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Have Bacteria Won

Have Bacteria Won Author Hugh Pennington
ISBN-10 9780745690834
Release 2015-11-12
Pages 168
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Today, we are far less likely to die from infection than at any other time in history, but still we worry about epidemics, the menace of antibiotic resistance and modern ?plagues? like Ebola. In this timely new book, eminent bacteriologist Hugh Pennington explores why these fears remain and why they are unfounded. He reports on outright victories (such as smallpox), battles where the enemy is on its last stand (polio), surprise attacks from vegetarian bats (Ebola, SARS) and demented cows (BSE). Qualified optimism, he argues, is the message for the future but the battles will go on forever.

Human Frontiers Environments and Disease

Human Frontiers  Environments and Disease Author Anthony J. McMichael
ISBN-10 0521004942
Release 2001-06-28
Pages 413
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This compelling account charts the relentless trajectory of humankind, and its changing survival and disease patterns, across place and time from when our ancient ancestors roamed the African Savannah to today's populous, industrialised, globalising world. This expansion of human frontiers - geographic, climatic, cultural and technological - has encountered frequent setbacks from disease, famine and dwindling resources. The social and environmental transformations wrought by agrarianism, industrialisation, fertility control, social modernisation, urbanisation and mass consumption have profoundly affected patterns of health and disease. Today, as life expectancies rise, the planet's ecosystems are being damaged by the combined weight of population size and intensive economic activity. Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion and loss of biodiversity pose large-scale hazards to human health and survival. Recognising this, can we achieve a transition to sustainability? This and other profound questions underlie this chronicle of expansive human activity, social change, environmental impact and their health consequences.

Can Neuroscience Change Our Minds

Can Neuroscience Change Our Minds Author Hilary Rose
ISBN-10 9780745689357
Release 2016-09-06
Pages 176
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Neuroscience, with its astounding new technologies, is uncovering the workings of the brain and with this perhaps the mind. The 'neuro' prefix spills out into every area of life, from neuroaesthetics to neuroeconomics, neurogastronomy and neuroeducation. With its promise to cure physical and social ills, government sees neuroscience as a tool to increase the 'mental capital' of the children of the deprived and workless. It sets aside intensifying poverty and inequality, instead claiming that basing children's rearing and education on brain science will transform both the child's and the nation's health and wealth. Leading critic of such neuropretensions, neuroscientist Steven Rose and sociologist of science Hilary Rose take a sceptical look at these claims and the science underlying them, sifting out the sensible from the snake oil. Examining the ways in which science is shaped by and shapes the political economy of neoliberalism, they argue that neuroscience on its own is not able to bear the weight of these hopes.

Can Science Resolve the Nature Nurture Debate

Can Science Resolve the Nature   Nurture Debate Author Margaret Lock
ISBN-10 9780745690001
Release 2016-06-20
Pages 160
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Following centuries of debate about "nature and nurture" the discovery of DNA established the idea that nature (genes) determines who we are, relegating nurture (environment) to icing on the cake. Since the 1950s, the new science of epigenetics has demonstrated how cellular environments and certain experiences and behaviors influence gene expression at the molecular level, with significant implications for health and wellbeing. To the amazement of scientists, mapping the human genome indirectly supported these insights. Anthropologists Margaret Lock and Gisli Palsson outline vituperative arguments from Classical times about the relationship between nature and nurture, furthered today by epigenetic findings and the demonstration of a "reactive genome." The nature/nurture debate, they show, can never be put to rest, because these concepts are in constant flux in response to the new insights science continually offers.

Can Science End War

Can Science End War Author Everett Carl Dolman
ISBN-10 9780745685991
Release 2015-10-14
Pages 200
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Free-roaming killer drones stalk the battlespace looking for organic targets. Human combatants are programmed to feel no pain. Highpower microwave beams detonate munitions, jam communications, and cook internal organs. Is this vision of future war possible, or even inevitable? In this timely new book, Everett Carl Dolman examines the relationship between science and war. Historically, science has played an important role in ending wars – think of the part played by tanks in breaching trench warfare in the First World War, or atom bombs in hastening the Japanese surrender in the Second World War – but to date this has only increased the danger and destructiveness of future conflicts. Could science ever create the con-ditions of a permanent peace, either by making wars impossible to win, or so horrific that no one would ever fight? Ultimately, Dolman argues that science cannot, on its own, end war without also ending what it means to be human.

Will Robots Take Your Job A Plea for Consensus

Will Robots Take Your Job   A Plea for Consensus Author Nigel M. de S. Cameron
ISBN-10 9781509509591
Release 2017-06-23
Pages 176
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The trend that began with ATMs and do-it-yourself checkouts is moving at lightning speed. Everything from driving to teaching to the care of the elderly and, indeed, code-writing can now be done by smart machines. Conventional wisdom says there will be new jobs to replace those we lose – but is it so simple? And are we ready? Technology writer and think-tank director Nigel Cameron argues it's naive to believe we face a smooth transition. Whether or not there are "new" jobs, we face massive disruption as the jobs millions of us are doing get outsourced to machines. A twenty-first-century "rust belt" will rapidly corrode the labor market and affect literally hundreds of different kinds of jobs simultaneously. Robots won't design our future – we will. Yet shockingly, political leaders and policy makers don't seem to have this in their line of sight. So how should we assess and prepare for the risks of this unknown future?

New Scientist

New Scientist Author
Release 1987-06-18
Pages 104
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New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

Bacterial Exotoxins How Bacteria Fight the Immune System

Bacterial Exotoxins  How Bacteria Fight the Immune System Author Inka Sastalla
ISBN-10 9782889199914
Release 2016-10-07
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Bacterial pathogenicity factors are functionally diverse. They may facilitate the adhesion and colonization of bacteria, influence the host immune response, assist spreading of the bacterium by e.g. evading recognition by immune cells, or allow bacteria to dwell within protected niches inside the eukaryotic cell. Exotoxins can be single polypeptides or heteromeric protein complexes that act on different parts of the cells. At the cell surface, they may insert into the membrane to cause damage; bind to receptors to initiate their uptake; or facilitate the interaction with other cell types. For example, bacterial superantigens specifically bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells and the T cell receptor, while cytolysins cause pore formation. For intracellular activity, exotoxins need to be translocated across the eukaryotic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria can directly inject effector proteins in a receptor-independent manner by use of specialized needle apparatus such as bacterial type II, III, or type IV secretion systems. Other methods of translocation include the phagocytic uptake of bacteria followed by toxin secretion, or receptor-mediated endocytosis which allows the targeting of distinct cell types. Receptor-based uptake is initiated by the binding of heteromeric toxin complexes to the cell surface and completed by the translocation of the effector protein(s) across the endosomal membrane. In the cytosol, toxins interact with specific eukaryotic target proteins to cause post-translational modifications that often result in the manipulation of cellular signalling cascades and inflammatory responses. It has become evident that the actions of some bacterial toxins may exceed their originally assumed cytotoxic function. For example, pore-forming toxins do not only cause cytolysis, but may also induce autophagy, pyroptosis, or activation of the MAPK pathways, resulting in adjustment of the host immune response to infection and modification of inflammatory responses both locally and systemically. Other recently elucidated examples of the immunomodulatory function of cell death-inducing exotoxins include TcdB of Clostridium difficile which activates the inflammasome through modification of cellular Rho GTPases, or the Staphyloccocus d-toxin which activates mast cells. The goal of this research topic was to gather current knowledge on the interaction of bacterial exotoxins and effector proteins with the host immune system. The following 16 research and review articles in this special issue describe mechanisms of immune modification and evasion and provide an overview over the complexity of bacterial toxin interaction with different cells of the immune system.

Bifidobacteria and their role in the human gut microbiota

Bifidobacteria and their role in the human gut microbiota Author Francesca Turroni
ISBN-10 9782889451005
Release 2017-02-15
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The human intestine is home of an almost inconceivable large number of microorganisms. The human gut microbiota can therefore be pictured as an organ placed within a host organism. The human gut microbiome, which in total may contain >100 times the number of genes present in our genome, endows us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves. It is recognized that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. In fact, gut bacteria other than metabolize dietary components, may play complex roles such as modulation of the immune system and in reduction of gut infections. Variations in the presence and/or abundance of certain components of the intestinal microbiota have repeatedly been observed in patients that suffer from atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, colon cancer and diabetes. In this context, bifidobacteria represent one of the most common bacterial members of the human gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, Gram-positive, irregular or branched rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT) of humans, especially during the first stages of life and most animal and insects. Bifidobacterial fluctuations seem directly associated with health effects and for these reasons they are being exploited as health-promoting or probiotic bacteria. However, despite the extensive commercial exploitation of bifidobacteria as probiotic bacteria, little is known about their impact or dependency on other members of the human gut microbiota or on their host. Genome analyses have highlighted the existence of gene repertoires encoding products that are responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human intestine and intense research efforts at international level are ongoing to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Specifically, the molecular interactions that are presumed to exist between bifidobacteria and the human host, as well as interactions between different residents of intestinal microbiota are the main topic of bifidobacterial research communities.

Invisible Frontiers

Invisible Frontiers Author Stephen S. Hall
ISBN-10 0195151593
Release 2002
Pages 334
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Author Stephen Hall weaves together the scientific, social and political threads of this story - the fierce rivalry between labs, the fateful clash of egos within labs, the invasion of academia by commerce, the public fears about genetic engineering, the threat of government regulation, and the ultimate triumph of modern biology - to give us an outstanding tale of scientific research."--BOOK JACKET.

New Scientist

New Scientist Author
Release 1989-06-10
Pages 108
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New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching A Battle with No End in Sight

Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching  A Battle with No End in Sight Author Vipin Chandra Kalia
ISBN-10 9788132219828
Release 2014-09-29
Pages 391
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Microbial relationships with all life forms can be as free living, symbiotic or pathogenic. Human beings harbor 10 times more microbial cells than their own. Bacteria are found on the skin surface, in the gut and other body parts. Bacteria causing diseases are the most worrisome. Most of the infectious diseases are caused by bacterial pathogens with an ability to form biofilm. Bacteria within the biofilm are up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics. This has taken a more serious turn with the evolution of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Health Departments are making efforts to reduce high mortality and morbidity in man caused by them. Bacterial Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density dependent phenomenon is responsible for a wide range of expressions such as pathogenesis, biofilm formation, competence, sporulation, nitrogen fixation, etc. Majority of these organisms that are important for medical, agriculture, aquaculture, water treatment and remediation, archaeological departments are: Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Clostridia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Yersinia spp. Biosensors and models have been developed to detect QS systems. Strategies for inhibiting QS system through natural and synthetic compounds have been presented here. The biotechnological applications of QS inhibitors (QSIs) in diverse areas have also been dealt with. Although QSIs do not affect growth and are less likely to impose selective pressure on bacteria, however, a few reports have raised doubts on the fate of QSIs. This book addresses a few questions. Will bacteria develop mechanisms to evade QSIs? Are we watching yet another defeat at the hands of bacteria? Or will we be acting intelligently and survive the onslaughts of this Never Ending battle?

Grant Application Writer s Handbook

Grant Application Writer s Handbook Author Liane Reif-Lehrer
ISBN-10 0763716421
Release 2005
Pages 362
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In this era of tight budgets, it takes more than just a good idea to get a grant funded. In this book, Dr. Liane Reif-Lehrer tells you how to optimize your chances for success. She shows you, step-by-step, how to plan and develop a good proposal, explains what reviewers look for in applications, and discusses changes at NIH and NSF. the advice in this book is useful for many types of grant applications, business plans, journal articles, and research reports.

Stories of Success

Stories of Success Author
ISBN-10 9780080932613
Release 2008-10-07
Pages 596
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This book is the latest volume in the highly successful series Comprehensive Biochemistry. It provides a historical and autobiographical perspective of the developments in the field through the contributions of leading individuals who reflect on their careers and their impact on biochemistry. Volume 46 is essential reading for everyone from graduate student to professor, placing in context major advances not only in biochemical terms but in relation to historical and social developments. Readers will be delighted by the lively style and the insight into the lives and careers of leading scientists of their time. * Contributors are distinguished scientists in the field * Unique series of personal recollections * Presents scientific research in a historical perspective

Plants as alternative hosts for human and animal pathogens

Plants as alternative hosts for human and animal pathogens Author Nicola J. Holden
ISBN-10 9782889195787
Release 2015-07-02
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Many of the most prevalent and devastating human and animal pathogens have part of their lifecycle out-with the animal host. These pathogens have a remarkably wide capacity to adapt to a range of quite different environments: physical, chemical and biological, which is part of the key to their success. Many of the well-known pathogens that are able to jump between hosts in different biological kingdoms are transmitted through the faecal-oral and direct transmission pathways, and as such have become important food-borne pathogens. Some high-profile examples include fresh produce-associated outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Other pathogens may be transmitted via direct contact or aerosols are include important zoonotic pathogens. It is possible to make a broad division between those pathogens that are passively transmitted via vectors and need the animal host for replication (e.g. virus and parasites), and those that are able to actively interact with alternative hosts, where they can proliferate (e.g. the enteric bacteria). This research topic will focus on plants as alternative hosts for human pathogens, and the role of plants in their transmission back to humans. The area is particularly exciting because it opens up new aspects to the biology of some microbes already considered to be very well characterised. One aspect of cross-kingdom host colonisation is in the comparison between the hosts and how the microbes are able to use both common and specific adaptations for each situation. The area is still in relative infancy and there are far more questions than answers at present. We aim to address important questions underlying the interactions for both the microbe and plant host in this research topic.

Japan and the Politics of Techno globalism

Japan and the Politics of Techno globalism Author Gregory P. Corning
ISBN-10 9781315498805
Release 2016-07-08
Pages 288
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"Techno-globalism" is the term used by policymakers to describe the process of opening government and Research and Development programs to foreign participation. This book focuses on Japan's approach to techno-globalism, in particular the policies of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). It also explores the politics underlying the approach to this issue in the triad of leading R&D centers - Japan, the United States, and the European Union. The author examines various theoretical approaches to the political economy of globalization, and he describes systems of innovation in Japan, the United States, and the European Union, emphasizing research linkages among forms, national labs, and universities.

Insights into Microbe Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems Strategies to be Competitive

Insights into Microbe Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems  Strategies to be Competitive Author Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
ISBN-10 9782889450527
Release 2016-12-01
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.