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Halophiles

Halophiles Author Dinesh K Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783319145952
Release 2015-09-16
Pages 456
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The world of halophiles is quite diverse and their representatives in three domains of life i.e. archaea, bacteria and eukarya. They are found all over the small subunit rRNA based tree of life and these micro-organisms are adapted to salt concentration up to saturation hence able to grow at >300g/l Nacl concentration. Their metabolic diversity is high as well encompassing oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, denitrifiers, sulphate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. The proteins of halophiles are magnificently engineered to function in a milieu containing 2-5M salt that encodes genes represent a valuable repository and resource for reconstruction and visualizing processes of habitat selection and adaptive evolution. Search for new enzymes endowed with novel activities and enhanced stability continues to be desirable purpose for important commercial production of biotechnological significance. These poly extremophiles proved excellent source of enzymes and metabolites possessing inherent ability to function in extreme conditions of high salt, alkaline pH and facilitating catalysis for industrial application in food processing, industrial bioconversion, bioremediation etc. In fact, it has just begun to realize the great potential and true extent of diversity and suitable applications if explored them judiciously. This book highlights current applications and research on halophiles to provide a timely overview. Chapters are written by expert authors from around the world and include topics of varied importance which include their role to play in enzyme production, restoration of soil fertility and plant growth , antimicrobial and biocatalytic potential, biomolecules in nanotechnology and aspects of quorum sensing. The book is divided into three sections, dealing with biodiversity, biotechnology and sustainable exploitation of halophiles. This major new work represents a valuable source of information to all those scientists interested in microorganisms in general and extremophiles in particular with respect to their innovative products and applications.



Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

Biodiversity for Sustainable Development Author K.P. Laladhas
ISBN-10 9783319421629
Release 2016-11-15
Pages 322
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Divided into three sections, this book explores the three main pillars of sustainable development, namely economy, environment and society, and their interlinkages at the regional level. The first section, Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) for sustainable development, focuses on international agreements and national legislation, as well as the challenges in implementing ABS in e.g. India. In turn, the second section examines the process of forming Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) at the Local Self Government (LSG) level to promote environmental sustainability, highlighting local and community-level conservation initiatives that have led to the conservation of habitats and species. The third section addresses poverty eradication and food security. The case studies included demonstrate how the combination of traditional knowledge and modern techniques can enhance the productivity of traditional crop varieties, yielding greater benefits for communities. The aim of this volume is to disseminate the lessons learned from these case studies, as well as the findings from projects already in place, which can offer recommendations that can be applied to similar problems elsewhere in an attempt to find environmental solutions for sustainable development. Further, it introduces readers to new approaches to inclusive development, demonstrating that participation and grass root empowerment are key drivers of equitable and sustainable development.



Environment and Sustainable Development

Environment and Sustainable Development Author M.H. Fulekar
ISBN-10 9788132211662
Release 2013-10-04
Pages 198
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Global society in the 21st century is facing challenges of improving the quality of air, water, soil and the environment and maintaining the ecological balance. Environmental pollution, thus, has become a major global concern. The modern growth of industrialization, urbanization, modern agricultural development and energy generation has resulted in the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources for fulfilling human desires and needs, which has contributed in disturbing the ecological balance on which the quality of our environment depends. Human beings, in the truest sense, are the product of their environment. The man-environment relationship indicates that pollution and deterioration of the environment have a social origin. The modern technological advancements in chemical processes/operations have generated new products, resulting in new pollutants in such abundant levels that they are above the self-cleaning capacity of the environment. One of the major issues in recent times is the threat tohuman lives due to the progressive deterioration of the environment from various sources. The impact of the pollutants on the environment will be significant when the accumulated pollutants load will exceed the carrying capacity of the receiving environment. Sustainable development envisages the use of natural resources, such as forests, land, water and fisheries, in a sustainable manner without causing changes in our natural world. The Rio de Janeiro-Earth Summit, held in Brazil in 1992, focused on sustainable development to encourage respect and concern for the use of natural resources in a sustainable manner for the protection of the environment. This book will be beneficial as a source of educational material to post-graduate research scholars, teachers and industrial personnel for maintaining the balance in the use of natural sources for sustainable development.



Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development

Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development Author Paula Castro
ISBN-10 9783319323183
Release 2016-05-26
Pages 334
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This book gathers interdisciplinary reflections from researchers, educators, and other experts on the subject of biodiversity closer to education and learning. The book also highlights its role as an added value to strategic principles for healthy ecosystems and sustainable human development. It promotes critical thinking and foster practices and attitudes for Education for Sustainable Development reconciling education with principles of human behaviour and nature. Readers especially find this book a timely resource in light of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, the Aichi Targets, and the new EU biodiversity strategy “Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020”. Along with the challenge of ecosystems and public health, biodiversity conservation is essential for humanity’s continued security and sustainability, as it touches on all aspects of people’s lives.



Extremophiles

Extremophiles Author Ravi V. Durvasula
ISBN-10 9781351650731
Release 2018-01-09
Pages 399
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Extremophiles are nature’s ultimate survivors, thriving in environments ranging from the frozen Antarctic to abyssal hot hydrothermal vents. Their lifeforms span bacteria to fishes, and are categorized as halophiles from hypersaline environments, acidophiles from acidic waters, psychrophiles from cold habitats, and thermophiles from warm waters. Extremophiles: From Biology to Biotechnology comprehensively covers the basic biology, physiology, habitats, secondary metabolites for bioprospecting, and biotechnology of these extreme survivors. The chapters focus on the novel genetic and biochemical traits that lend these organisms to biotechnological applications. This unique guide serves as a resource for biotechnologists who wish to explore extremophiles for their commercial potential, as well as a valuable reference for teaching undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students.



Biocommunication of Archaea

Biocommunication of Archaea Author Guenther Witzany
ISBN-10 9783319655369
Release 2017-09-27
Pages 324
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Archaea represent a third domain of life with unique properties not found in the other domains. Archaea actively compete for environmental resources. They perceive themselves and can distinguish between ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. They process and evaluate available information and then modify their behaviour accordingly. They assess their surroundings, estimate how much energy they need for particular goals, and then realize the optimum variant. These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign(aling)- mediated communication processes within archaeal cells (intra-organismic), between the same, related and different archaeal species (interorganismic), and between archaea and nonarchaeal organisms (transorganismic). This is crucial in coordinating growth and development, shape and dynamics. Such communication must function both on the local level and between widely separated colony parts. This allows archaea to coordinate appropriate response behaviors in a differentiated manner to their current developmental status and physiological influences. This book will orientate further investigations on how archaeal ecosphere inhabitants communicate with each other to coordinate their behavioral patterns and whats the role of viruses in this highly dynamic interactional networks.



Bacteria in Agrobiology Stress Management

Bacteria in Agrobiology  Stress Management Author Dinesh K. Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783642234651
Release 2012-01-05
Pages 336
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The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. "Bacteria in Agrobiology: Stress Management" covers the major aspects on PGPR in amelioration of both abiotic and biotic stresses. PGPR mediated in priming of plant defense reactions, nutrient availability and management in saline and cold environment, hormonal signaling, ACC deaminase and its role in ethylene regulation under harsh conditions are suitably described.



Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture

Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture Author Dinesh K. Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783319059365
Release 2014-09-04
Pages 376
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The earth’s biodiversity is a degree of ecosystem health which is vital to ecology and environmental sustainability. The microbial world is the largest unexplored reservoir. The agro-ecosystem enriched with rhizosphere implicit abundant and species-rich component of microbial diversity. Its global exploration designs a worldwide framework for agricultural sustainability adjoining benefits in its conservation. Agricultural sustainability requires a major share from ecosystem management which is better paid by microbial diversity and conservation. Diversity of bacteria influences plant productivity providing nutrient convenience from soil instead altering per se community and diversity in the rhizosphere where they may influence mechanistic competent and antagonistic micro-flora. The potential species among the diversity are therefore, essential subjective to their maintenance for use around the globe. Microbial population in agro-ecosystem is influenced by stresses, reduce functionality as a component. It is therefore, important to explore secrets of planned strategy so as to unravel the microbial diversity and conservation in agricultural development. Microorganisms are minute, pervasive in nature and alleged as disease host instead tiny recognize as employee of agro-ecosystem, indulge in agricultural development and potential contributor in world of ecological and economical wealth creation. This step pertinently would help to launch scientific motivation needed to support the refrain of microbial diversity and conservation.



Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnology

Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnology Author Tulasi Satyanarayana
ISBN-10 9789400722149
Release 2012-01-02
Pages 829
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This review of recent developments in our understanding of the role of microbes in sustainable agriculture and biotechnology covers a research area with enormous untapped potential. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other agricultural inputs derived from fossil fuels have increased agricultural production, yet growing awareness and concern over their adverse effects on soil productivity and environmental quality cannot be ignored. The high cost of these products, the difficulties of meeting demand for them, and their harmful environmental legacy have encouraged scientists to develop alternative strategies to raise productivity, with microbes playing a central role in these efforts. One application is the use of soil microbes as bioinoculants for supplying nutrients and/or stimulating plant growth. Some rhizospheric microbes are known to synthesize plant growth-promoters, siderophores and antibiotics, as well as aiding phosphorous uptake. The last 40 years have seen rapid strides made in our appreciation of the diversity of environmental microbes and their possible benefits to sustainable agriculture and production. The advent of powerful new methodologies in microbial genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology has only quickened the pace of developments. The vital part played by microbes in sustaining our planet’s ecosystems only adds urgency to this enquiry. Culture-dependent microbes already contribute much to human life, yet the latent potential of vast numbers of uncultured—and thus untouched—microbes, is enormous. Culture-independent metagenomic approaches employed in a variety of natural habitats have alerted us to the sheer diversity of these microbes, and resulted in the characterization of novel genes and gene products. Several new antibiotics and biocatalysts have been discovered among environmental genomes and some products have already been commercialized. Meanwhile, dozens of industrial products currently formulated in large quantities from petrochemicals, such as ethanol, butanol, organic acids, and amino acids, are equally obtainable through microbial fermentation. Edited by a trio of recognized authorities on the subject, this survey of a fast-moving field—with so many benefits within reach—will be required reading for all those investigating ways to harness the power of microorganisms in making both agriculture and biotechnology more sustainable.



Sustainable Development at Risk

Sustainable Development at Risk Author Joseph H. Hulse
ISBN-10 9781552503683
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 390
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Over the past half century, the idea of sustainable development has drastically evolved and rooted itself in the lexicon of international development. But what is it, really? Are development agencies truly committed to long-term sustainable solutions to development issues? Are we learning from our past successes and failures? This book takes an historical perspective on these questions. The analysis begins with the Atlantic Charter, the creation of the United Nations, its family of agencies, and the international development banks. It reviews recommendations from international commissions and conferences, from World Bank and UNDP Human Development Reports. It comments on governmental policies, human and industrial actions detrimental to the planetOCOs environment and natural resources. It studies the patterns by which biotechnologies essential to human survival and health have progressed over the past 6000 years, and the consequences of uncontrolled urban growth on food and health security. The author hopes that this book will be OC informative and helpful to all who care about human suffering and degradation of the EarthOCOs environment and resources, in particular to men and women who are newcomers to international, governmental, and nongovernmental aid and assistance programs.OCO"



Biology and Biotechnology of Actinobacteria

Biology and Biotechnology of Actinobacteria Author Joachim Wink
ISBN-10 9783319603391
Release 2017-10-19
Pages 395
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This book provides in-depth insights into the biology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology and biotechnological applications of Actinobacteria. It especially focuses on the latter, reviewing the wide variety of actinobacterial bioactive molecules and their benefits for diverse industrial applications such as agriculture, aquaculture, biofuel production and food technology. Actinobacteria are one of the most promising sources of small bioactive molecules and it is estimated that only a small percentage of actinobacterial bioactive chemicals have been discovered to date. Identifying new diverse gene clusters of biotechnological relevance in the genome of Actinobacteria will be crucial to developing advanced applications for pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural purposes. The book offers a unique resource for all graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of microbiology, microbial biotechnology, and the genetic engineering of Actinobacteria.



Handbook of Forensic Genetics

Handbook of Forensic Genetics Author António Amorim
ISBN-10 1786340771
Release 2016-05
Pages 632
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The use of genetics for the resolution of legal conflicts has recently been gaining a higher profile, largely as a result of scientific and technological advancements and the substantial broadening of applications. The theoretical framework underlying forensic genetics is the same irrespective of the materials and technology involved, however a great divide still exists in the manner and processes related to human and non-human analyses. This advanced handbook intends to overcome the historical barriers between the scientific fields of legal medicine, biodiversity and conservation, and food analysis by presenting a unifying, global perspective on the implications of genetic analyses on forensic affairs. This global perspective is presented in three parts: modes of inheritance and reproduction and taxonomic implications; current technological approaches and future perspectives; and a comprehensive systematization of the types of applications and organisms. Finally, a critical revision of the current investigative/expert systems and future perspectives is undertaken. This book provides a collection of international research, thereby constituting a reference platform for the forensic community and an advanced textbook for graduate students. It encompasses the theoretical bases of the field, and presents in the context of both perspectives of forensic action -- probative and investigative -- a comprehensive coverage of the current applications and technological state of the art.



Freshwater Microbiology

Freshwater Microbiology Author David Sigee
ISBN-10 0470026472
Release 2005-09-27
Pages 544
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This unique textbook takes a broad look at the rapidly expanding field of freshwater microbiology. Concentrating on the interactions between viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi and micro-invertebrates, the book gives a wide biological appeal. Alongside conventional aspects such as phytoplankton characterisation, seasonal changes and nutrient cycles, the title focuses on the dynamic and applied aspects that are not covered within the current textbooks in the field. Complete coverage of all fresh water biota from viruses to invertebrates Unique focus on microbial interactions including coverage of biofilms, important communities on all exposed rivers and lakes. New information on molecular and microscopical techniques including a study of gene exchange between bacteria in the freshwater environment. Unique emphasis on the applied aspects of freshwater microbiology with particular emphasis on biodegradation and the causes and remediation of eutrophication and algal blooms.



Introduction to Biodiversity

Introduction to Biodiversity Author D.k.belsare
ISBN-10 8131300757
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 265
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Introduction to Biodiversity has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Introduction to Biodiversity also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Introduction to Biodiversity book for free.



Bioprospecting

Bioprospecting Author Russell Paterson
ISBN-10 9783319479354
Release 2016-12-12
Pages 303
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This book considers all aspects of bioprospecting in 14 succinct chapters and a forward by David Hawksworth. The organisms addressed include plants, insects, fungi, bacteria and phages. Bioprospecting has never been more relevant and is of renewed interest, because of the extremely worrying rise in novel, resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The practices in pharmaceutical companies have failed to deliver novel antibiotics to control these infections. We need to look for new sources of drugs from the environment on a massive scale as drug discovery is “too important to fail”. Furthermore, the field can add great value to ecosystems in terms of economics, while providing additional reasons for maintaining associated services, such as food provision, benign climate, effective nutrient cycling and cultural practices. Bioprospecting provides another reason why climate change must be reduced in order to preserve relevant environments. Previous bioprospecting projects should be re-visited and established biodiversity centres have a major role. Many different ecosystems exist which contain unique organisms with the potential to supply novel antibiotics, enzymes, food, and cosmetics, or they may simply have aesthetic value. The book stresses the difficulties in obtaining successful products and yet describes why natural products should be investigated over combinatorial chemistry. Personal experience of bioprospecting projects are given significance. Issues such as how to share the benefits equitably with local communities are described and why pharmaceutical companies can be reluctant to be involved. Legal issues are discussed. Finally, there has never been a better time for a new book on bioprospecting, because of the need to preserve ecosystems, and from the emergence of resistant pathogenic microorganisms.



Plant Microbe Interactions in Agro Ecological Perspectives

Plant Microbe Interactions in Agro Ecological Perspectives Author Dhananjaya Pratap Singh
ISBN-10 9789811065934
Release 2017-12-15
Pages 763
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This book puts an updated account on functional aspects of multiphasic microbial interactions within and between plants and their ecosystem. Multipronged interaction in the soil microbial communities with the plants constitute a relay of mechanisms that make profound changes in plant and its micro-environment in the rhizopshere at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In agro-ecological perspectives, such interactions are known to recycle nutrients and regulate signalling molecules, phytohormones and other small molecules that help plant growth and development. Such aspects are described deeply in this book taking examples from various crop plants and microbial systems. Authors described the most advantageous prospects of plant-microbe interaction in terms of inoculation of beneficial microorganisms (microbial inoculants) with the plants in which microbes proliferate in the root rhizosphere system and benefit plants' with definite functions like fixation of nitrogen, solubilization and mobilization of P, K, Zn and production of phytohormones. The subject of this book and the content presented herein has great relevance to the agro-ecological sustainability of crop plants with the help of microbial interactions. The chapters presented focus on defining and assessing the impact of beneficial microbial interactions on different soils, crops and abiotic conditions. This volume entails about exploiting beneficial microbial interactions to help plants under abiotic conditions, microbe-mediated induced systemic tolerance, role of mycorrhizal interactions in improving plant tolerance against stresses, PGPR as nutrient mobilizers, phytostimulants, antagonists and biocontrol agents, plant interactions with Trichoderma and other bioagents for sustainable intensification in agriculture, cyanobacteria as PGPRs, plant microbiome for crop management and phytoremediation and rhizoremediation using microbial communities. The overall content entrust advanced knowledge and applicability of diversified biotechnological, techno-commercial and agro-ecological aspects of microbial interactions and inoculants as inputs, which upon inoculation with crop plants benefit them in multiple ways.



Composting for Sustainable Agriculture

Composting for Sustainable Agriculture Author Dinesh K. Maheshwari
ISBN-10 9783319080048
Release 2014-10-21
Pages 290
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The dramatic worldwide increase in agricultural and industrial productivity has created severe environmental problems. Soil and groundwater reservoirs have been polluted with pesticides, xenobiotics and agro-chemicals. The global consensus to reduce inputs of chemical pesticides and agrochemical fertilizers, which are perceived at being hazardous by some consumers, has provided opportunities for the development of novel, benign sustainable crop management strategies. The future of agricultural depends upon our ability to enhance the productivity without damage to their long-term production potential. One of the strategies is the application of effective microbial products beneficial for both farmers and ecosystems. This kind of approach can ensure both ecological and economic sustainability. Soil microbial populations are immersed in framework of interactions, which are known to affect plant fitness and soil quality. For betterment of life of human being, improved quality and variety of products are formed due to versatile action of different group of microorganisms, Microbes are able to degrade solid waste material into compost which is a mixture of decayed organic matter, manure etc. Incomplete microbial degradation of organic waste where the microbial process varies aerobic to anaerobic form is stated as compost, if added to soil improves plant growth and development. The biological activities and microbial metabolism in the soil contribute to alter its mixture and fertility. Incorporation of organic remain in the form of compost is known to influence favourably the physio-chemical and biological properties of soil. The beneficial activities bestowed upon plants by compost utilization are multifaceted, hence most promising alternatives for achieving sustainable agricultural production. An increased awareness on compost has led to their use in agricultural concern. Contents in the present book will comprised various chapters on the role of beneficial bacteria in the composting process. The application is depicted to achieve the attainable productivity besides, in disease management and suppressiveness of organisms of phytopathogenic in nature. Significance of the compost elicits certain responses e.g. soil reclamation, soil fertility, soil health and disease management exhibit due to quality compost amendment in soil. It serves as low cost prospective option for sustainable crop production and protection.