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Homology

Homology Author Brian K. Hall
ISBN-10 9780080574301
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 504
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The application of homology varies depending on the data being examined. This volume represents a state-of-the-art treatment of the different applications of this unifying concept. Chapters deal with homology on all levels, from molecules to behavior, and are authored by leading contributors to systematics, natural history, and evolutionary, developmental, and comparative biology. This paperback reprint of the original hardbound edition continues to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Sir Richard Owen's seminal paper distinguishing homology from analogy. Commemoration of the 150th anniversary of Sir Richard Owen's seminal paper distinguishing homology from analogy Contributors who are renowned leaders in comparative biology Coverage that is both comprehensive and interdisciplinary



The Practices of Human Genetics

The Practices of Human Genetics Author Michael Fortun
ISBN-10 9789401147187
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 218
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That concern about human genetics is at the top of many lists of issues requiring intense discussion from scientific, political, social, and ethical points of view is today no surprise. It was in the spirit of attempting to establish the basis for intelligent discussion of the issues involved that a group of us gathered at a meeting of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology in the Summer of 1995 at Brandeis University and began an exploration of these questions in earlier versions of the papers presented here. Our aim was to cross disciplines and jump national boundaries, to be catholic in the methods and approaches taken, and to bring before readers interested in the emerging issues of human genetics well-reasoned, informative, and provocative papers. The initial conference and elements of the editorial work which have followed were generously supported by the Stifterverband fUr die Deutsche Wissenschaft. We thank Professor Peter Weingart of Bielefeld University for his assistance in gaining this support. As Editors, we thank the anonymous readers who commented upon and critiqued many of the papers and in tum made each paper a more valuable contribution. We also thank the authors for their understanding and patience. Michael Fortnn Everett Mendelsohn Cambridge, MA September 1998 vii INTRODUCTION In 1986, the annual symposium at the venerable Cold Spring Harbor laboratories was devoted to the "Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.



Homology

Homology Author Novartis Foundation
ISBN-10 0471984930
Release 1999-05-21
Pages 266
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'Homology' as a concept became increasingly elusive during the course of the 20th century. The central debates and controversies concern both fundamental definitions and the nature of the criteria by which homology is judged. Attempts to move away from comparative morphology to ideas based on developmental pathways have tended to founder on the fact that developmental pathways evolve and that similar cells or tissues or structures in animals will often have different developmental origins. The use of information about conserved molecules in seemingly conserved developmental processes has also proven controversial. In molecular biology, the use of the term 'homology' has given rise to more debate, although here the issue seems to involve primarily the criteria for assessing whether parts of genes are the same because of shared descent or for other reasons. The contributions to the book explore these topics systematically. There are chapters on the historical development of the concept of homology and its use in population studies. Other chapters deal with issues of homology in morphological and developmental studies, in behavioural studies, and especially in studies at the level of molecular genetics.



Homology and Systematics

Homology and Systematics Author Robert Scotland
ISBN-10 9781482268249
Release 2014-04-21
Pages 217
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Systematists, comparative biologists, taxonomists and evolutionary biologists all concern themselves with the evolutionary relationships between animals and plants. Homology is the principle underlying these disciplines. When looking at groups of organisms, shared positional similarities (homologues) provide the raw data from which hypotheses of common ancestry (homology) may be suggested. In order to explore the relationship between homologues (characters) and particular hypotheses of common ancestry, complex matrices are devised, where homologues are coded, allowing theories of homology to be developed and tested. Practically nothing has been written about this matrix-building process and yet it is of fundamental importance to our understanding of diversity and evolutionary history. This book fills the gap by discussing the different ways observations are coded and the consequences for the resulting hypotheses. It takes a pragmatic approach and uses case studies as well as theoretical examples to offer practical solutions.



Milestones in Systematics

Milestones in Systematics Author David M. Williams
ISBN-10 0203643038
Release 2004-05-12
Pages 312
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Presenting a historical analysis of the evolution of systematics during the last one hundred years, Milestones in Systematics reviews many of the major issues in systematic theory and practice that have driven the working methods of systematics during the 20th century and looks at the issues most likely to preoccupy systematists in the immediate future. The book highlights: § The development of evolutionary, phenetic and cladistic methods of phylogenetic analysis and the associated computer algorithms § The changing influence of paleontological techniques § The impact of new molecular data and the relationships between systematics, development, and evolution The authors stress the importance of understanding the past to make sense of the future. They present a general assessment of comparative biology's recent past and how it has matured and blossomed. Exploring the full impact of the cladistics revolution, a phenomenon that has yet to be fully appreciated, the book provides a platform for further debate and discussion.



Homoplasy

Homoplasy Author Michael J. Sanderson
ISBN-10 9780080534114
Release 1996-10-21
Pages 339
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Why do unrelated organisms sometimes appear almost identical in details of the anatomy, behavior, physiology, and ecology? Homoplasy assembles leaders in evolutionary biology to explore issues of parallelism, convergence, and reversals. This innovative book is certain to provoke discussion of homoplasy compelling evidence for particular theories of evolutionary change The first book on this increasingly interesting subject Includes authoritative treatments from leading experts expressing a variety of viewpoints



The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics

The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics Author Andrew Hamilton
ISBN-10 9780520276581
Release 2013-11-09
Pages 311
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The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics aims to make sense of the rise of phylogenetic systematics—its methods, its objects of study, and its theoretical foundations—with contributions from historians, philosophers, and biologists. This volume articulates an intellectual agenda for the study of systematics and taxonomy in a way that connects classification with larger historical themes in the biological sciences, including morphology, experimental and observational approaches, evolution, biogeography, debates over form and function, character transformation, development, and biodiversity. It aims to provide frameworks for answering the question: how did systematics become phylogenetic?



Style and Function

Style and Function Author Teresa D. Hurt
ISBN-10 0897897323
Release 2001
Pages 212
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Presents theoretical background and case studies that demonstrate how evolutionary definitions of archaeological style and function may be applied to the prehistoric record.



Comparative Primate Socioecology

Comparative Primate Socioecology Author P. C. Lee
ISBN-10 0521004241
Release 2001-07-19
Pages 424
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Draws together exciting new and controversial findings from field research on a wide variety of primates including humans.



Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology

Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology Author Stefan Linquist
ISBN-10 9781351911351
Release 2017-03-02
Pages 616
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The impact of evolutionary theory on the philosophy of science has been no less profound than its impact on the science of biology itself. Advances in this theory provide a rich set of examples for thinking about the nature of scientific explanation and the structure of science. Many of the developments in our understanding of evolution resulted from contributions by both philosophers and biologists engaging over theoretical questions of mutual interest. This volume traces some of the most influential exchanges in this field over the last few decades. Focal topics include the nature of biological functions, adaptationism as an explanatory and methodological doctrine, the levels of selection debate, the concepts of fitness and drift, and the relationship of evolutionary to developmental biology.



The Philosophy of Biology

The Philosophy of Biology Author Kostas Kampourakis
ISBN-10 9789400765375
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 762
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This book brings together for the first time philosophers of biology to write about some of the most central concepts and issues in their field from the perspective of biology education. The chapters of the book cover a variety of topics ranging from traditional ones, such as biological explanation, biology and religion or biology and ethics, to contemporary ones, such as genomics, systems biology or evolutionary developmental biology. Each of the 30 chapters covers the respective philosophical literature in detail and makes specific suggestions for biology education. The aim of this book is to inform biology educators, undergraduate and graduate students in biology and related fields, students in teacher training programs, and curriculum developers about the current state of discussion on the major topics in the philosophy of biology and its implications for teaching biology. In addition, the book can be valuable to philosophers of biology as an introductory text in undergraduate and graduate courses.



Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior

Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior Author Emília P. Martins
ISBN-10 9780195092103
Release 1996
Pages 415
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In the last ten years, the "comparative method" has been revolutionized by modern statistical ways of incorporating phylogenies into the design and analysis of comparative studies. The results of this revolution are particularly important in the study of animal behavior, which has relied on interspecific comparisons to infer universal trends and evolutionary patterns. The chapters of this edited volume consider the impact of modern phylogenetic comparative methods on the study of animal behavior and discuss the main issues that need to be considered in design and analysis of a comparative study, considers possible differences between the evolution of behavior and the evolution of morphology, and reviews how phylogenetic comparative studies have been used in certain areas of behavioral research.



Philosophy of Biology

Philosophy of Biology Author
ISBN-10 0080471242
Release 2007-02-05
Pages 638
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Philosophy of Biology is a rapidly expanding field. It is concerned with explanatory concepts in evolution, genetics, and ecology. This collection of 25 essays by leading researchers provides an overview of the state of the field. These essays are wholly new; none of them could have been written even ten years ago. They demonstrate how philosophical analysis has been able to contribute to sometimes contested areas of scientific theory making. -Written by internationally acknowledged leaders in the field - Entries make original contributions as well as summarizing state of the art discoveries in the field - Easy to read and understand



Molecular Systematics of Plants II

Molecular Systematics of Plants II Author Douglas E. Soltis
ISBN-10 0412111217
Release 1998-06-30
Pages 574
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In the five years since the publication of Molecular Systematics of Plants, the field of molecular systematics has advanced at an astonishing pace. This period has been marked by a volume of new empirical data and advances in theoretical and analytical issues related to DNA. Comparative DNA sequencing, facilitated by the amplification of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has become the tool of choice for molecular systematics. As a result, large portions of the Molecular Systematics of Plants have become outdated. Molecular Systematics of Plants II summarizes these recent achievements in plant molecular systematics. Like its predecessor, this completely revised work illustrates the potential of DNA markers for addressing a wide variety of phylogenetic and evolutionary questions. The volume provides guidance in choosing appropriate techniques, as well as appropriate genes for sequencing, for given levels of systematic inquiry. More than a review of techniques and previous work, Molecular Systematics of Plants II provides a stimulus for developing future research in this rapidly evolving field. Molecular Systematics of Plants II is not only written for systematists (faculty, graduate students, and researchers), but also for evolutionary biologists, botanists, and paleobotanists interested in reviewing current theory and practice in plant molecular systematics.



Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 1

Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 1 Author Andreas Wanninger
ISBN-10 9783709118627
Release 2015-08-10
Pages 251
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This multi-author, six-volume work summarizes our current knowledge on the developmental biology of all major invertebrate animal phyla. The main aspects of cleavage, embryogenesis, organogenesis and gene expression are discussed in an evolutionary framework. Each chapter presents an in-depth yet concise overview of both classical and recent literature, supplemented by numerous color illustrations and micrographs of a given animal group. The largely taxon-based chapters are supplemented by essays on topical aspects relevant to modern-day EvoDevo research such as regeneration, embryos in the fossil record, homology in the age of genomics and the role of EvoDevo in the context of reconstructing evolutionary and phylogenetic scenarios. A list of open questions at the end of each chapter may serve as a source of inspiration for the next generation of EvoDevo scientists. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates is a must-have for any scientist, teacher or student interested in developmental and evolutionary biology as well as in general invertebrate zoology. This volume starts off with three chapters that set the stage for the entire work by covering general aspects of EvoDevo research, including its relevance for animal phylogeny, homology issues in the age of developmental genomics, and embryological data in the fossil record. These are followed by taxon-based chapters on the animals that are commonly considered to have branched off the Animal Tree of Life before the evolution of the Bilateria: the Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria (with the Myxozoa being treated separately) and Ctenophora. In addition, the Acoelomorpha, Xenoturbellida and Chaetognatha are examined, including their currently hotly debated phylogenetic affinities.



Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography

Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography Author David M. Williams
ISBN-10 9780387727301
Release 2007-11-19
Pages 310
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Anyone interested in comparative biology or the history of science will find this myth-busting work genuinely fascinating. It draws attention to the seminal studies and important advances that have shaped systematic and biogeographic thinking. It traces concepts in homology and classification from the 19th century to the present through the provision of a unique anthology of scientific writings from Goethe, Agassiz, Owen, Naef, Zangerl and Nelson, among others.



Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences

Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences Author Thomas Heams
ISBN-10 9789401790147
Release 2014-11-23
Pages 910
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The Darwinian theory of evolution is itself evolving and this book presents the details of the core of modern Darwinism and its latest developmental directions. The authors present current scientific work addressing theoretical problems and challenges in four sections, beginning with the concepts of evolution theory, its processes of variation, heredity, selection, adaptation and function, and its patterns of character, species, descent and life. The second part of this book scrutinizes Darwinism in the philosophy of science and its usefulness in understanding ecosystems, whilst the third section deals with its application in disciplines beyond the biological sciences, including evolutionary psychology and evolutionary economics, Darwinian morality and phylolinguistics. The final section addresses anti-Darwinism, the creationist view and issues around teaching evolution in secondary schools. The reader learns how current experimental biology is opening important perspectives on the sources of variation, and thus of the very power of natural selection. This work examines numerous examples of the extension of the principle of natural selection and provides the opportunity to critically reflect on a rich theory, on the methodological rigour that presides in its extensions and exportations, and on the necessity to measure its advantages and also its limits. Scholars interested in modern Darwinism and scientific research, its concepts, research programs and controversies will find this book an excellent read, and those considering how Darwinism might evolve, how it can apply to the human sciences and other disciplines beyond its origins will find it particularly valuable. Originally produced in French (Les Mondes Darwiniens), the scope and usefulness of the book have led to the production of this English text, to reach a wider audience. This book is a milestone in the impressive penetration by Francophone scholars into the world of Darwinian science, its historiography and philosophy over the last two decades. Alex Rosenberg, R. Taylor Cole Professor of Philosophy, Duke University Until now this useful and comprehensive handbook has only been available to francophones. Thanks to this invaluable new translation, this collection of insightful and original essays can reach the global audience it deserves. Tim Lewens, University of Cambridge