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History and Philosophy of Biology

History and Philosophy of Biology Author Robert Kretsinger
ISBN-10 9789814635066
Release 2015-04-29
Pages 364
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History and Philosophy of Biology summarizes the major philosophical ideas that have attended the development of science in general and of biology in particular. The book then explores how the techniques and the concepts of the physical sciences have impacted biology. A reductionist approach to biology — anatomy, physiology, genetics — complements the study of evolution by natural selection and an ecological perspective. The final section of the book explores several examples of the influence of science on society, and of society on science. Each of 46 chapters of History and Philosophy of Biology has been or could be the topic of a major tome. The book is unique in that it explores the web of interactions among issues of philosophy, techniques and concepts of the physical sciences, fields of biology, and the diverse relationships between society and science. The book should appeal to readers of Scientific American or the New York Review of Books even if they are not trained biologists. It is a good text, or additional reading, for an advanced undergraduate course treating history and/or philosophy of biology or of science in general.



Thinking about Life

Thinking about Life Author Paul S. Agutter
ISBN-10 9781402088667
Release 2008-11-05
Pages 267
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Our previous book, About Life, concerned modern biology. We used our present-day understanding of cells to ‘define’ the living state, providing a basis for exploring several general-interest topics: the origin of life, extraterrestrial life, intelligence, and the possibility that humans are unique. The ideas we proposed in About Life were intended as starting-points for debate – we did not claim them as ‘truth’ – but the information on which they were based is currently accepted as ‘scientific fact’. What does that mean? What is ‘scientific fact’ and why is it accepted? What is science – and is biology like other sciences such as physics (except in subject m- ter)? The book you are now reading investigates these questions – and some related ones. Like About Life, it may particularly interest a reader who wishes to change career to biology and its related subdisciplines. In line with a recommendation by the British Association for the Advancement of Science – that the public should be given fuller information about the nature of science – we present the concepts underpinning biology and a survey of its historical and philosophical basis.



Theory Change in Science

Theory Change in Science Author Lindley Darden
ISBN-10 0195361814
Release 1991-09-12
Pages 328
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This challenging and innovative book examines the processes involved in the birth and development of new scientific ideas. The author has searched for strategies used by scientists for producing new theories, both those that yield a range of plausible hypotheses and ones that aid in narrowing that range. She goes on to focus on the development of the theory of the gene as a case study in scientific creativity. Her discussion of modern genetics greatly demystifies the philosophy of science, and establishes a realistic framework for understanding how scientists actually go about their work. This compelling work will interest a broad range of readers, including biologists and geneticists, along with historians and philosophers of science.



The Philosophy of Biology

The Philosophy of Biology Author Marjorie Grene
ISBN-10 0521643805
Release 2004-08-02
Pages 416
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Examines how the philosophy of biology has evolved to our current understanding.



Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 10 2005

Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 10 2005 Author
ISBN-10 9783938616390
Release
Pages
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Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 10 2005 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 10 2005 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 10 2005 book for free.



The Philosophy of Biology

The Philosophy of Biology Author Kostas Kampourakis
ISBN-10 9789400765375
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 762
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This book brings together for the first time philosophers of biology to write about some of the most central concepts and issues in their field from the perspective of biology education. The chapters of the book cover a variety of topics ranging from traditional ones, such as biological explanation, biology and religion or biology and ethics, to contemporary ones, such as genomics, systems biology or evolutionary developmental biology. Each of the 30 chapters covers the respective philosophical literature in detail and makes specific suggestions for biology education. The aim of this book is to inform biology educators, undergraduate and graduate students in biology and related fields, students in teacher training programs, and curriculum developers about the current state of discussion on the major topics in the philosophy of biology and its implications for teaching biology. In addition, the book can be valuable to philosophers of biology as an introductory text in undergraduate and graduate courses.



Trees of Life

Trees of Life Author P.E. Griffiths
ISBN-10 9789401580380
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 277
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Australia and New Zealand boast an active community of scholars working in the field of history, philosophy and social studies of science. • Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science' aims to provide a distinctive publication outlet for their work. Each volume comprises a group of essays on a connected theme, edited by an Australian or a New Zealander with special expertise in that particular area .. In each volume, a majority of the contributors is from Australia or New Zealand. O;mtributions from elsewhere are by no means ruled out, however, and are indeed actively encouraged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question. Earlier volumes in the series have been welcomed for significantly advancing the discussion of the topics they have dealt with. The present volume will I believe be greeted equally enthusiastically by readers in many parts of the world. R. W. Home General Editor Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science TABLE OF CONTENTS v FOREWORD PAUL GRIFFITHS / Introduction 1 SECTION ONE: BEYOND NATURAL SELECTION ELLIOTI SOBER / Models of Cultural Evolution 17 KIM STERELNY / Punctuated Equilibrium and Macroevolution 41 ROBIN CRAW / Margins of Cladistics: Identity, Difference and Place in the Emergence of Phylogenetic Systematics 1864-1975 65 SECTION TWO: CENTRAL CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY PAUL GRIFFITHS / Adaptive Explanation and the Concept of a Vestige 111 TIMOTHY SHANAHAN / Selection, Drift and the Aims of Evolutionary Theory 133 SECTION THREE: THE DEVELOPMENTAL SYSTEMS APPROACH



Philosophy of Population Health

Philosophy of Population Health Author Sean A Valles
ISBN-10 9781351670784
Release 2018-05-11
Pages 224
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Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding ?eld of research—population health science. Its approach is to promote the public’s health through improving everyday human life: afford-able nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will take much more than good hospitals and public health departments. Blending philosophy of science/medicine, public health ethics and history, this book offers a framework that explains, analyses and largely endorses the features that de?ne this relatively new ?eld. Presenting a philosophical perspective, Valles helps to clarify what these features are and why they matter, including: searching for health’s "upstream" causes in social life, embracing a professional commitment to studying and ameliorating the staggering health inequities in and between populations; and reforming scienti?c practices to foster humility and respect among the many scientists and non- scientists who must work collaboratively to promote health. Featuring illustrative case studies from around the globe at the end of all main chapters, this radical monograph is written to be accessible to all scholars and advanced students who have an interest in health—from public health students to professional philosophers.



A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology

A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology Author Sahotra Sarkar
ISBN-10 9781444337853
Release 2010-12-20
Pages 616
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Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers detailed overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such as molecular and developmental biology Represents both an authoritative guide to philosophy of biology, and an accessible reference work for anyone seeking to learn about this rapidly-changing field



Defining Darwin

Defining Darwin Author Michael Ruse
ISBN-10 9781615924165
Release
Pages
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The value of this brief and highly readable book, which will take its place high on the centennial works about Charles Darwin, is the relaxed and intimate familiarity of Ruse with his subject. Darwin's background, his predecessors, the context of his life, and the significance of his contributions over a vast intellectual domain, are provided as though by a close friend or member of the family.-EDWARD O. WILSON, University Research Professor Emeritus, Harvard University; Author of Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge and many other worksMichael Ruse is a master science story-teller. In Defining Darwin, he tackles fundamental issues in philosophy and history of evolutionary biology with great originality and depth. Clarity of expression and vivid language make the reading facile and, indeed, thoroughly enjoyable. Defining Darwin is an important addition to the extensive Darwinian literature enriching the celebration of Darwin's two hundredth anniversary.-FRANCISCO J. AYALA, University Professor and Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine; Recipient of the US National Medal of Science in 2001; Author of Darwin's Gift to Science and Religion and Human Evolution: Trails from the PastMichael Ruse is one of the foremost Charles Darwin scholars of our time. For forty years he has written extensively on Darwin, the scientific revolution that his work precipitated, and the nature and implications of evolutionary thinking for today. Now, in the year marking the two hundredth anniversary of Darwin's birth and the one hundred fiftieth anniversary of his masterpiece, On the Origin of Species, Ruse reevaluates the legacy of Darwin in this collection of new and recent essays.Beginning with pre-Darwinian concepts of organic origins proposed by the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant, Ruse shows the challenges that Darwin's radically different idea faced. He then discusses natural selection as a powerful metaphor; Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the theory of evolution; Herbert Spencer's contribution to evolutionary biology; the synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection; the different views of Julian Huxley and George Gaylord Simpson on evolutionary ethics; and the influence of Darwin's ideas on literature. In the final section, Ruse brings the discussion up to date with a consideration of evolutionary development (dubbed evo devo) as a new evolutionary paradigm and the effects of Darwin on religion, especially the debate surrounding Intelligent Design theory.Ruse offers a fresh perspective on topics old and new, challenging the reader to think again about the nature and consequences of what has been described as the biggest idea ever conceived.Michael Ruse (Tallahassee, FL) is the Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy and director of the History and Philosophy of Science program at Florida State University. He is the founding editor of the journal Biology and Philosophy and the author or editor of The Stem Cell Controversy (with Christopher Pynes); Cloning: Responsible Science or Technomadness? (with Aryne Sheppard); Taking Darwin Seriously; Philosophy of Biology; and But Is It Science? (with Robert Pennock), among many other works.



Philosophy of Biology

Philosophy of Biology Author Peter Godfrey-Smith
ISBN-10 9781400850440
Release 2013-12-20
Pages 200
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This is a concise, comprehensive, and accessible introduction to the philosophy of biology written by a leading authority on the subject. Geared to philosophers, biologists, and students of both, the book provides sophisticated and innovative coverage of the central topics and many of the latest developments in the field. Emphasizing connections between biological theories and other areas of philosophy, and carefully explaining both philosophical and biological terms, Peter Godfrey-Smith discusses the relation between philosophy and science; examines the role of laws, mechanistic explanation, and idealized models in biological theories; describes evolution by natural selection; and assesses attempts to extend Darwin's mechanism to explain changes in ideas, culture, and other phenomena. Further topics include functions and teleology, individuality and organisms, species, the tree of life, and human nature. The book closes with detailed, cutting-edge treatments of the evolution of cooperation, of information in biology, and of the role of communication in living systems at all scales. Authoritative and up-to-date, this is an essential guide for anyone interested in the important philosophical issues raised by the biological sciences.



Scientific Method in Brief

Scientific Method in Brief Author Hugh G. Gauch, Jr
ISBN-10 9781107311527
Release 2012-09-06
Pages
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The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy and law. Informed by position papers on science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation, this book aligns with a distinctively mainstream vision of science. It is an ideal resource for anyone undertaking a systematic study of scientific method for the first time, from undergraduates to professionals in both the sciences and the humanities.



The Philosophy of Human Evolution

The Philosophy of Human Evolution Author Michael Ruse
ISBN-10 9781107375420
Release 2012-01-12
Pages
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This book provides a unique discussion of human evolution from a philosophical viewpoint, looking at the facts and interpretations since Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man. Michael Ruse explores such topics as the nature of scientific theories, the relationships between culture and biology, the problem of progress and the extent to which evolutionary issues pose problems for religious beliefs. He identifies these issues, highlighting the problems for morality in a world governed by natural selection. By taking a philosophical viewpoint, the full ethical and moral dimensions of human evolution are examined. This book engages the reader in a thorough discussion of the issues, appealing to students in philosophy, biology and anthropology.



Science Teaching

Science Teaching Author Michael R. Matthews
ISBN-10 9781317796169
Release 2015-12-22
Pages 256
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Science Teaching argues that science teaching and science teacher education can be improved if teachers know something of the history and philosophy of science and if these topics are included in the science curriculum. The history and philosophy of science have important roles in many of the theoretical issues that science educators need to address: what constitutes an appropriate science curriculum for all students; how science should be taught in traditional cultures; how scientific literacy can be promoted; and the conflict which can occur between science curriculum and deep-seated religious or cultural values and knowledge. Outlining the history of liberal approaches to the teaching of science, Michael Matthews elaborates contemporary curriculum developments that explicitly address questions about the nature and the history of science. He provides examples of classroom teaching and develops useful arguments on constructivism, multicultural science education and teacher education.



Philosophy of Biology

Philosophy of Biology Author
ISBN-10 0080471242
Release 2007-02-05
Pages 638
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Philosophy of Biology is a rapidly expanding field. It is concerned with explanatory concepts in evolution, genetics, and ecology. This collection of 25 essays by leading researchers provides an overview of the state of the field. These essays are wholly new; none of them could have been written even ten years ago. They demonstrate how philosophical analysis has been able to contribute to sometimes contested areas of scientific theory making. -Written by internationally acknowledged leaders in the field - Entries make original contributions as well as summarizing state of the art discoveries in the field - Easy to read and understand



Darwinism Democracy and Race

Darwinism  Democracy  and Race Author John P Jackson
ISBN-10 9781351810784
Release 2017-07-06
Pages
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Darwinism, Democracy, and Race examines the development and defence of an argument that arose at the boundary between anthropology and evolutionary biology in twentieth-century America. In its fully articulated form, this argument simultaneously discredited scientific racism and defended free human agency in Darwinian terms. The volume is timely because it gives readers a key to assessing contemporary debates about the biology of race. By working across disciplinary lines, the book's focal figures--the anthropologist Franz Boas, the cultural anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, the geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, and the physical anthropologist Sherwood Washburn--found increasingly persuasive ways of cutting between genetic determinist and social constructionist views of race by grounding Boas's racially egalitarian, culturally relativistic, and democratically pluralistic ethic in a distinctive version of the genetic theory of natural selection. Collaborators in making and defending this argument included Ashley Montagu, Stephen Jay Gould, and Richard Lewontin. Darwinism, Democracy, and Race will appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and academics interested in subjects including Philosophy, Critical Race Theory, Sociology of Race, History of Biology and Anthropology, and Rhetoric of Science.



Sex and Death

Sex and Death Author Kim Sterelny
ISBN-10 9780226178653
Release 2012-04-02
Pages 456
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Is the history of life a series of accidents or a drama scripted by selfish genes? Is there an "essential" human nature, determined at birth or in a distant evolutionary past? What should we conserve—species, ecosystems, or something else? Informed answers to questions like these, critical to our understanding of ourselves and the world around us, require both a knowledge of biology and a philosophical framework within which to make sense of its findings. In this accessible introduction to philosophy of biology, Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths present both the science and the philosophical context necessary for a critical understanding of the most exciting debates shaping biology today. The authors, both of whom have published extensively in this field, describe the range of competing views—including their own—on these fascinating topics. With its clear explanations of both biological and philosophical concepts, Sex and Death will appeal not only to undergraduates, but also to the many general readers eager to think critically about the science of life.