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Halophiles

Halophiles Author Dinesh K Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783319145952
Release 2015-09-16
Pages 456
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The world of halophiles is quite diverse and their representatives in three domains of life i.e. archaea, bacteria and eukarya. They are found all over the small subunit rRNA based tree of life and these micro-organisms are adapted to salt concentration up to saturation hence able to grow at >300g/l Nacl concentration. Their metabolic diversity is high as well encompassing oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, denitrifiers, sulphate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. The proteins of halophiles are magnificently engineered to function in a milieu containing 2-5M salt that encodes genes represent a valuable repository and resource for reconstruction and visualizing processes of habitat selection and adaptive evolution. Search for new enzymes endowed with novel activities and enhanced stability continues to be desirable purpose for important commercial production of biotechnological significance. These poly extremophiles proved excellent source of enzymes and metabolites possessing inherent ability to function in extreme conditions of high salt, alkaline pH and facilitating catalysis for industrial application in food processing, industrial bioconversion, bioremediation etc. In fact, it has just begun to realize the great potential and true extent of diversity and suitable applications if explored them judiciously. This book highlights current applications and research on halophiles to provide a timely overview. Chapters are written by expert authors from around the world and include topics of varied importance which include their role to play in enzyme production, restoration of soil fertility and plant growth , antimicrobial and biocatalytic potential, biomolecules in nanotechnology and aspects of quorum sensing. The book is divided into three sections, dealing with biodiversity, biotechnology and sustainable exploitation of halophiles. This major new work represents a valuable source of information to all those scientists interested in microorganisms in general and extremophiles in particular with respect to their innovative products and applications.



Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

Biodiversity for Sustainable Development Author K.P. Laladhas
ISBN-10 9783319421629
Release 2016-11-15
Pages 322
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Divided into three sections, this book explores the three main pillars of sustainable development, namely economy, environment and society, and their interlinkages at the regional level. The first section, Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) for sustainable development, focuses on international agreements and national legislation, as well as the challenges in implementing ABS in e.g. India. In turn, the second section examines the process of forming Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) at the Local Self Government (LSG) level to promote environmental sustainability, highlighting local and community-level conservation initiatives that have led to the conservation of habitats and species. The third section addresses poverty eradication and food security. The case studies included demonstrate how the combination of traditional knowledge and modern techniques can enhance the productivity of traditional crop varieties, yielding greater benefits for communities. The aim of this volume is to disseminate the lessons learned from these case studies, as well as the findings from projects already in place, which can offer recommendations that can be applied to similar problems elsewhere in an attempt to find environmental solutions for sustainable development. Further, it introduces readers to new approaches to inclusive development, demonstrating that participation and grass root empowerment are key drivers of equitable and sustainable development.



Environment and Sustainable Development

Environment and Sustainable Development Author M.H. Fulekar
ISBN-10 9788132211662
Release 2013-10-04
Pages 198
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Global society in the 21st century is facing challenges of improving the quality of air, water, soil and the environment and maintaining the ecological balance. Environmental pollution, thus, has become a major global concern. The modern growth of industrialization, urbanization, modern agricultural development and energy generation has resulted in the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources for fulfilling human desires and needs, which has contributed in disturbing the ecological balance on which the quality of our environment depends. Human beings, in the truest sense, are the product of their environment. The man-environment relationship indicates that pollution and deterioration of the environment have a social origin. The modern technological advancements in chemical processes/operations have generated new products, resulting in new pollutants in such abundant levels that they are above the self-cleaning capacity of the environment. One of the major issues in recent times is the threat tohuman lives due to the progressive deterioration of the environment from various sources. The impact of the pollutants on the environment will be significant when the accumulated pollutants load will exceed the carrying capacity of the receiving environment. Sustainable development envisages the use of natural resources, such as forests, land, water and fisheries, in a sustainable manner without causing changes in our natural world. The Rio de Janeiro-Earth Summit, held in Brazil in 1992, focused on sustainable development to encourage respect and concern for the use of natural resources in a sustainable manner for the protection of the environment. This book will be beneficial as a source of educational material to post-graduate research scholars, teachers and industrial personnel for maintaining the balance in the use of natural sources for sustainable development.



Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development

Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development Author Paula Castro
ISBN-10 9783319323183
Release 2016-05-26
Pages 334
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This book gathers interdisciplinary reflections from researchers, educators, and other experts on the subject of biodiversity closer to education and learning. The book also highlights its role as an added value to strategic principles for healthy ecosystems and sustainable human development. It promotes critical thinking and foster practices and attitudes for Education for Sustainable Development reconciling education with principles of human behaviour and nature. Readers especially find this book a timely resource in light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, the Aichi Targets, and the new EU biodiversity strategy “Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020”. Along with the challenge of ecosystems and public health, biodiversity conservation is essential for humanity’s continued security and sustainability, as it touches on all aspects of people’s lives.



Extremophiles

Extremophiles Author Ravi V. Durvasula
ISBN-10 9781351650731
Release 2018-01-09
Pages 399
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Extremophiles are nature’s ultimate survivors, thriving in environments ranging from the frozen Antarctic to abyssal hot hydrothermal vents. Their lifeforms span bacteria to fishes, and are categorized as halophiles from hypersaline environments, acidophiles from acidic waters, psychrophiles from cold habitats, and thermophiles from warm waters. Extremophiles: From Biology to Biotechnology comprehensively covers the basic biology, physiology, habitats, secondary metabolites for bioprospecting, and biotechnology of these extreme survivors. The chapters focus on the novel genetic and biochemical traits that lend these organisms to biotechnological applications. This unique guide serves as a resource for biotechnologists who wish to explore extremophiles for their commercial potential, as well as a valuable reference for teaching undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students.



Enzymes in Food Biotechnology

Enzymes in Food Biotechnology Author Mohammed Kuddus
ISBN-10 9780128132814
Release 2018-08-23
Pages 909
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Enzymes in Food Biotechnology: Production, Applications, and Future Prospects presents a comprehensive review of enzyme research and the potential impact of enzymes on the food sector. This valuable reference brings together novel sources and technologies regarding enzymes in food production, food processing, food preservation, food engineering and food biotechnology that are useful for researchers, professionals and students. Discussions include the process of immobilization, thermal and operational stability, increased product specificity and specific activity, enzyme engineering, implementation of high-throughput techniques, screening to relatively unexplored environments, and the development of more efficient enzymes. Explores recent scientific research to innovate novel, global ideas for new foods and enzyme engineering Provides fundamental and advanced information on enzyme research for use in food biotechnology, including microbial, plant and animal enzymes Includes recent cutting-edge research on the pharmaceutical uses of enzymes in the food industry



Contracting for ABS

Contracting for ABS Author Shakeel Bhatti
ISBN-10 9782831709826
Release 2009
Pages 307
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The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.



New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering Author Vijai G. Gupta
ISBN-10 9780444635129
Release 2018-02-06
Pages 474
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New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Penicillium System Properties and Applications covers important research work on the applications of penicillium from specialists from an international perspective. The book compiles advancements and ongoing processes in the penicillium system, along with updated information on the possibilities for future developments. All chapters are derived from current peer reviewed literature as accepted by the international scientific community. These important fungi were found to secrete a range of novel enzymes and other useful proteins, and are still being extensively studied and improved for specific use in the food, textile, pulp and paper, biocellulosic ethanol production and other industries. The book caters to the needs of researchers/academicians dealing with penicillium spp. related research and applications, outlining emerging issues on recent advancements made in the area of research and its applications in bioprocess technology, chemical engineering, molecular taxonomy, biofuels/bioenergy research and alternative fuel development. In addition, the book also describes the identification of useful compound combinations/enzyme cocktails and the fermentation conditions required to obtain them at an industrial scale. Finally, the book provides updated information on the best utilization of these fungi as a natural tool to meet the next challenges of biotechnology. Compiles the latest developments and current studies in the penicillium system Contains chapters contributed by top researchers with global appeal Includes current applications in bioindustry and lists future potential applications of these fungi species Identifies future research needs for these important fungi, including the best utilization of them as a natural tool to meet the next challenges of biotechnology



Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnology

Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnology Author Tulasi Satyanarayana
ISBN-10 9789400722149
Release 2012-01-02
Pages 829
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This review of recent developments in our understanding of the role of microbes in sustainable agriculture and biotechnology covers a research area with enormous untapped potential. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other agricultural inputs derived from fossil fuels have increased agricultural production, yet growing awareness and concern over their adverse effects on soil productivity and environmental quality cannot be ignored. The high cost of these products, the difficulties of meeting demand for them, and their harmful environmental legacy have encouraged scientists to develop alternative strategies to raise productivity, with microbes playing a central role in these efforts. One application is the use of soil microbes as bioinoculants for supplying nutrients and/or stimulating plant growth. Some rhizospheric microbes are known to synthesize plant growth-promoters, siderophores and antibiotics, as well as aiding phosphorous uptake. The last 40 years have seen rapid strides made in our appreciation of the diversity of environmental microbes and their possible benefits to sustainable agriculture and production. The advent of powerful new methodologies in microbial genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology has only quickened the pace of developments. The vital part played by microbes in sustaining our planet’s ecosystems only adds urgency to this enquiry. Culture-dependent microbes already contribute much to human life, yet the latent potential of vast numbers of uncultured—and thus untouched—microbes, is enormous. Culture-independent metagenomic approaches employed in a variety of natural habitats have alerted us to the sheer diversity of these microbes, and resulted in the characterization of novel genes and gene products. Several new antibiotics and biocatalysts have been discovered among environmental genomes and some products have already been commercialized. Meanwhile, dozens of industrial products currently formulated in large quantities from petrochemicals, such as ethanol, butanol, organic acids, and amino acids, are equally obtainable through microbial fermentation. Edited by a trio of recognized authorities on the subject, this survey of a fast-moving field—with so many benefits within reach—will be required reading for all those investigating ways to harness the power of microorganisms in making both agriculture and biotechnology more sustainable.



Biology and Biotechnology of Actinobacteria

Biology and Biotechnology of Actinobacteria Author Joachim Wink
ISBN-10 9783319603391
Release 2017-10-19
Pages 395
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This book provides in-depth insights into the biology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology and biotechnological applications of Actinobacteria. It especially focuses on the latter, reviewing the wide variety of actinobacterial bioactive molecules and their benefits for diverse industrial applications such as agriculture, aquaculture, biofuel production and food technology. Actinobacteria are one of the most promising sources of small bioactive molecules and it is estimated that only a small percentage of actinobacterial bioactive chemicals have been discovered to date. Identifying new diverse gene clusters of biotechnological relevance in the genome of Actinobacteria will be crucial to developing advanced applications for pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural purposes. The book offers a unique resource for all graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of microbiology, microbial biotechnology, and the genetic engineering of Actinobacteria.



Sustainable Development at Risk

Sustainable Development at Risk Author Joseph H. Hulse
ISBN-10 9781552503683
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 390
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Over the past half century, the idea of sustainable development has drastically evolved and rooted itself in the lexicon of international development. But what is it, really? Are development agencies truly committed to long-term sustainable solutions to development issues? Are we learning from our past successes and failures? This book takes an historical perspective on these questions. The analysis begins with the Atlantic Charter, the creation of the United Nations, its family of agencies, and the international development banks. It reviews recommendations from international commissions and conferences, from World Bank and UNDP Human Development Reports. It comments on governmental policies, human and industrial actions detrimental to the planetOCOs environment and natural resources. It studies the patterns by which biotechnologies essential to human survival and health have progressed over the past 6000 years, and the consequences of uncontrolled urban growth on food and health security. The author hopes that this book will be OC informative and helpful to all who care about human suffering and degradation of the EarthOCOs environment and resources, in particular to men and women who are newcomers to international, governmental, and nongovernmental aid and assistance programs.OCO"



Freshwater Microbiology

Freshwater Microbiology Author David Sigee
ISBN-10 0470026472
Release 2005-09-27
Pages 544
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This unique textbook takes a broad look at the rapidly expanding field of freshwater microbiology. Concentrating on the interactions between viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi and micro-invertebrates, the book gives a wide biological appeal. Alongside conventional aspects such as phytoplankton characterisation, seasonal changes and nutrient cycles, the title focuses on the dynamic and applied aspects that are not covered within the current textbooks in the field. Complete coverage of all fresh water biota from viruses to invertebrates Unique focus on microbial interactions including coverage of biofilms, important communities on all exposed rivers and lakes. New information on molecular and microscopical techniques including a study of gene exchange between bacteria in the freshwater environment. Unique emphasis on the applied aspects of freshwater microbiology with particular emphasis on biodegradation and the causes and remediation of eutrophication and algal blooms.



Introduction to Biodiversity

Introduction to Biodiversity Author D.k.belsare
ISBN-10 8131300757
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 265
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Introduction to Biodiversity has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Introduction to Biodiversity also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Introduction to Biodiversity book for free.



Bacteria in Agrobiology Stress Management

Bacteria in Agrobiology  Stress Management Author Dinesh K. Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783642234651
Release 2012-01-05
Pages 336
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The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. "Bacteria in Agrobiology: Stress Management" covers the major aspects on PGPR in amelioration of both abiotic and biotic stresses. PGPR mediated in priming of plant defense reactions, nutrient availability and management in saline and cold environment, hormonal signaling, ACC deaminase and its role in ethylene regulation under harsh conditions are suitably described.



Assembling the Tree of Life

Assembling the Tree of Life Author Joel Cracraft
ISBN-10 0199729603
Release 2004-07-22
Pages 592
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This edited volume is provides an authoritative synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. All the major groups of organisms are treated, by the leading workers in their fields. With sections on: The Importance of Knowing the Tree of Life; The Origin and Radiation of Life on Earth; The Relationships of Green Plants; The Relationships of Fungi; and The Relationships of Animals. This book should prove indispensable for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and as a baseline sourcebook for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists. An essential reference in this fundamental area.



Plant Microbe Interactions in Agro Ecological Perspectives

Plant Microbe Interactions in Agro Ecological Perspectives Author Dhananjaya Pratap Singh
ISBN-10 9789811065934
Release 2017-12-15
Pages 763
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This book puts an updated account on functional aspects of multiphasic microbial interactions within and between plants and their ecosystem. Multipronged interaction in the soil microbial communities with the plants constitute a relay of mechanisms that make profound changes in plant and its micro-environment in the rhizopshere at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In agro-ecological perspectives, such interactions are known to recycle nutrients and regulate signalling molecules, phytohormones and other small molecules that help plant growth and development. Such aspects are described deeply in this book taking examples from various crop plants and microbial systems. Authors described the most advantageous prospects of plant-microbe interaction in terms of inoculation of beneficial microorganisms (microbial inoculants) with the plants in which microbes proliferate in the root rhizosphere system and benefit plants' with definite functions like fixation of nitrogen, solubilization and mobilization of P, K, Zn and production of phytohormones. The subject of this book and the content presented herein has great relevance to the agro-ecological sustainability of crop plants with the help of microbial interactions. The chapters presented focus on defining and assessing the impact of beneficial microbial interactions on different soils, crops and abiotic conditions. This volume entails about exploiting beneficial microbial interactions to help plants under abiotic conditions, microbe-mediated induced systemic tolerance, role of mycorrhizal interactions in improving plant tolerance against stresses, PGPR as nutrient mobilizers, phytostimulants, antagonists and biocontrol agents, plant interactions with Trichoderma and other bioagents for sustainable intensification in agriculture, cyanobacteria as PGPRs, plant microbiome for crop management and phytoremediation and rhizoremediation using microbial communities. The overall content entrust advanced knowledge and applicability of diversified biotechnological, techno-commercial and agro-ecological aspects of microbial interactions and inoculants as inputs, which upon inoculation with crop plants benefit them in multiple ways.



Bioprospecting

Bioprospecting Author Russell Paterson
ISBN-10 9783319479354
Release 2016-12-12
Pages 303
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This book considers all aspects of bioprospecting in 14 succinct chapters and a forward by David Hawksworth. The organisms addressed include plants, insects, fungi, bacteria and phages. Bioprospecting has never been more relevant and is of renewed interest, because of the extremely worrying rise in novel, resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The practices in pharmaceutical companies have failed to deliver novel antibiotics to control these infections. We need to look for new sources of drugs from the environment on a massive scale as drug discovery is “too important to fail”. Furthermore, the field can add great value to ecosystems in terms of economics, while providing additional reasons for maintaining associated services, such as food provision, benign climate, effective nutrient cycling and cultural practices. Bioprospecting provides another reason why climate change must be reduced in order to preserve relevant environments. Previous bioprospecting projects should be re-visited and established biodiversity centres have a major role. Many different ecosystems exist which contain unique organisms with the potential to supply novel antibiotics, enzymes, food, and cosmetics, or they may simply have aesthetic value. The book stresses the difficulties in obtaining successful products and yet describes why natural products should be investigated over combinatorial chemistry. Personal experience of bioprospecting projects are given significance. Issues such as how to share the benefits equitably with local communities are described and why pharmaceutical companies can be reluctant to be involved. Legal issues are discussed. Finally, there has never been a better time for a new book on bioprospecting, because of the need to preserve ecosystems, and from the emergence of resistant pathogenic microorganisms.