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 Lavishly illustrated and entertaining account of the surprising and useful results of the maths of folding and unfolding.

 How can linkages, pieces of paper, and polyhedra be folded? The authors present hundreds of results and over 60 unsolved 'open problems' in this comprehensive look at the mathematics of folding, with an emphasis on algorithmic or computational aspects. Folding and unfolding problems have been implicit since Albrecht Dürer in the early 1500s, but have only recently been studied in the mathematical literature. Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in these problems, with applications ranging from robotics to protein folding. A proof shows that it is possible to design a series of jointed bars moving only in a flat plane that can sign a name or trace any other algebraic curve. One remarkable algorithm shows you can fold any straight-line drawing on paper so that the complete drawing can be cut out with one straight scissors cut. Aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics or computer science, this lavishly illustrated book will fascinate a broad audience, from high school students to researchers.

 Did you know that any straight-line drawing on paper can be folded so that the complete drawing can be cut out with one straight scissors cut? That there is a planar linkage that can trace out any algebraic curve, or even 'sign your name'? Or that a 'Latin cross' unfolding of a cube can be refolded to 23 different convex polyhedra? Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in such problems, with applications ranging from robotics to protein folding. With an emphasis on algorithmic or computational aspects, this treatment gives hundreds of results and over 60 unsolved 'open problems' to inspire further research. The authors cover one-dimensional (1D) objects (linkages), 2D objects (paper), and 3D objects (polyhedra). Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics or computer science, this lavishly illustrated book will fascinate a broad audience, from school students to researchers.

 What do proteins and pop-up cards have in common? How is opening a grocery bag different from opening a gift box? How can you cut out the letters for a whole word all at once with one straight scissors cut? How many ways are there to flatten a cube? With the help of 200 colour figures, author Joseph O'Rourke explains these fascinating folding problems starting from high school algebra and geometry and introducing more advanced concepts in tangible contexts as they arise. He shows how variations on these basic problems lead directly to the frontiers of current mathematical research and offers ten accessible unsolved problems for the enterprising reader. Before tackling these, you can test your skills on fifty exercises with complete solutions. The book's website, http://www.howtofoldit.org, has dynamic animations of many of the foldings and downloadable templates for readers to fold or cut out.

 The tradition of a publication based on the Gathering for Gardner continues with this new carefully selected and edited collection in which Martin Gardner and friends inspire and entertain. The contributors to this volume---virtually a list of Who's Who in the World of Puzzles---trace their inspiration to Martin Gardner's puzzle column in Scientific American and to his contributions to the world of recreational mathematics. Tribute to a Mathemagician contains an author index for the two previous books in the collection of books based on the Gatherings for Gardner. Sample puzzles and games include: - Tripos - Black Jack - Chinese ceramic puzzle vessels - Paper folding - Mongolian interlocking puzzles - Rolling block puzzles - Sliding puzzles - Cryptic crosswords - The Panex puzzle - Polyonimo puzzles - and more

 The authors show that there are underlying mathematical reasons for why games and puzzles are challenging (and perhaps why they are so much fun). They also show that games and puzzles can serve as powerful models of computation—quite different from the usual models of automata and circuits—offering a new way of thinking about computation. The appendices provide a substantial survey of all known results in the field of game complexity, serving as a reference guide for readers interested in the computational complexity of particular games, or interested in open problems about such complexities.

 Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also features numerous exercises and unsolved problems. The essential introduction to discrete and computational geometry Covers traditional topics as well as new and advanced material Features numerous full-color illustrations, exercises, and unsolved problems Suitable for sophomores in mathematics, computer science, engineering, or physics Rigorous but accessible An online solutions manual is available (for teachers only). To obtain access, please e-mail: [email protected]

 The book contains papers from the proceedings of the 3rd International Meeting of Origami Science, Math, and Education, sponsored by OrigamiUSA. They cover topics ranging from the mathematics of origami using polygon constructions and geometric projections, applications, and science of origami, and the use of origami in education.

 While it is well known that the Delian problems are impossible to solve with a straightedge and compass – for example, it is impossible to construct a segment whose length is ∛2 with these instruments – the discovery of the Italian mathematician Margherita Beloch Piazzolla in 1934 that one can in fact construct a segment of length ∛2 with a single paper fold was completely ignored (till the end of the 1980s). This comes as no surprise, since with few exceptions paper folding was seldom considered as a mathematical practice, let alone as a mathematical procedure of inference or proof that could prompt novel mathematical discoveries. A few questions immediately arise: Why did paper folding become a non-instrument? What caused the marginalisation of this technique? And how was the mathematical knowledge, which was nevertheless transmitted and prompted by paper folding, later treated and conceptualised? Aiming to answer these questions, this volume provides, for the first time, an extensive historical study on the history of folding in mathematics, spanning from the 16th century to the 20th century, and offers a general study on the ways mathematical knowledge is marginalised, disappears, is ignored or becomes obsolete. In doing so, it makes a valuable contribution to the field of history and philosophy of science, particularly the history and philosophy of mathematics and is highly recommended for anyone interested in these topics.

 Project Origami: Activities for Exploring Mathematics, Second Edition presents a flexible, discovery-based approach to learning origami-math topics. It helps readers see how origami intersects a variety of mathematical topics, from the more obvious realm of geometry to the fields of algebra, number theory, and combinatorics. With over 100 new pages, this updated and expanded edition now includes 30 activities and offers better solutions and teaching tips for all activities. The book contains detailed plans for 30 hands-on, scalable origami activities. Each activity lists courses in which the activity might fit, includes handouts for classroom use, and provides notes for instructors on solutions, how the handouts can be used, and other pedagogical suggestions. The handouts are also available on the book’s CRC Press web page. Reflecting feedback from teachers and students who have used the book, this classroom-tested text provides an easy and entertaining way for teachers to incorporate origami into a range of college and advanced high school math courses. Visit the author’s website for more information.

 This book unravels the mystery of Geometry in Origami with a unique approach: 64 Polyhedra designs, each made from a single square sheet of paper, no cuts, no glue; each polyhedron the largest possible from the starting size of square and each having an ingenious locking mechanism to hold its shape. The author covers the five Platonic solids (cube, tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron). There are ample variations with different color patterns and sunken sides. Dipyramids and Dimpled Dipyramids, unexplored before this in Origami, are also covered. There are a total of 64 models in the book. All the designs have an interesting look and a pleasing folding sequence and are based on unique mathematical equations.

 The art of origami, or paper folding, is carried out using a square piece of paper to obtain attractive figures of animals, flowers or other familiar figures. It is easy to see that origami has links with geometry. Creases and edges represent lines, intersecting creases and edges make angles, while the intersections themselves represent points. Because of its manipulative and experiential nature, origami could become an effective context for the learning and teaching of geometry.In this unique and original book, origami is an object of mathematical exploration. The activities in this book differ from ordinary origami in that no figures of objects result. Rather, they lead the reader to study the effects of the folding and seek patterns. The experimental approach that characterizes much of science activity can be recognized throughout the book, as the manipulative nature of origami allows much experimenting, comparing, visualizing, discovering and conjecturing. The reader is encouraged to fill in all the proofs, for his/her own satisfaction and for the sake of mathematical completeness. Thus, this book provides a useful, alternative approach for reinforcing and applying the theorems of high school mathematics.

 Aimed at an audience of researchers and graduate students in computational geometry and algorithm design, this book uses the Geometric Spanner Network Problem to showcase a number of useful algorithmic techniques, data structure strategies, and geometric analysis techniques with many applications, practical and theoretical. The authors present rigorous descriptions of the main algorithms and their analyses for different variations of the Geometric Spanner Network Problem. Though the basic ideas behind most of these algorithms are intuitive, very few are easy to describe and analyze. For most of the algorithms, nontrivial data structures need to be designed, and nontrivial techniques need to be developed in order for analysis to take place. Still, there are several basic principles and results that are used throughout the book. One of the most important is the powerful well-separated pair decomposition. This decomposition is used as a starting point for several of the spanner constructions.

 This 2005 book deals with interest topics in Discrete and Algorithmic aspects of Geometry.