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How Professionals Make Decisions

How Professionals Make Decisions Author Henry Montgomery
ISBN-10 0805844716
Release 2004-09-23
Pages 472
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This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making.



Naturalistic Decision Making

Naturalistic Decision Making Author Caroline E. Zsambok
ISBN-10 9781317779605
Release 2014-01-02
Pages 440
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If you aren't using the term naturalistic decision making, or NDM, you soon will be. Even as a very young field, NDM has already had far-reaching applications in areas as diverse as management, aviation, health care, nuclear power, military command and control, corporate teamwork, and manufacturing. Put simply, NDM is the way people use their experience to make decisions in the context of a job or task. Of particular interest to NDM researchers are the effects of high-stake consequences, shifting goals, incomplete information, time pressure, uncertainty, and other conditions that are present in most of today's work places and that add to the complexity of decision making. Applications of NDM research findings target decision aids and training that help people in their decision-making processes. This book reports the findings of top NDM researchers, as well as many of their current applications. In addition, the book offers a historical perspective on the emergence of this new paradigm, describes recent theoretical and methodological advancements, and points to future developments. It was written for people interested in decision making research and applications relative to a diverse array of work settings and products such as human-computer interfaces, decision support systems, individual and team training, product designs, and organizational development and planning.



Linking Expertise and Naturalistic Decision Making

Linking Expertise and Naturalistic Decision Making Author Eduardo Salas
ISBN-10 9781135659912
Release 2001-07-01
Pages 464
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.



Accelerated Expertise

Accelerated Expertise Author Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN-10 9781135083236
Release 2013-08-15
Pages 256
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Speed in acquiring the knowledge and skills to perform tasks is crucial. Yet, it still ordinarily takes many years to achieve high proficiency in countless jobs and professions, in government, business, industry, and throughout the private sector. There would be great advantages if regimens of training could be established that could accelerate the achievement of high levels of proficiency. This book discusses the construct of ‘accelerated learning.’ It includes a review of the research literature on learning acquisition and retention, focus on establishing what works, and why. This includes several demonstrations of accelerated learning, with specific ideas, plans and roadmaps for doing so. The impetus for the book was a tasking from the Defense Science and Technology Advisory Group, which is the top level Science and Technology policy-making panel in the Department of Defense. However, the book uses both military and non-military exemplar case studies. It is likely that methods for acceleration will leverage technologies and capabilities including virtual training, cross-training, training across strategic and tactical levels, and training for resilience and adaptivity. This volume provides a wealth of information and guidance for those interested in the concept or phenomenon of "accelerating learning"— in education, training, psychology, academia in general, government, military, or industry.



Informed by Knowledge

Informed by Knowledge Author Kathleen L. Mosier
ISBN-10 9781136945106
Release 2011-01-07
Pages 432
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The focus of this book is on how experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpret information in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of information into coherent knowledge. The chapters examine these processes across experts (e.g. global leaders, individuals in extreme environments, managers, police officers, pilots, commanders, doctors, inventors), across contexts (e.g. space and space analogs, corporate organizations, command and control, crisis and crowd management, air traffic control, the operating room, product development), and for both individual and team performance. Successful information integration is a key factor in the success of diverse endeavors, including team attempts to climb Mt. Everest, crowd control in the Middle East, and remote drilling operations. This volume is divided into four sections, each with a specific focus on an area of expert performance, resulting in a text that covers a wide range of useful information. These sections present well-researched discussions, such as: the management of complex situations in various fields and decision contexts; technological and training approaches to facilitate knowledge management by individual experts and expert teams; new or neglected perspectives in expert decision making; and the importance of ‘modeling’ expert performance through techniques and frameworks such as Cognitive Task Analysis, computational architectures based on the notion of causal belief mapping such as ‘Convince Me,’ or the data/frame model of sensemaking. The volume provides essential reading for researchers and practitioners of Naturalistic Decision Making and those who study Expertise; Organizational and Cognitive Psychologists; and researchers and students in Business and Engineering.



Cognitive Task Analysis

Cognitive Task Analysis Author Jan Maarten Schraagen
ISBN-10 9781135665302
Release 2000-06-01
Pages 552
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Cognitive task analysis is a broad area consisting of tools and techniques for describing the knowledge and strategies required for task performance. Cognitive task analysis has implications for the development of expert systems, training and instructional design, expert decision making and policymaking. It has been applied in a wide range of settings, with different purposes, for instance: specifying user requirements in system design or specifying training requirements in training needs analysis. The topics to be covered by this work include: general approaches to cognitive task analysis, system design, instruction, and cognitive task analysis for teams. The work settings to which the tools and techniques described in this work have been applied include: 911 dispatching, faultfinding on board naval ships, design aircraft, and various support systems. The editors' goal in this book is to present in a single source a comprehensive, in-depth introduction to the field of cognitive task analysis. They have attempted to include as many examples as possible in the book, making it highly suitable for those wishing to undertake a cognitive task analysis themselves. The book also contains a historical introduction to the field and an annotated bibliography, making it an excellent guide to additional resources.



Cognitive Systems Engineering

Cognitive Systems Engineering Author Philip J. Smith
ISBN-10 9781317164760
Release 2017-10-25
Pages 356
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This volume provides an exceptional perspective on the nature, evolution, contributions and future of the field of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). It is a resource to support both the teaching and practice of CSE. It accomplishes this through its organization into two complementary approaches to the topic. The first is an historical perspective: In the retrospections of leaders of the field, what have been the seminal achievements of cognitive human factors? What are the "lessons learned" that became foundational to CSE, and how did that foundation evolve into a broader systems view of cognitive work? The second perspective is both pedagogical and future-looking: What are the major conceptual issues that have to be addressed by CSE and how can a new generation of researchers be prepared to further advance CSE? Topics include studies of expertise, cognitive work analysis, cognitive task analysis, human performance, system design, cognitive modeling, decision making, human-computer interaction, trust in automation, teamwork and ecological interface design. A thematic focus will be on systems-level analysis, and such notions as resilience engineering and systems-level measurement. The book features broad coverage of many of the domains to which CSE is being applied, among them industrial process control, health care, decision aiding and aviation human factors. The book’s contributions are provided by an extraordinary group of leaders and pathfinders in applied psychology, cognitive science, systems analysis and system design. In combination these chapters present invaluable insights, experiences and continuing uncertainties on the subject of the field of CSE, and in doing so honor the career and achievements of Professor David D. Woods of Ohio State University.



Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making

Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making Author Derek J. Koehler
ISBN-10 9780470752913
Release 2008-04-15
Pages 680
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The Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making is a state-of-the art overview of current topics and research in the study of how people make evaluations, draw inferences, and make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and conflict. Contains contributions by experts from various disciplines that reflect current trends and controversies on judgment and decision making. Provides a glimpse at the many approaches that have been taken in the study of judgment and decision making and portrays the major findings in the field. Presents examinations of the broader roles of social, emotional, and cultural influences on decision making. Explores applications of judgment and decision making research to important problems in a variety of professional contexts, including finance, accounting, medicine, public policy, and the law.



Applied Concept Mapping

Applied Concept Mapping Author Brian Moon
ISBN-10 9781439828618
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 380
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The expanding application of Concept Mapping includes its role in knowledge elicitation, institutional memory preservation, and ideation. With the advent of the CmapTools knowledge modeling software kit, Concept Mapping is being applied with increased frequency and success to address a variety of problems in the workplace. Supported by business application case studies, Applied Concept Mapping: Capturing, Analyzing, and Organizing Knowledge offers an accessible introduction to the theory, methods, and application of Concept Mapping in business and government. The case studies illustrate applications across a range of industries—including engineering, product development, defense, and healthcare. The authors provide access to a free download of CmapTools, courtesy of the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, to enable readers to create and share their own Concept Maps. Offering examples from the United States, Canada, Australia, Spain, Brazil, Scotland, and The Netherlands, they highlight a global perspective of this dynamic tool. The text is organized into three sections: Practitioners’ Views—supplies narratives, guidance, and reviews of applications from career Concept Mappers Recent Case Studies and Results—presents in-depth examinations of specific applications and their results Pushing the Boundaries—explores what’s possible and where the boundary conditions lie Applied Concept Mapping facilitates the fundamental understanding needed to harness the power of Concept Mapping to develop viable solutions to a virtually unlimited number of real-world problems.



Expertise Out of Context

Expertise Out of Context Author Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN-10 9780805855104
Release 2007
Pages 544
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Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development. Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context. As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.



Making Public Policy Decisions

Making Public Policy Decisions Author Damon Alexander
ISBN-10 9781317697725
Release 2014-12-05
Pages 194
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To understand public policy decisions, it is imperative to understand the capacities of the individual actors who are making them, how they think and feel about their role, and what drives and motivates them. However, the current literature takes little account of this, preferring instead to frame the decisions as the outcomes of a rational search for value-maximising alternatives or the result of systematic and well-ordered institutional and organisational processes. Yet understanding how personal and emotional factors interact with broader institutional and organisational influences to shape the deliberations and behaviour of politicians and bureaucrats is paramount if we are to construct a more useful, nuanced and dynamic picture of government decision-making. This book draws on a variety of approaches to examine individuals working in contemporary government, from freshly-trained policy officers to former cabinet ministers and prime ministers. It provides important new insights into how those in government navigate their way through complex issues and decisions based on developed expertise that fuses formal, rational techniques with other learned behaviours, memories, emotions and practiced forms of judgment at an individual level. This innovative collection from leading academics across Australia, Europe, the United Kingdom and North America will be of great interest to researchers, educators, advanced students and practitioners working in the fields of political science, public management and administration, and public policy.



Working Minds

Working Minds Author Beth Crandall
ISBN-10 9780262296946
Release 2006-07-07
Pages 352
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Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) helps researchers understand how cognitive skills and strategies make it possible for people to act effectively and get things done. CTA can yield information people need -- employers faced with personnel issues, market researchers who want to understand the thought processes of consumers, trainers and others who design instructional systems, health care professionals who want to apply lessons learned from errors and accidents, systems analysts developing user specifications, and many other professionals. CTA can show what makes the workplace work -- and what keeps it from working as well as it might.Working Minds is a true handbook, offering a set of tools for doing CTA: methods for collecting data about cognitive processes and events, analyzing them, and communicating them effectively. It covers both the "why" and the "how" of CTA methods, providing examples, guidance, and stories from the authors' own experiences as CTA practitioners. Because effective use of CTA depends on some conceptual grounding in cognitive theory and research -- on knowing what a cognitive perspective can offer -- the book also offers an overview of current research on cognition.The book provides detailed guidance for planning and carrying out CTA, with chapters on capturing knowledge and capturing the way people reason. It discusses studying cognition in real-world settings and the challenges of rapidly changing technology. And it describes key issues in applying CTA findings in a variety of fields. Working Minds makes the methodology of CTA accessible and the skills involved attainable.



Cognitive Systems Engineering

Cognitive Systems Engineering Author Philip J. Smith
ISBN-10 9781317164760
Release 2017-10-25
Pages 356
Download Link Click Here

This volume provides an exceptional perspective on the nature, evolution, contributions and future of the field of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). It is a resource to support both the teaching and practice of CSE. It accomplishes this through its organization into two complementary approaches to the topic. The first is an historical perspective: In the retrospections of leaders of the field, what have been the seminal achievements of cognitive human factors? What are the "lessons learned" that became foundational to CSE, and how did that foundation evolve into a broader systems view of cognitive work? The second perspective is both pedagogical and future-looking: What are the major conceptual issues that have to be addressed by CSE and how can a new generation of researchers be prepared to further advance CSE? Topics include studies of expertise, cognitive work analysis, cognitive task analysis, human performance, system design, cognitive modeling, decision making, human-computer interaction, trust in automation, teamwork and ecological interface design. A thematic focus will be on systems-level analysis, and such notions as resilience engineering and systems-level measurement. The book features broad coverage of many of the domains to which CSE is being applied, among them industrial process control, health care, decision aiding and aviation human factors. The book’s contributions are provided by an extraordinary group of leaders and pathfinders in applied psychology, cognitive science, systems analysis and system design. In combination these chapters present invaluable insights, experiences and continuing uncertainties on the subject of the field of CSE, and in doing so honor the career and achievements of Professor David D. Woods of Ohio State University.



Sources of Power

Sources of Power Author Gary A. Klein
ISBN-10 9780262343251
Release 2017-09-08
Pages 360
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Since its publication twenty years ago, Sources of Power has been enormously influential. The book has sold more than 50,000 copies, has been translated into six languages, has been cited in professional journals that range from Journal of Marketing Research to Journal of Nursing, and is mentioned by Malcolm Gladwell in Blink. Author Gary Klein has collaborated with Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman and served on a team that redesigned the White House Situation Room to support more effective decision making. The model of decision making Klein proposes in the book has been adopted in fields including law enforcement training and petrochemical plant operation. What is the groundbreaking new way to approach decision making described in this modern classic? We have all seen images of firefighters rescuing people from burning buildings and paramedics treating bombing victims. How do these individuals make the split-second decisions that save lives? Most studies of decision making, based on artificial tasks assigned in laboratory settings, view people as biased and unskilled. Klein proposes a naturalistic approach to decision making, which views people as gaining experience that enables them to use a combination of intuition and analysis to make decisions. To illustrate this approach, Klein tells stories of people -- from pilots to chess masters -- acting under such real-life constraints as time pressure, high stakes, personal responsibility, and shifting conditions.



The Social Psychology of Expertise

The Social Psychology of Expertise Author Harald A. Mieg
ISBN-10 9781135652135
Release 2001-06-01
Pages 224
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The Social Psychology of Expertise offers an integrative perspective to the analysis of experts and expertise in organizations, social roles, management, etc. It is the first book to link the psychology of expertise to sociology, particularly the sociology of professions. By examining the converging elements of both approaches and investigating the conditions of interactions with all types of experts, The Social Psychology of Expertise makes it possible to understand the market form of expert services. This book: *introduces the expert role approach--a new and encompassing view on the role of experts and how to use the experts' expertise in organizations, financial markets, and environmental issues; *enhances a mutual understanding between the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions (for students, as well as scholars); *provides a helpful understanding of dealing with experts in the context of organizational behavior; *shows how we can make proper use of the experts' expertise in management and planning; *demonstrates how the role of experts influences volatility in financial markets; and *defines the limits of human expertise in predicting climate change.



Advances in Professional Education Research and Application 2012 Edition

Advances in Professional Education Research and Application  2012 Edition Author
ISBN-10 9781481618458
Release 2012-12-26
Pages 42
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Advances in Professional Education Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Professional Education in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Professional Education Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Professional Education in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Professional Education Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.



Expertise in Regulation and Law

Expertise in Regulation and Law Author Gary Edmond
ISBN-10 9781351937733
Release 2017-07-05
Pages
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This collection of essays examines the multi-faceted roles of experts and expertise in and around contemporary legal and regulatory cultures. The essays illustrate the complexity intrinsic to the production and use of expert knowledge, particularly during transition from specialist communities to other domains such as policy formulation, regulatory standard setting and litigation. Several themes pervade the collection. These include the need to recognize that: expert knowledge and opinion is often complex, controversial and contested; there are no simple criteria for resolving disagreements between experts; appeals to 'objectivity' and 'impartiality' tend to be rhetorical rather than analytical; contests in expertise are frequently episodes in larger campaigns; there are many different models of expertise and knowledge; processes designed to deal with expert knowledge are unavoidably political; questions around who is an expert and what should count as expertise are not always self-evident; and the evidence rarely 'speaks for itself'.