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Green Chemistry Metrics

Green Chemistry Metrics Author Andrew Dicks
ISBN-10 9783319105000
Release 2014-09-23
Pages 90
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This contribution to SpringerBriefs in Green Chemistry outlines and discusses the four major green chemistry metrics (atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, E factor and process mass intensity), at a level that is comprehensible by upper-level undergraduates. Such students have previously received fundamental training in organic chemistry basics, and are ideally positioned to learn about green chemistry principles, of which metrics is one foundational pillar. Following this, other green metrics in common use are discussed, along with applications that allow important calculations to be easily undertaken. Finally, an introduction to metrics in the context of life cycle analyses is presented. It should be noted that no other available publication teaches green chemistry metrics in detail with an emphasis on educating undergraduates, whilst simultaneously providing a contemporary industrial flavour to the material.



Design Energy Simulation for Architects

Design Energy Simulation for Architects Author Kjell Anderson
ISBN-10 9781317915683
Release 2014-01-23
Pages 252
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Leading architectural firms are now using in-house design simulation to help make more sustainable design decisions. Taking advantage of these new tools requires understanding of what can be done with simulation, how to do it, and how to interpret the results. This software-agnostic book, which is intended for you to use as a professional architect, shows you how to reduce the energy use of all buildings using simulation for shading, daylighting, airflow, and energy modeling. Written by a practicing architect who specializes in design simulation, the book includes 30 case studies of net-zero buildings, as well as of projects with less lofty goals, to demonstrate how energy simulation has helped designers make early decisions. Within each case study, author Kjell Anderson mentions the software used, how the simulation was set up, and how the project team used the simulation to make design decisions. Chapters and case studies are written so that you learn general concepts without being tied to particular software. Each chapter builds on the theory from previous chapters, includes a summary of concept-level hand calculations (if applicable), and gives comprehensive explanations with graphic examples. Additional topics include simulation basics, comfort, climate analysis, a discussion on how simulation is integrated into some firms, and an overview of some popular design simulation software.



Paradigms in Green Chemistry and Technology

Paradigms in Green Chemistry and Technology Author Angelo Albini
ISBN-10 9783319258959
Release 2015-12-08
Pages 108
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This brief discusses the formation of modern “green chemistry” as a contribution to sustainability and the historic paths that lead to the key concepts of this discipline. Within this intellectual framework, the book tackles the 12 principles of green chemistry and the 12 principles of green chemical engineering as well as related financial and management issues; these facts are explored and reformulated in a focused set of paradigms. The best choice of a model for quantitative assessment (sufficiently specific to account for the many parameters involved but not excessively detailed to inhibit practical use) is discussed and examples of practical applications are presented.



Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory Author Andrew P. Dicks
ISBN-10 9781439840771
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 298
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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.



Biotechnology Prospects and Applications

Biotechnology  Prospects and Applications Author R.K. Salar
ISBN-10 9788132216834
Release 2014-02-06
Pages 315
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Biotechnology: Prospects and Applications covers the review of recent developments in biotechnology and international authorship presents global issues that help in our understanding of the role of biotechnology in solving important scientific and societal problems for the benefit of mankind and environment. A balanced coverage of basic molecular biology and practical applications, relevant examples, colored illustrations, and contemporary applications of biotechnology provide students and researchers with the tools and basic knowledge of biotechnology. In our effort to introduce students and researchers to cutting edge techniques and applications of biotechnology, we dedicated specific chapters to such emerging areas of biotechnology as Emerging Dynamics of Brassinosteroids Research, Third generation green energy, Bioremediation, Metal Organic Frameworks: New smart materials for biological application, Bioherbicides, Biosensors, Fetal Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Animal forensics. Biotechnology: Prospects and Applications will be highly useful for students, teachers and researchers in all disciplines of life sciences, agricultural sciences, medicine, and biotechnology in universities, research stations and biotechnology companies. The book features broader aspects of the role of biotechnology in human endeavor. It also presents an overview of prospects and applications while emphasizing modern, cutting-edge, and emerging areas of biotechnology. Further, it provides the readers with a comprehensive knowledge of topics in food and agricultural biotechnology, microbial biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and animal biotechnology. The chapters have been written with special reference to the latest developments in above broader areas of biotechnology that impact the biotechnology industry. A list of references at the end of each chapter is provided for the readers to learn more about a particular topic. Typically, these references include basic research, research papers, review articles and articles from the popular literature.



Green Chemistry and Catalysis

Green Chemistry and Catalysis Author R. A. Sheldon
ISBN-10 9783527611010
Release 2007-06-27
Pages 448
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This first book to focus on catalytic processes from the viewpoint of green chemistry presents every important aspect: ? Numerous catalytic reductions and oxidations methods ? Solid-acid and solid-base catalysis ? C-C bond formation reactions ? Biocatalysis ? Asymmetric catalysis ? Novel reaction media like e.g. ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 ? Renewable raw materials Written by Roger A. Sheldon -- without doubt one of the leaders in the field with much experience in academia and industry -- and his co-workers, the result is a unified whole, an indispensable source for every scientist looking to improve catalytic reactions, whether in the college or company lab.



A Primer on QSAR QSPR Modeling

A Primer on QSAR QSPR Modeling Author Kunal Roy
ISBN-10 9783319172811
Release 2015-04-11
Pages 121
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This brief goes back to basics and describes the Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs) that represent predictive models derived from the application of statistical tools correlating biological activity (including therapeutic and toxic) and properties of chemicals (drugs/toxicants/environmental pollutants) with descriptors representative of molecular structure and/or properties. It explains how the sub-discipline of Cheminformatics is used for many applications such as risk assessment, toxicity prediction, property prediction and regulatory decisions apart from drug discovery and lead optimization. The authors also present, in basic terms, how QSARs and related chemometric tools are extensively involved in medicinal chemistry, environmental chemistry and agricultural chemistry for ranking of potential compounds and prioritizing experiments. At present, there is no standard or introductory publication available that introduces this important topic to students of chemistry and pharmacy. With this in mind, the authors have carefully compiled this brief in order to provide a thorough and painless introduction to the fundamental concepts of QSAR/QSPR modelling. The brief is aimed at novice readers.



Green Metrics

Green Metrics Author
ISBN-10 9783527695270
Release 2018-02-01
Pages 400
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There has been dramatic growth in the community of researchers and industrialists working in the area of Green Chemistry. There has been an increasing recognition by a wide-range of scientists and engineers in the chemical enterprise that the framework of Green Chemistry is relevant and enabling to their work. There has been a significant body of work that has accumulated over the past decade that details the breakthroughs, innovation and creativity within Green Chemistry and Engineering. While there have been edited volumes on Green Chemistry that collect a limited number of papers often on a particular topic area, there is not currently a series that seeks to provide a more comprehensive overview of the current state of the science. The lack of this type of series is a notable niche for which the continually growing Green Chemistry and engineering community would value and welcome.



Emerging Compounds Removal from Wastewater

Emerging Compounds Removal from Wastewater Author Giusy Lofrano
ISBN-10 9789400739154
Release 2012-03-31
Pages 94
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In the last years the release of emerging pollutants such as Endocrine Disruptors (EDCs), Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) into the environment has raised great concern. While investigating how to treat emerging pollutants from water and wastewater, researchers have drawn attention on the implementation of more environmentally friendly technologies able to achieve high removal efficiency at low costs. Emerging Compounds Removal from Wastewater by Green Technologies: Natural and Solar Based Treatments introduces green chemistry in relation to these treatment technologies. More specifically, this volume: • Reviews the suitability of alternative adsorption processes that use natural adsorbents natural materials or agricultural waste in light of the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants; • Evaluates the potential of constructed wetlands for the removal of some categories of trace contaminant of worldwide relevance in view of their application as decentralized systems; • Highlights the promising role of a special class of oxidation techniques defined as Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) supported by sunlight. This volume will be of great interest to students, technicians, and academics alike who are interested in evaluating and selecting the technologies that lead to better and more sustainable treatment of this huge class of pollutants.



Dyes and Pigments

Dyes and Pigments Author Ahmet Gürses
ISBN-10 9783319338927
Release 2016-05-04
Pages 83
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In this book the authors go back to basics to describe the structural differences between dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of action, properties and applications. They set the scene by explaining the reasons behind these differences and show how dyes are predominately organic compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, whereas pigments are (predominantly) finely ground inorganic substances that are insoluble and therefore have a different mode of coloring. They also describe the role of functional groups and their effect on dyeing ability, contrasting this with the way in which pigments cause surface reflection (or light absorption) depending on their chemical and crystalline structure and relative particle size. The book explores the environmental impact of dyes in a section that covers the physical, chemical, toxicological, and ecological properties of dyes and how these are used to assess their effect on the environment and to estimate whether a given product presents a potential hazard. Lastly, it assesses how, in addition to their traditional uses in the textile, leather, paper, paint and varnish industries, dyes and pigments are indispensable in other fields such as microelectronics, medical diagnostics, and in information recording techniques.



Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry Author Peter J. Dunn
ISBN-10 3527629696
Release 2010-02-02
Pages 368
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Edited by three of the world's leading pharmaceutical scientists, this is the first book on this important and hot topic, containing much previously unpublished information. As such, it covers all aspects of green chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry, from simple molecules to complex proteins, and from drug discovery to the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Furthermore, this ready reference contains several convincing case studies from industry, such as Taxol, Pregabalin and Crestor, illustrating how this multidisciplinary approach has yielded efficient and environmentally-friendly processes. Finally, a section on technology and tools highlights the advantages of green chemistry.



America s Most Sustainable Cities and Regions

America   s Most Sustainable Cities and Regions Author John W. Day
ISBN-10 9781493932436
Release 2016-01-23
Pages 348
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This book takes you on a unique journey through American history, taking time to consider the forces that shaped the development of various cities and regions, and arrives at an unexpected conclusion regarding sustainability. From the American Dream to globalization to the digital and information revolutions, we assume that humans have taken control of our collective destinies in spite of potholes in the road such as the Great Recession of 2007-2009. However, these attitudes were formed during a unique 100-year period of human history in which a large but finite supply of fossil fuels was tapped to feed our economic and innovation engine. Today, at the peak of the Oil Age, the horizon looks different. Cities such as Los Angeles, Phoenix and Las Vegas are situated where water and other vital ecological services are scarce, and the enormous flows of resources and energy that were needed to create the megalopolises of the 20th century will prove unsustainable. Climate change is a reality, and regional impacts will become increasingly severe. Economies such as Las Vegas, which are dependent on discretionary income and buffeted by climate change, are already suffering the fate of the proverbial canary in the coal mine. Finite resources will mean profound changes for society in general and the energy-intensive lifestyles of the US and Canada in particular. But not all regions are equally vulnerable to these 21st-century megatrends. Are you ready to look beyond “America’s Most Livable Cities” to the critical factors that will determine the sustainability of your municipality and region? Find out where your city or region ranks according to the forces that will impact our lives in the next years and decades. Find out how: ·resource availability and ecological services shaped the modern landscape ·emerging megatrends will make cities and regions more or less livable in the new century ·your city or region ranks on a “sustainability” map of the United States ·urban metabolism puts large cities at particular risk ·sustainability factors will favor economic solutions at a local, rather than global, level ·these principles apply to industrial economies and countries globally. This book should be cited as follows: J. Day, C. Hall, E. Roy, M. Moersbaecher, C. D'Elia, D. Pimentel, and A. Yanez. 2016. America's most sustainable cities and regions: Surviving the 21st century megatrends. Springer, New York. 348 p.



Calixarenes and Beyond

Calixarenes and Beyond Author Placido Neri
ISBN-10 9783319318677
Release 2016-08-12
Pages 1062
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Contributions featuring the chemistry and applications of a family of macrocyclic compounds collectively known as 'calixarenes' are presented in this edited volume. The arsenal of structures based on calixarenes provides tools which are effective in numerous areas of supramolecular chemistry. The Editors have compiled a timely volume which contains up to date, high calibre contributions from a large number of international authors. A broad perspective on the progress and future of calixarene chemistry is presented. Aimed at students and researchers active in Supramolecular Chemistry.



Historical Land Use Land Cover Classification Using Remote Sensing

Historical Land Use Land Cover Classification Using Remote Sensing Author Wafi Al-Fares
ISBN-10 9783319006246
Release 2013-06-25
Pages 204
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Although the development of remote sensing techniques focuses greatly on construction of new sensors with higher spatial and spectral resolution, it is advisable to also use data of older sensors (especially, the LANDSAT-mission) when the historical mapping of land use/land cover and monitoring of their dynamics are needed. Using data from LANDSAT missions as well as from Terra (ASTER) Sensors, the authors shows in his book maps of historical land cover changes with a focus on agricultural irrigation projects. The kernel of this study was whether, how and to what extent applying the various remotely sensed data that were used here, would be an effective approach to classify the historical and current land use/land cover, to monitor the dynamics of land use/land cover during the last four decades, to map the development of the irrigation areas, and to classify the major strategic winter- and summer-irrigated agricultural crops in the study area of the Euphrates River Basin.



Chemical Evolution

Chemical Evolution Author Bernd Markert
ISBN-10 9783319143552
Release 2015-02-19
Pages 282
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This book is written for researchers and students interested in the function and role of chemical elements in biological or environmental systems. Experts have long known that the Periodic System of Elements (PSE) provides only an inadequate chemical description of elements of biological, environmental or medicinal importance. This book explores the notion of a Biological System of the Elements (BSE) established on accurate and precise multi-element data, including evolutionary aspects, representative sampling procedures, inter-element relationships, the physiological function of elements and uptake mechanisms. The book further explores the concept Stoichiometric Network Analysis (SNA) to analyze the biological roles of chemical species. Also discussed is the idea of ecotoxicological identity cards which give a first-hand description of properties relevant for biological and toxicological features of a certain chemical element and its geo biochemically plausible speciation form. The focus of this book goes beyond both classical bioinorganic chemistry and toxicology.



Biophotoelectrochemistry From Bioelectrochemistry to Biophotovoltaics

Biophotoelectrochemistry  From Bioelectrochemistry to Biophotovoltaics Author Lars J.C. Jeuken
ISBN-10 9783319506678
Release 2017-07-29
Pages 180
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This book review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science. Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification. In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.



Citric Acid

Citric Acid Author Alexander Apelblat
ISBN-10 9783319112336
Release 2014-12-04
Pages 357
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This monograph is devoted to different aspects associated with citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and organic solutions. It includes information about properties, occurrence and technological applications of citric acid and inorganic citrates. Phase equilibria - melting, freezing, boiling, vapour pressures, solubilities of citric acid in water, organic solvents and ternary systems are presented, correlated, and analyzed. Dynamic properties - viscosities, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivities and surface tensions are examined. Mathematical representations of citric acid dissociation, in electrolyte solutions and in buffers are discussed. Citric acid chemistry - syntheses of citric acid, neutralization, degradation, oxidation, esterification, formation of anhydrides, amides and citrate-based siderophores is reviewed.