years - to establish new frontiers and new challenges in the study and understanding of the natural world. Mathematics of Planet Earth comprises the proceedings of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences Conference (IAMG2013), held in Madrid from September 2-6, 2013. The Conference addresses researchers, professionals and students. The proceedings contain more than 150 original contributions and give a multidisciplinary vision of mathematical geosciences.

Special Functions of Mathematical Geo Physics

Special Functions of Mathematical  Geo  Physics Author Willi Freeden
ISBN-10 9783034805636
Release 2013-02-15
Pages 501
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Special functions enable us to formulate a scientific problem by reduction such that a new, more concrete problem can be attacked within a well-structured framework, usually in the context of differential equations. A good understanding of special functions provides the capacity to recognize the causality between the abstractness of the mathematical concept and both the impact on and cross-sectional importance to the scientific reality. The special functions to be discussed in this monograph vary greatly, depending on the measurement parameters examined (gravitation, electric and magnetic fields, deformation, climate observables, fluid flow, etc.) and on the respective field characteristic (potential field, diffusion field, wave field). The differential equation under consideration determines the type of special functions that are needed in the desired reduction process. Each chapter closes with exercises that reflect significant topics, mostly in computational applications. As a result, readers are not only directly confronted with the specific contents of each chapter, but also with additional knowledge on mathematical fields of research, where special functions are essential to application. All in all, the book is an equally valuable resource for education in geomathematics and the study of applied and harmonic analysis. Students who wish to continue with further studies should consult the literature given as supplements for each topic covered in the exercises.

Dictionary of Mathematical Geosciences

Dictionary of Mathematical Geosciences Author Richard J. Howarth
ISBN-10 9783319573151
Release 2017-06-25
Pages 899
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This dictionary includes a number of mathematical, statistical and computing terms and their definitions to assist geoscientists and provide guidance on the methods and terminology encountered in the literature. Each technical term used in the explanations can be found in the dictionary which also includes explanations of basics, such as trigonometric functions and logarithms. There are also citations from the relevant literature to show the term’s first use in mathematics, statistics, etc. and its subsequent usage in geosciences.

Monomial Algebras Second Edition

Monomial Algebras  Second Edition Author Rafael Villarreal
ISBN-10 9781482234701
Release 2015-03-26
Pages 704
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Monomial Algebras, Second Edition presents algebraic, combinatorial, and computational methods for studying monomial algebras and their ideals, including Stanley–Reisner rings, monomial subrings, Ehrhart rings, and blowup algebras. It emphasizes square-free monomials and the corresponding graphs, clutters, or hypergraphs. New to the Second Edition Four new chapters that focus on the algebraic properties of blowup algebras in combinatorial optimization problems of clutters and hypergraphs Two new chapters that explore the algebraic and combinatorial properties of the edge ideal of clutters and hypergraphs Full revisions of existing chapters to provide an up-to-date account of the subject Bringing together several areas of pure and applied mathematics, this book shows how monomial algebras are related to polyhedral geometry, combinatorial optimization, and combinatorics of hypergraphs. It directly links the algebraic properties of monomial algebras to combinatorial structures (such as simplicial complexes, posets, digraphs, graphs, and clutters) and linear optimization problems.

Geostatistical and Geospatial Approaches for the Characterization of Natural Resources in the Environment

Geostatistical and Geospatial Approaches for the Characterization of Natural Resources in the Environment Author N. Janardhana Raju
ISBN-10 9783319186634
Release 2015-11-30
Pages 969
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These proceedings of the IAMG 2014 conference in New Delhi explore the current state of the art and inform readers about the latest geostatistical and space-based technologies for assessment and management in the contexts of natural resource exploration, environmental pollution, hazards and natural disaster research. The proceedings cover 3D visualization, time-series analysis, environmental geochemistry, numerical solutions in hydrology and hydrogeology, geotechnical engineering, multivariate geostatistics, disaster management, fractal modeling, petroleum exploration, geoinformatics, sedimentary basin analysis, spatiotemporal modeling, digital rock geophysics, advanced mining assessment and glacial studies, and range from the laboratory to integrated field studies. Mathematics plays a key part in the crust, mantle, oceans and atmosphere, creating climates that cause natural disasters, and influencing fundamental aspects of life-supporting systems and many other geological processes affecting Planet Earth. As such, it is essential to understand the synergy between the classical geosciences and mathematics, which can provide the methodological tools needed to tackle complex problems in modern geosciences. The development of science and technology, transforming from a descriptive stage to a more quantitative stage, involves qualitative interpretations such as conceptual models that are complemented by quantification, e.g. numerical models, fast dynamic geologic models, deterministic and stochastic models. Due to the increasing complexity of the problems faced by today’s geoscientists, joint efforts to establish new conceptual and numerical models and develop new paradigms are called for.

Weakly Connected Nonlinear Systems

Weakly Connected Nonlinear Systems Author Anatoly Martynyuk
ISBN-10 9781466570870
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 228
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Weakly Connected Nonlinear Systems: Boundedness and Stability of Motion provides a systematic study on the boundedness and stability of weakly connected nonlinear systems, covering theory and applications previously unavailable in book form. It contains many essential results needed for carrying out research on nonlinear systems of weakly connected equations. After supplying the necessary mathematical foundation, the book illustrates recent approaches to studying the boundedness of motion of weakly connected nonlinear systems. The authors consider conditions for asymptotic and uniform stability using the auxiliary vector Lyapunov functions and explore the polystability of the motion of a nonlinear system with a small parameter. Using the generalization of the direct Lyapunov method with the asymptotic method of nonlinear mechanics, they then study the stability of solutions for nonlinear systems with small perturbing forces. They also present fundamental results on the boundedness and stability of systems in Banach spaces with weakly connected subsystems through the generalization of the direct Lyapunov method, using both vector and matrix-valued auxiliary functions. Designed for researchers and graduate students working on systems with a small parameter, this book will help readers get up to date on the knowledge required to start research in this area.

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics Author Raffaele de Amicis
ISBN-10 9789048128990
Release 2009-07-11
Pages 508
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Access, distribution and processing of Geographic Information (GI) are basic preconditions to support strategic environmental decision-making. The heterogeneity of information on the environment today available is driving a wide number of initiatives, on both sides of the Atlantic, all advocating both the strategic role of proper management and processing of environme- related data as well as the importance of harmonized IT infrastructures designed to better monitor and manage the environment. The extremely wide range of often multidimensional environmental information made available at the global scale poses a great challenge to technologists and scientists to find extremely sophisticated yet effective ways to provide access to relevant data patterns within such a vast and highly dynamic information flow. In the past years the domain of 3D scientific visualization has developed several solutions designed for operators requiring to access results of a simulation through the use of 3D visualization that could support the understanding of an evolving phenomenon. However 3D data visualization alone does not provide model and hypothesis-making neither it provide tools to validate results. In order overcome this shortcoming, in recent years scientists have developed a discipline that combines the benefits of data mining and information visualization, which is often referred to as Visual Analytics (VA).

Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe

Astrophysics of the Diffuse Universe Author Michael A. Dopita
ISBN-10 9783662058664
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 441
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The reference work on astrophysics to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of Interstellar Matter. The objective of the book is to show how physics can be applied to the understanding and diagnosis of the phase structure, the physical conditions and the chemical make-up and evolution of the interstellar medium. Unlike other textbooks in the field, here a more systematic approach has been adopted based on the authors' lecture course experience. It is aimed primarily at those undertaking post-graduate courses, or those doing advanced projects as part of honours undergraduate courses in physics or astrophysics.

Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory

Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory Author Willi Freeden
ISBN-10 9781439861851
Release 2011-05-09
Pages 472
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Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory covers interrelated methods and tools of spherically oriented geomathematics and periodically reflected analytic number theory. The book establishes multi-dimensional Euler and Poisson summation formulas corresponding to elliptic operators for the adaptive determination and calculation of formulas and identities of weighted lattice point numbers, in particular the non-uniform distribution of lattice points. The author explains how to obtain multi-dimensional generalizations of the Euler summation formula by interpreting classical Bernoulli polynomials as Green’s functions and linking them to Zeta and Theta functions. To generate multi-dimensional Euler summation formulas on arbitrary lattices, the Helmholtz wave equation must be converted into an associated integral equation using Green’s functions as bridging tools. After doing this, the weighted sums of functional values for a prescribed system of lattice points can be compared with the corresponding integral over the function. Exploring special function systems of Laplace and Helmholtz equations, this book focuses on the analytic theory of numbers in Euclidean spaces based on methods and procedures of mathematical physics. It shows how these fundamental techniques are used in geomathematical research areas, including gravitation, magnetics, and geothermal.

Uncertain Dynamical Systems

Uncertain Dynamical Systems Author A.A. Martynyuk
ISBN-10 9781439876879
Release 2011-11-28
Pages 310
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This self-contained book provides systematic instructive analysis of uncertain systems of the following types: ordinary differential equations, impulsive equations, equations on time scales, singularly perturbed differential equations, and set differential equations. Each chapter contains new conditions of stability of unperturbed motion of the above-mentioned type of equations, along with some applications. Without assuming specific knowledge of uncertain dynamical systems, the book includes many fundamental facts about dynamical behaviour of its solutions. Giving a concise review of current research developments, Uncertain Dynamical Systems: Stability and Motion Control Details all proofs of stability conditions for five classes of uncertain systems Clearly defines all used notions of stability and control theory Contains an extensive bibliography, facilitating quick access to specific subject areas in each chapter Requiring only a fundamental knowledge of general theory of differential equations and calculus, this book serves as an excellent text for pure and applied mathematicians, applied physicists, industrial engineers, operations researchers, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students studying ordinary differential equations, impulse equations, dynamic equations on time scales, and set differential equations.

Differential Equations with Maxima

Differential Equations with Maxima Author Drumi D. Bainov
ISBN-10 9781439867587
Release 2011-04-28
Pages 312
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Differential equations with "maxima"—differential equations that contain the maximum of the unknown function over a previous interval—adequately model real-world processes whose present state significantly depends on the maximum value of the state on a past time interval. More and more, these equations model and regulate the behavior of various technical systems on which our ever-advancing, high-tech world depends. Understanding and manipulating the theoretical results and investigations of differential equations with maxima opens the door to enormous possibilities for applications to real-world processes and phenomena. Presenting the qualitative theory and approximate methods, Differential Equations with Maxima begins with an introduction to the mathematical apparatus of integral inequalities involving maxima of unknown functions. The authors solve various types of linear and nonlinear integral inequalities, study both cases of single and double integral inequalities, and illustrate several direct applications of solved inequalities. They also present general properties of solutions as well as existence results for initial value and boundary value problems. Later chapters offer stability results with definitions of different types of stability with sufficient conditions and include investigations based on appropriate modifications of the Razumikhin technique by applying Lyapunov functions. The text covers the main concepts of oscillation theory and methods applied to initial and boundary value problems, combining the method of lower and upper solutions with appropriate monotone methods and introducing algorithms for constructing sequences of successive approximations. The book concludes with a systematic development of the averaging method for differential equations with maxima as applied to first-order and neutral equations. It also explores different schemes for averaging, partial averaging, partially additive averaging, and partially multiplicative averaging. A solid overview of the field, this book guides theoretical and applied researchers in mathematics toward further investigations and applications of these equations for a more accurate study of real-world problems.

Dynamic Programming

Dynamic Programming Author Moshe Sniedovich
ISBN-10 1420014633
Release 2010-09-10
Pages 624
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Incorporating a number of the author’s recent ideas and examples, Dynamic Programming: Foundations and Principles, Second Edition presents a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of dynamic programming. The author emphasizes the crucial role that modeling plays in understanding this area. He also shows how Dijkstra’s algorithm is an excellent example of a dynamic programming algorithm, despite the impression given by the computer science literature. New to the Second Edition Expanded discussions of sequential decision models and the role of the state variable in modeling A new chapter on forward dynamic programming models A new chapter on the Push method that gives a dynamic programming perspective on Dijkstra’s algorithm for the shortest path problem A new appendix on the Corridor method Taking into account recent developments in dynamic programming, this edition continues to provide a systematic, formal outline of Bellman’s approach to dynamic programming. It looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving methodology, identifying its constituent components and explaining its theoretical basis for tackling problems.

The Divergence Theorem and Sets of Finite Perimeter

The Divergence Theorem and Sets of Finite Perimeter Author Washek F. Pfeffer
ISBN-10 9781466507210
Release 2016-02-03
Pages 259
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This book is devoted to a detailed development of the divergence theorem. The framework is that of Lebesgue integration — no generalized Riemann integrals of Henstock–Kurzweil variety are involved. In Part I the divergence theorem is established by a combinatorial argument involving dyadic cubes. Only elementary properties of the Lebesgue integral and Hausdorff measures are used. The resulting integration by parts is sufficiently general for many applications. As an example, it is applied to removable singularities of Cauchy–Riemann, Laplace, and minimal surface equations. The sets of finite perimeter are introduced in Part II. Both the geometric and analytic points of view are presented. The equivalence of these viewpoints is obtained via the functions of bounded variation. These functions are studied in a self-contained manner with no references to Sobolev’s spaces. The coarea theorem provides a link between the sets of finite perimeter and functions of bounded variation. The general divergence theorem for bounded vector fields is proved in Part III. The proof consists of adapting the combinatorial argument of Part I to sets of finite perimeter. The unbounded vector fields and mean divergence are also discussed. The final chapter contains a characterization of the distributions that are equal to the flux of a continuous vector field.

Classification of Lipschitz Mappings

Classification of Lipschitz Mappings Author Łukasz Piasecki
ISBN-10 9781466595224
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 232
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Classification of Lipschitz Mappings presents a systematic, self-contained treatment of a new classification of Lipschitz mappings and its application in many topics of metric fixed point theory. Suitable for readers interested in metric fixed point theory, differential equations, and dynamical systems, the book only requires a basic background in functional analysis and topology. The author focuses on a more precise classification of Lipschitzian mappings. The mean Lipschitz condition introduced by Goebel, Japón Pineda, and Sims is relatively easy to check and turns out to satisfy several principles: Regulating the possible growth of the sequence of Lipschitz constants k(Tn) Ensuring good estimates for k0(T) and k∞(T) Providing some new results in metric fixed point theory