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Handbook of Detergents Part B

Handbook of Detergents  Part B Author Uri Zoller
ISBN-10 9780203020500
Release 2004-08-30
Pages 838
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The second installment of the multivolume Handbook of Detergents deals with the potential environmental impact of detergents as a result of their production, formulation, usage, consumption, and disposal. This volume forms a comprehensive treatise on the multidimensional issues involved and emphasizes the alignment of scientific knowledge with the relevant contemporary data and methodologies in toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental risk assessment. With contributions from over 50 experts worldwide, this volume discusses industry procedures involving surfactant and detergent treatments and explores global concerns centering on recent legislative and regulatory developments.



Handbook for cleaning decontamination of surfaces

Handbook for cleaning decontamination of surfaces Author Ingegard Johansson
ISBN-10 0080555535
Release 2007-06-20
Pages 992
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The focus of Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces lies on cleaning and decontamination of surfaces and solid matter, hard as well as soft. Bringing together in a 2-volume reference source: - current knowledge of the physico-chemical fundamentals underlying the cleaning process; - the different needs for cleaning and how these needs are met by various types of cleaning processes and cleaning agents, including novel approaches; - how to test that cleaning has taken place and to what extent; - the effects of cleaning on the environment; - future trends in cleaning and decontamination, for example the idea of changing surfaces, to hinder the absorbance of dirt and thus make cleaning easier. A brief introduction is given to the legal demands concerning the environment and a historical background, in terms of development of detergents, from soaps to the modern sophisticated formulations. Bactericides, their use and the environmental demands on them are covered. Thorough discussions of mechanisms for cleaning are given in several chapters, both general basic concepts and special cases like particle cleaning and cleaning using microemulsion concepts. * General understanding of how cleaning works, function of ingredients and formulations * Overview of environmental issues and demands from the society in the area * Gives basic formulas for cleaning preparations in most areas



Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies

Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies Author Rainer Hofer
ISBN-10 9781847552686
Release 2009-11-20
Pages 524
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Limited supplies of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have created a strong desire to solve the resource issue in the age "beyond petroleum". This reference book, from the "Green Chemistry Series", contains the essential areas of green chemistry and sustainability in modern economies. It is the first book to outline the contribution of chemistry, and of renewable chemical or biological resources, to the sustainability concept and to the potential resolution of the world's energy problems. It describes the current status of technical research, and industrial application, as well as the potential of biomass as a renewable resource for energy generation in power stations, as alternative fuels, and for various uses in chemistry. It outlines the historical routes of the sustainability concept and specifies sustainability in metrics, facts and figures. The book is written by European experts from academia, industry and investment banking who are world leaders in research and technology regarding sustainability, alternative energies and renewable resources. The sustainability aspects covered include: * consumer behaviour and demands, lifestyles and mega trends, and their impact on innovation in the industry * consumer industry requirements and their impact on suppliers * emerging paradigm changes in raw material demand, availability, sourcing, and logistics * the contribution of the industry to restore the life support systems of the Earth * socially responsible banking and investment * sustainability metrics The book highlights the potential of the different forms of renewable raw materials including: * natural fats and oils * plant-based biologically active ingredients * industrial starch * sucrose * natural rubber * wood * natural fibres It also covers the actual status of biomass usage for green energy generation, green transportation, green chemistry and sustainable nutrition and consumer goods, and it depicts the potentials of green solvents and white biotechnology for modern synthesis and manufacturing technologies. The book is aimed at technical and marketing people in industry, universities and institutions as well as readers in administrations and NGOs. The book will also be of value to the worldwide public interested in sustainability issues and strategies as well as others interested in the practical means that are being used to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and products, to further eco-efficiency, and to advance the utilization of renewable resources.



Surfactants from Renewable Resources

Surfactants from Renewable Resources Author Mikael Kjellin
ISBN-10 0470686618
Release 2010-01-26
Pages 336
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Most modern surfactants are readily biodegradable and exhibit low toxicity in the aquatic environment, the two criteria for green surfactants. However the majority are synthesised from petroleum, so over the past decade the detergent industry has turned its attention to developing greener routes to create these surfactants via renewable building blocks. Surfactants from Renewable Resources presents the latest research and commercial applications in the emerging field of sustainable surfactant chemistry, with emphasis on production technology, surface chemical properties, biodegradability, ecotoxicity, market trends, economic viability and life-cycle analysis. Reviewing traditional sources for renewable surfactants as well as recent advances, this text focuses on techniques with potential for large scale application. Topics covered include: Renewable hydrophobes from natural fatty acids and forest industry by-products Renewable hydrophiles from carbohydrates, amino acids and lactic acid New ways of making renewable building blocks; ethylene from renewable resources and complex mixtures from waste biomass Biosurfactants Surface active polymers This book is a valuable resource for industrial researchers in companies that produce and use surfactants, as well as academic researchers in surface and polymer chemistry, sustainable chemistry and chemical engineering.



Handbook of Detergents Part E

Handbook of Detergents  Part E Author Uri Zoller
ISBN-10 9781574447576
Release 2008-10-29
Pages 504
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An Examination of Detergent Applications The fifth volume in a six volume project penned by detergent industry experts, this segment deals with the various applications of detergent formulations – surfactants, builders, sequestering/chelating agents – as well as other components. These applications are discussed with respect to the scope of their domestic, institutional, or industrial usages. Special focus is given to technological advancement, health and environmental concerns, and the rapid changes occurring in the field within the past several years. With each chapter providing the special access of a pioneering researcher, this text offers an insider’s look at the most current advances.



Giant Micelles

Giant Micelles Author Raoul Zana
ISBN-10 0849373085
Release 2007-05-30
Pages 576
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The co-evolution of a strong theoretical framework alongside application of a range of sophisticated experimental tools engendered rapid advancement in the study of “giant micelles.” Beginning with Anacker and Debye’s 1951 experimental study of elongated micelles by light scattering and their subsequent theoretical inference that the thermodynamics of these structures would have to reflect an opposing force model, theory and experiment have progressed hand in hand. This progress, along with growing interest in the practical and industrial applications of these structures in cleansers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and energy production, demands a comprehensive, single-source reference to the current state-of-the-science. Drawing on the expertise of internationally known scientists, Giant Micelles: Properties and Applications summarizes the range of behaviors encountered in solutions of micelles and their applications in industrial processes. The book introduces theoretical aspects of the rheological behavior and formation of giant micelles from different viewpoints including molecular-level thermodynamic theory and computer simulations. It continues by focusing on the results of a variety of experimental studies using methods such as cryo-transmission electron microscopy, scattering techniques, phase diagrams, linear and non-linear rheology, and chemical relaxation. Illustrating the properties of giant micelles on solid surfaces, the book also considers systems of smart micelles that respond to external stimuli by a change of shape. The authors describe giant micelles formed from amphiphilic block copolymers as well as non-covalent polymers that exhibit similar rheological behavior to giant micelles. Finally, the chapters address current and emerging applications of giant micelles in oil and gas production, drag reduction, drug-delivery formulations, and personal care products such as shampoo. By gathering a range of information into one volume, Giant Micelles: Properties and Applications provides scientists with an essential reference on these fascinating materials and their emerging role in industrial application.



Biodegradability of Surfactants

Biodegradability of Surfactants Author D.R. Karsa
ISBN-10 0751402060
Release 1994-12-31
Pages 257
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The awareness and development of 'biodegradable' surfactants pre-dates current pressures by the environmental movement by nearly three decades, wherein a responsible industry mutually agreed to replace 'hard', non-biodegradable com ponents of household detergents by 'soft', biodegradable alternatives, without course to legislation. The only requirement at that time was for surfactants used in detergents to exhibit a 'primary biodegradability' in excess of 80%; this referring to the disap pearance or removal from solution of the intact surface active material as de tected by specified analytical techniques. This proved useful, as observed environmental impacts of surfactants, e.g. visible foam on rivers, are associated with the intact molecule. Test methods for 'primary biodegradability' were eventually enshrined in EU legislation for nonionic surfactants (Directive 821242/EEC, amended 73/404IEEC) and for anionic surfactants (Directive 8212431EEC, amended 73/405IEEC). No approved test methods and resultant legislation have been developed for cationic and amphoteric surfactants to date. The environmental classification of chemical substances, which of course includes surfactants, and associated risk assessment utilises a second criterion 'ready biodegradability'. This may be assessed by a number of methods which monitor oxygen uptake (BOD), carbon dioxide production or removal of dis solved organic carbon (DOC). Some surfactants which comply with the above Detergents Directive are borderline when it comes to 'ready biodegradability'.



U S Environmental Protection Agency Library System book catalog holdings for the year

U S  Environmental Protection Agency Library System book catalog  holdings for the year Author United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Library Systems Branch
ISBN-10 MINN:30000010544306
Release 1977
Pages
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Includes the monographic collection of the 28 libraries comprising the Library System of the Environmental Protection Agency.



Abstracting and Indexing Services Directory

Abstracting and Indexing Services Directory Author
ISBN-10 NWU:35556018587659
Release 1982
Pages
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Abstracting and Indexing Services Directory has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Abstracting and Indexing Services Directory also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Abstracting and Indexing Services Directory book for free.



Toxic Substances Sourcebook

Toxic Substances Sourcebook Author
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822008168569
Release 1978
Pages
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Toxic Substances Sourcebook has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Toxic Substances Sourcebook also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Toxic Substances Sourcebook book for free.