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Handbook of Set Theory

Handbook of Set Theory Author Matthew Foreman
ISBN-10 9781402057649
Release 2009-12-10
Pages 2230
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Numbers imitate space, which is of such a di?erent nature —Blaise Pascal It is fair to date the study of the foundation of mathematics back to the ancient Greeks. The urge to understand and systematize the mathematics of the time led Euclid to postulate axioms in an early attempt to put geometry on a ?rm footing. With roots in the Elements, the distinctive methodology of mathematics has become proof. Inevitably two questions arise: What are proofs? and What assumptions are proofs based on? The ?rst question, traditionally an internal question of the ?eld of logic, was also wrestled with in antiquity. Aristotle gave his famous syllogistic s- tems, and the Stoics had a nascent propositional logic. This study continued with ?ts and starts, through Boethius, the Arabs and the medieval logicians in Paris and London. The early germs of logic emerged in the context of philosophy and theology. The development of analytic geometry, as exempli?ed by Descartes, ill- tratedoneofthedi?cultiesinherentinfoundingmathematics. Itisclassically phrased as the question ofhow one reconciles the arithmetic with the geom- ric. Arenumbers onetypeofthingand geometricobjectsanother? Whatare the relationships between these two types of objects? How can they interact? Discovery of new types of mathematical objects, such as imaginary numbers and, much later, formal objects such as free groups and formal power series make the problem of ?nding a common playing ?eld for all of mathematics importunate. Several pressures made foundational issues urgent in the 19th century.



Handbook of Set Theory

Handbook of Set Theory Author Matthew Foreman
ISBN-10 9048118069
Release 2010-11-15
Pages 2196
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Numbers imitate space, which is of such a di?erent nature —Blaise Pascal It is fair to date the study of the foundation of mathematics back to the ancient Greeks. The urge to understand and systematize the mathematics of the time led Euclid to postulate axioms in an early attempt to put geometry on a ?rm footing. With roots in the Elements, the distinctive methodology of mathematics has become proof. Inevitably two questions arise: What are proofs? and What assumptions are proofs based on? The ?rst question, traditionally an internal question of the ?eld of logic, was also wrestled with in antiquity. Aristotle gave his famous syllogistic s- tems, and the Stoics had a nascent propositional logic. This study continued with ?ts and starts, through Boethius, the Arabs and the medieval logicians in Paris and London. The early germs of logic emerged in the context of philosophy and theology. The development of analytic geometry, as exempli?ed by Descartes, ill- tratedoneofthedi?cultiesinherentinfoundingmathematics. Itisclassically phrased as the question ofhow one reconciles the arithmetic with the geom- ric. Arenumbers onetypeofthingand geometricobjectsanother? Whatare the relationships between these two types of objects? How can they interact? Discovery of new types of mathematical objects, such as imaginary numbers and, much later, formal objects such as free groups and formal power series make the problem of ?nding a common playing ?eld for all of mathematics importunate. Several pressures made foundational issues urgent in the 19th century.



Handbook of Set Theoretic Topology

Handbook of Set Theoretic Topology Author K. Kunen
ISBN-10 9781483295152
Release 2014-06-28
Pages 1282
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This Handbook is an introduction to set-theoretic topology for students in the field and for researchers in other areas for whom results in set-theoretic topology may be relevant. The aim of the editors has been to make it as self-contained as possible without repeating material which can easily be found in standard texts. The Handbook contains detailed proofs of core results, and references to the literature for peripheral results where space was insufficient. Included are many open problems of current interest. In general, the articles may be read in any order. In a few cases they occur in pairs, with the first one giving an elementary treatment of a subject and the second one more advanced results. These pairs are: Hodel and Juhász on cardinal functions; Roitman and Abraham-Todorčević on S- and L-spaces; Weiss and Baumgartner on versions of Martin's axiom; and Vaughan and Stephenson on compactness properties.



Handbook of Research on Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory in Organizational Decision Making

Handbook of Research on Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory in Organizational Decision Making Author Sangaiah, Arun Kumar
ISBN-10 9781522510093
Release 2016-10-17
Pages 474
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Soft computing techniques are innovative tools that use nature-inspired algorithms to run predictive analysis of industries from business to software measurement. These tools have gained momentum in recent years for their practicality and flexibility. The Handbook of Research on Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory in Organizational Decision Making collects both empirical and applied research in the field of fuzzy set theory, and bridges the gap between the application of soft computational approaches and the organizational decision making process. This publication is a pivotal reference for business professionals, IT specialists, software engineers, and advanced students of business and information technology.



Handbook of Mathematical Logic

Handbook of Mathematical Logic Author J. Barwise
ISBN-10 0080933645
Release 1982-03-01
Pages 1164
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The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.



Handbook of Proof Theory

Handbook of Proof Theory Author S.R. Buss
ISBN-10 0080533183
Release 1998-07-09
Pages 810
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This volume contains articles covering a broad spectrum of proof theory, with an emphasis on its mathematical aspects. The articles should not only be interesting to specialists of proof theory, but should also be accessible to a diverse audience, including logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists and philosophers. Many of the central topics of proof theory have been included in a self-contained expository of articles, covered in great detail and depth. The chapters are arranged so that the two introductory articles come first; these are then followed by articles from core classical areas of proof theory; the handbook concludes with articles that deal with topics closely related to computer science.



Handbook of Computability Theory

Handbook of Computability Theory Author E.R. Griffor
ISBN-10 0080533043
Release 1999-10-01
Pages 724
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The chapters of this volume all have their own level of presentation. The topics have been chosen based on the active research interest associated with them. Since the interest in some topics is older than that in others, some presentations contain fundamental definitions and basic results while others relate very little of the elementary theory behind them and aim directly toward an exposition of advanced results. Presentations of the latter sort are in some cases restricted to a short survey of recent results (due to the complexity of the methods and proofs themselves). Hence the variation in level of presentation from chapter to chapter only reflects the conceptual situation itself. One example of this is the collective efforts to develop an acceptable theory of computation on the real numbers. The last two decades has seen at least two new definitions of effective operations on the real numbers.



Handbook of Measure Theory

Handbook of Measure Theory Author E. Pap
ISBN-10 0080533094
Release 2002-10-31
Pages 1632
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The main goal of this Handbook is to survey measure theory with its many different branches and its relations with other areas of mathematics. Mostly aggregating many classical branches of measure theory the aim of the Handbook is also to cover new fields, approaches and applications which support the idea of "measure" in a wider sense, e.g. the ninth part of the Handbook. Although chapters are written of surveys in the various areas they contain many special topics and challenging problems valuable for experts and rich sources of inspiration. Mathematicians from other areas as well as physicists, computer scientists, engineers and econometrists will find useful results and powerful methods for their research. The reader may find in the Handbook many close relations to other mathematical areas: real analysis, probability theory, statistics, ergodic theory, functional analysis, potential theory, topology, set theory, geometry, differential equations, optimization, variational analysis, decision making and others. The Handbook is a rich source of relevant references to articles, books and lecture notes and it contains for the reader's convenience an extensive subject and author index.



Handbook of Analysis and Its Foundations

Handbook of Analysis and Its Foundations Author Eric Schechter
ISBN-10 0080532993
Release 1996-10-24
Pages 883
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Handbook of Analysis and Its Foundations is a self-contained and unified handbook on mathematical analysis and its foundations. Intended as a self-study guide for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduatestudents in mathematics and a reference for more advanced mathematicians, this highly readable book provides broader coverage than competing texts in the area. Handbook of Analysis and Its Foundations provides an introduction to a wide range of topics, including: algebra; topology; normed spaces; integration theory; topological vector spaces; and differential equations. The author effectively demonstrates the relationships between these topics and includes a few chapters on set theory and logic to explain the lack of examples for classical pathological objects whose existence proofs are not constructive. More complete than any other book on the subject, students will find this to be an invaluable handbook. Covers some hard-to-find results including: Bessagas and Meyers converses of the Contraction Fixed Point Theorem Redefinition of subnets by Aarnes and Andenaes Ghermans characterization of topological convergences Neumanns nonlinear Closed Graph Theorem van Maarens geometry-free version of Sperners Lemma Includes a few advanced topics in functional analysis Features all areas of the foundations of analysis except geometry Combines material usually found in many different sources, making this unified treatment more convenient for the user Has its own webpage: http://math.vanderbilt.edu/



Handbook of Mathematical Induction

Handbook of Mathematical Induction Author David S. Gunderson
ISBN-10 113819901X
Release 2016-10
Pages 921
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Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "



Set Theory

Set Theory Author Joan Bagaria
ISBN-10 9783764376925
Release 2006-09-05
Pages 406
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Set Theory has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Set Theory also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Set Theory book for free.



Handbook of Mathematical Formulas

Handbook of Mathematical Formulas Author Hans-Jochen Bartsch
ISBN-10 9781483267425
Release 2014-05-10
Pages 528
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Handbook of Mathematical Formulas presents a compilation of formulas to provide the necessary educational aid. This book covers the whole field from the basic rules of arithmetic, via analytic geometry and infinitesimal calculus through to Fourier's series and the basics of probability calculus. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental notions of set theory. This text then explains linear expression wherein the variables are only multiplied by constants and added to constants or expressions of the same kind. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including matrices, statistics, linear optimization, Boolean algebra, and Laplace's transforms. This book discusses as well the various systems of coordinates in analytical geometry. The final chapter deals with algebra of logic and its development into a two-value Boolean algebra as switching algebra. This book is intended to be suitable for students of technical schools, colleges, and universities.



Handbook of Quantum Logic and Quantum Structures

Handbook of Quantum Logic and Quantum Structures Author Kurt Engesser
ISBN-10 008055038X
Release 2011-08-11
Pages 818
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Since its inception in the famous 1936 paper by Birkhoff and von Neumann entitled “The logic of quantum mechanics quantum logic, i.e. the logical investigation of quantum mechanics, has undergone an enormous development. Various schools of thought and approaches have emerged and there are a variety of technical results. Quantum logic is a heterogeneous field of research ranging from investigations which may be termed logical in the traditional sense to studies focusing on structures which are on the border between algebra and logic. For the latter structures the term quantum structures is appropriate. The chapters of this Handbook, which are authored by the most eminent scholars in the field, constitute a comprehensive presentation of the main schools, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic and quantum structures. Much of the material presented is of recent origin representing the frontier of the subject. The present volume focuses on quantum structures. Among the structures studied extensively in this volume are, just to name a few, Hilbert lattices, D-posets, effect algebras MV algebras, partially ordered Abelian groups and those structures underlying quantum probability. - Written by eminent scholars in the field of logic - A comprehensive presentation of the theory, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic - Volume focuses on quantum structures



Set Theory

Set Theory Author Thomas Jech
ISBN-10 9783662224007
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 634
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The main body of this book consists of 106 numbered theorems and a dozen of examples of models of set theory. A large number of additional results is given in the exercises, which are scattered throughout the text. Most exer cises are provided with an outline of proof in square brackets [ ], and the more difficult ones are indicated by an asterisk. I am greatly indebted to all those mathematicians, too numerous to men tion by name, who in their letters, preprints, handwritten notes, lectures, seminars, and many conversations over the past decade shared with me their insight into this exciting subject. XI CONTENTS Preface xi PART I SETS Chapter 1 AXIOMATIC SET THEORY I. Axioms of Set Theory I 2. Ordinal Numbers 12 3. Cardinal Numbers 22 4. Real Numbers 29 5. The Axiom of Choice 38 6. Cardinal Arithmetic 42 7. Filters and Ideals. Closed Unbounded Sets 52 8. Singular Cardinals 61 9. The Axiom of Regularity 70 Appendix: Bernays-Godel Axiomatic Set Theory 76 Chapter 2 TRANSITIVE MODELS OF SET THEORY 10. Models of Set Theory 78 II. Transitive Models of ZF 87 12. Constructible Sets 99 13. Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis 108 14. The In Hierarchy of Classes, Relations, and Functions 114 15. Relative Constructibility and Ordinal Definability 126 PART II MORE SETS Chapter 3 FORCING AND GENERIC MODELS 16. Generic Models 137 17. Complete Boolean Algebras 144 18.



Handbook of Mathematical Fuzzy Logic

Handbook of Mathematical Fuzzy Logic Author Petr Cintula
ISBN-10 1848901933
Release 2015-12-31
Pages 384
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Originating as an attempt to provide solid logical foundations for fuzzy set theory, and motivated also by philosophical and computational problems of vagueness and imprecision, Mathematical Fuzzy Logic (MFL) has become a significant subfield of mathematical logic. Research in this area focuses on many-valued logics with linearly ordered truth values and has yielded elegant and deep mathematical theories and challenging problems, thus continuing to attract an ever increasing number of researchers. This handbook provides, through its several volumes, an up-to-date systematic presentation of the best-developed areas of MFL. Its intended audience is researchers working on MFL or related fields, that may use the text as a reference book, and anyone looking for a comprehensive introduction to MFL. This handbook will be useful not only for readers interested in pure mathematical logic, but also for those interested in logical foundations of fuzzy set theory or in a mathematical apparatus suitable for dealing with some philosophical and linguistic issues related to vagueness. This third volume starts with three chapters on semantics of fuzzy logics, namely, on the structure of linearly ordered algebras, on semantic games, and on Ulam-Renyi games; it continues with an introduction to fuzzy logics with evaluated syntax, a survey of fuzzy description logics, and a study of probability on MV-algebras; and it ends with a philosophical chapter on the role of fuzzy logics in theories of vagueness."



Handbook of Logic and Proof Techniques for Computer Science

Handbook of Logic and Proof Techniques for Computer Science Author Steven G. Krantz
ISBN-10 9781461201151
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 245
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Logic is, and should be, the core subject area of modern mathemat ics. The blueprint for twentieth century mathematical thought, thanks to Hilbert and Bourbaki, is the axiomatic development of the subject. As a result, logic plays a central conceptual role. At the same time, mathematical logic has grown into one of the most recondite areas of mathematics. Most of modern logic is inaccessible to all but the special ist. Yet there is a need for many mathematical scientists-not just those engaged in mathematical research-to become conversant with the key ideas of logic. The Handbook of Mathematical Logic, edited by Jon Bar wise, is in point of fact a handbook written by logicians for other mathe maticians. It was, at the time of its writing, encyclopedic, authoritative, and up-to-the-moment. But it was, and remains, a comprehensive and authoritative book for the cognoscenti. The encyclopedic Handbook of Logic in Computer Science by Abramsky, Gabbay, and Maibaum is a wonderful resource for the professional. But it is overwhelming for the casual user. There is need for a book that introduces important logic terminology and concepts to the working mathematical scientist who has only a passing acquaintance with logic. Thus the present work has a different target audience. The intent of this handbook is to present the elements of modern logic, including many current topics, to the reader having only basic mathe matical literacy.



Jazz Theory Handbook

Jazz Theory Handbook Author PETER SPITZER
ISBN-10 9781619115187
Release 2015-07-24
Pages 136
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Jazz Theory Handbook is a complete guide to all the essential topics of jazz theory, suitable for all treble instruments. Its approach is clear and concise,realistic and practical. This book will help you to understand how contemporaryjazz players think, and to apply theory concepts in your own playing. Subjects are introduced progressively, with each new one based on those introduced before. Topics include chord building, harmonic movement, modes, II-V-I licks, polychords, blues, rhythm changes, how to learn tunes, practice techniques,playing outside, and more. All of the book's musical examples are performed on the accompanying audio, along with sample solos and 3 play-along tracks with a great rhythm section. Jazz Theory Handbook is designed for both self- study andclassroom use. Audio download available online