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How the Great Scientists Reasoned

How the Great Scientists Reasoned Author Gary G. Tibbetts
ISBN-10 9780123984982
Release 2012-10-01
Pages 148
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The scientific method is one of the most basic and essential concepts across the sciences, ensuring that investigations are carried out with precision and thoroughness. This book teaches the basic modes of scientific thought, not by philosophical generalizations, but by illustrating in detail how great scientists from across the sciences solved problems using scientific reason.



Commonsense Reasoning

Commonsense Reasoning Author Erik T. Mueller
ISBN-10 9780128016473
Release 2014-11-11
Pages 516
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To endow computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of artificial intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning: An Event Calculus Based Approach is a detailed, high-level reference on logic-based commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an up-to-date work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions that span many areas of the commonsense world. The Second Edition features new chapters on commonsense reasoning using unstructured information including the Watson system, commonsense reasoning using answer set programming, and techniques for acquisition of commonsense knowledge including crowdsourcing. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications Erik Mueller shows you the keys to mastering commonsense reasoning. You’ll be able to: Understand techniques for automated commonsense reasoning Incorporate commonsense reasoning into software solutions Acquire a broad understanding of the field of commonsense reasoning. Gain comprehensive knowledge of the human capacity for commonsense reasoning



Equity and Justice in Developmental Science Theoretical and Methodological Issues

Equity and Justice in Developmental Science  Theoretical and Methodological Issues Author
ISBN-10 9780128019085
Release 2016-02-27
Pages 298
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The first of two volumes in the Advances in Child Development and Behavior series, Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Theoretical and Methodological Issues focuses on conceptual issues, definitions, and critical concepts relevant to equity and justice for the developmental sciences. This volume covers critical methodological issues that serve to either challenge or advance our understanding of, and ability to promote, equity and justice in the developmental sciences. Both volumes bring together a growing body of developmental scholarship that addresses how issues relevant to equity and justice (or their opposites) affect development and developmental outcomes, as well as scholarship focused on mitigating the developmental consequences of inequity, inequality, and injustice for young people, families, and communities and ensuring that all young people have opportunities to develop and thrive. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field of child development and behavior Presents a coherent picture of the importance of the development of children’s participation in ongoing activity Provides a major step forward in highlighting patterns and variability in the normative development of the everyday lives of children, expanding beyond the usual research populations that have extensive Western schooling in common Focuses on conceptual issues, definitions, and critical concepts relevant to equity and justice for the developmental sciences



Probabilistic Methods for Financial and Marketing Informatics

Probabilistic Methods for Financial and Marketing Informatics Author Richard E. Neapolitan
ISBN-10 9780080555676
Release 2010-07-26
Pages 432
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Probabilistic Methods for Financial and Marketing Informatics aims to provide students with insights and a guide explaining how to apply probabilistic reasoning to business problems. Rather than dwelling on rigor, algorithms, and proofs of theorems, the authors concentrate on showing examples and using the software package Netica to represent and solve problems. The book contains unique coverage of probabilistic reasoning topics applied to business problems, including marketing, banking, operations management, and finance. It shares insights about when and why probabilistic methods can and cannot be used effectively. This book is recommended for all R&D professionals and students who are involved with industrial informatics, that is, applying the methodologies of computer science and engineering to business or industry information. This includes computer science and other professionals in the data management and data mining field whose interests are business and marketing information in general, and who want to apply AI and probabilistic methods to their problems in order to better predict how well a product or service will do in a particular market, for instance. Typical fields where this technology is used are in advertising, venture capital decision making, operational risk measurement in any industry, credit scoring, and investment science. Unique coverage of probabilistic reasoning topics applied to business problems, including marketing, banking, operations management, and finance Shares insights about when and why probabilistic methods can and cannot be used effectively Complete review of Bayesian networks and probabilistic methods for those IT professionals new to informatics.



Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences Author
ISBN-10 9780123821669
Release 2012-12-28
Pages 2250
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association



Design Methods for Reactive Systems

Design Methods for Reactive Systems Author R. J. Wieringa
ISBN-10 9780080503950
Release 2003-01-09
Pages 500
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Design Methods for Reactive Systems describes methods and techniques for the design of software systems—particularly reactive software systems that engage in stimulus-response behavior. Such systems, which include information systems, workflow management systems, systems for e-commerce, production control systems, and embedded software, increasingly embody design aspects previously considered alone—such as complex information processing, non-trivial behavior, and communication between different components—aspects traditionally treated separately by classic software design methodologies. But, as this book illustrates, the software designer is better served by the ability to intelligently pick and choose from among a variety of techniques according to the particular demands and properties of the system under development. Design Methods for Reactive Systems helps the software designer meet today's increasingly complex challenges by bringing together specification techniques and guidelines proven useful in the design of a wide range of software systems, allowing the designer to evaluate and adapt different techniques for different projects. Written in an exceptionally clear and insightful style, Design Methods for Reactive Systems is a book that students, engineers, teachers, and researchers will undoubtedly find of great value. Shows how the techniques and design approaches of the three most popular design methods can be combined in a flexible, problem-driven manner. Pedagogical features include summaries, rehearsal questions, exercises, discussion questions, and numerous case studies.



Petrochemical Machinery Insights

Petrochemical Machinery Insights Author Heinz P Bloch
ISBN-10 9780128112465
Release 2016-09-08
Pages 784
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Petrochemical Machinery Insights is a priceless collection of solutions and advice from Heinz Bloch on a broad range of equipment management themes, from wear to warranty issues, organizational problems and oil mist lubrication, and professional growth and pre-purchase of machinery. The author draws on his industry experience to hone in on important problems that do not get addressed in other books, providing actionable details that engineers can use. Mechanical, reliability, and process engineers will find this book the next best thing to having Heinz Bloch on speed dial. Focuses on pieces of hard-won experience from the industry that are rarely included in other books Presents not just a guide to technical problems, but also to crucial themes in management and organization Includes an informal and honest style, making author Heinz Bloch's 40 years of experience accessible to a broad audience of readers Contains a uniting theme that successful asset management requires the separation of application and implementation details



Reasoning

Reasoning Author Daniel Krawczyk
ISBN-10 9780128095768
Release 2017-11-13
Pages 352
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Reasoning: The Neuroscience of How We Think is a comprehensive guide to the core topics related to a thorough understanding of reasoning. It presents the current knowledge of the subject in a unified, complete manner, ranging from animal studies, to applied situations, and is the only book available that presents a sustained focus on the neurobiological processes behind reasoning throughout all chapters, while also synthesizing research from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, development, and philosophy for a truly multidisciplinary approach. The book considers historical perspectives, state-of-the-art research methods, and future directions in emerging technology and cognitive enhancement. Written by an expert in the field, this book provides a coherent and structured narrative appropriate for students in need of an introduction to the topic of reasoning as well as researchers seeking well-rounded foundational content. It is essential reading for neuroscientists, cognitive scientists, neuropsychologists and others interested in the neural mechanisms behind thinking, reasoning and higher cognition. Provides a comparative perspective considering animal cognition and its relevance to human reasoning Includes developmental and lifespan considerations throughout the book Discusses technological development and its role in reasoning, both currently and in the future Considers perspectives from not only neuroscience, but cognitive psychology, philosophy, development, and animal behavior for a multidisciplinary treatment Contains highlight boxes featuring additional details on methods, historical descriptions and experimental tasks



Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences

Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences Author
ISBN-10 9780123851581
Release 2014-04-29
Pages 4740
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The Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition develops from the first edition, covering all areas of neurological sciences through over 1000 entries focused on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. The contributing authors represent all aspects of neurology from many viewpoints and disciplines to provide a complete overview of the field. Entries are designed to be understandable without detailed background knowledge in the subject matter, and cross-referencing and suggested further reading lead the reader from a basic knowledge of the subject to more advanced understanding. The easy-to-use 'encyclopedic-dictionary' format of the Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition features alphabetic entries, extensive cross-referencing, and a thorough index for quick reference. The wealth of information provided by these four volumes makes this reference work a trusted source of valuable information for a wide range of researchers, from undergraduate students to academic researchers. Provides comprehensive coverage of the field of neurological science in over 1,000 entries in 4 volumes "Encyclopedic-dictionary" format provides for concise, readable entries and easy searching Presents complete, up-to-date information on 32 separate areas of neurology Entries are supplemented with extensive cross-referencing, useful references to primary research articles, and an extensive index



Clinical and Translational Science

Clinical and Translational Science Author David Robertson
ISBN-10 9780128021118
Release 2016-11-25
Pages 808
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Clinical and Translational Science: Principles of Human Research, Second Edition, is the most authoritative and timely resource for the broad range of investigators taking on the challenge of clinical and translational science, a field that is devoted to investigating human health and disease, interventions, and outcomes for the purposes of developing new treatment approaches, devices, and modalities to improve health. This updated second edition has been prepared with an international perspective, beginning with fundamental principles, experimental design, epidemiology, traditional and new biostatistical approaches, and investigative tools. It presents complete instruction and guidance from fundamental principles, approaches, and infrastructure, especially for human genetics and genomics, human pharmacology, research in special populations, the societal context of human research, and the future of human research. The book moves on to discuss legal, social, and ethical issues, and concludes with a discussion of future prospects, providing readers with a comprehensive view of this rapidly developing area of science. Introduces novel physiological and therapeutic strategies for engaging the fastest growing scientific field in both the private sector and academic medicine Brings insights from international leaders into the discipline of clinical and translational science Addresses drug discovery, drug repurposing and development, innovative and improved approaches to go/no-go decisions in drug development, and traditional and innovative clinical trial designs



Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences Author
ISBN-10 0080930743
Release 2009-11-27
Pages 1472
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The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences. • First comprehensive philosophical handbook on technology and the engineering sciences • Unparalleled in scope including explorative articles • In depth discussion of technical artifacts and their ontology • Provides extensive analysis of the nature of engineering design • Focuses in detail on the role of models in technology



The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data

The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data Author Christian Bird
ISBN-10 9780124115439
Release 2015-09-02
Pages 672
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The Art and Science of Analyzing Software Data provides valuable information on analysis techniques often used to derive insight from software data. This book shares best practices in the field generated by leading data scientists, collected from their experience training software engineering students and practitioners to master data science. The book covers topics such as the analysis of security data, code reviews, app stores, log files, and user telemetry, among others. It covers a wide variety of techniques such as co-change analysis, text analysis, topic analysis, and concept analysis, as well as advanced topics such as release planning and generation of source code comments. It includes stories from the trenches from expert data scientists illustrating how to apply data analysis in industry and open source, present results to stakeholders, and drive decisions. Presents best practices, hints, and tips to analyze data and apply tools in data science projects Presents research methods and case studies that have emerged over the past few years to further understanding of software data Shares stories from the trenches of successful data science initiatives in industry



Interpreting Biomedical Science

Interpreting Biomedical Science Author Ülo Maiväli
ISBN-10 9780124199569
Release 2015-06-12
Pages 416
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Interpreting Biomedical Science: Experiment, Evidence, and Belief discusses what can go wrong in biological science, providing an unbiased view and cohesive understanding of scientific methods, statistics, data interpretation, and scientific ethics that are illustrated with practical examples and real-life applications. Casting a wide net, the reader is exposed to scientific problems and solutions through informed perspectives from history, philosophy, sociology, and the social psychology of science. The book shows the differences and similarities between disciplines and different eras and illustrates the concept that while sound methodology is necessary for the progress of science, we cannot succeed without a right culture of doing things. Features theoretical concepts accompanied by examples from biological literature Contains an introduction to various methods, with an emphasis on statistical hypothesis testing Presents a clear argument that ties the motivations and ethics of individual scientists to the success of their science Provides recommendations on how to safeguard against scientific misconduct, fraud, and retractions Arms young scientists with practical knowledge that they can use every day



Writing for Science and Engineering

Writing for Science and Engineering Author Heather Silyn-Roberts
ISBN-10 9780080982854
Release 2012-10-12
Pages 263
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Resumen: Are you a post-graduate student in Engineering, Science or Technology who needs to know how to: Prepare abstracts, theses and journal papers Present your work orally Present a progress report to your funding body Would you like some guidance aimed specifically at your subject area? ... This is the book for you; a practical guide to all aspects of post-graduate documentation for Engineering, Science and Technology students, which will prove indispensable to readers. Writing for Science and Engineering will prove invaluable in all areas of research and writing due its clear, concise style. The practical advice contained within the pages alongside numerous examples to aid learning will make the preparation of documentation much easier for all students.



Design Knowing and Learning Cognition in Design Education

Design Knowing and Learning  Cognition in Design Education Author C. Eastman
ISBN-10 9780080530314
Release 2001-02-08
Pages 328
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Wide aspects of a university education address design: the conceptualization, planning and implementation of man-made artifacts. All areas of engineering, parts of computer science and of course architecture and industrial design all claim to teach design. Yet the education of design tends ot follow tacit practices, without explicit assumptions, goals and processes. This book is premised on the belief that design education based on a cognitive science approach can lead to significant improvements in the effectiveness of university design courses and to the future capabilities of practicing designers. This applies to all professional areas of design. The book grew out of publications and a workshop focusing on design education. This volume attempts to outline a framework upon which new efforts in design education might be based. The book includes chapters dealing with six broad aspects of the study of design education: • Methodologies for undertaking studies of design learning • Longitudinal assessment of design learning • Methods and cases for assessing beginners, experts and special populations • Studies of important component processes • Structure of design knowledge • Design cognition in the classroom



Encyclopedia of Human Behavior

Encyclopedia of Human Behavior Author
ISBN-10 9780080961804
Release 2012-01-31
Pages 2518
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The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, Second Edition is an award-winning three-volume reference on human action and reaction, and the thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions behind those actions. Presented alphabetically by title, 300 articles probe both enduring and exciting new topics in physiological psychology, perception, personality, abnormal and clinical psychology, cognition and learning, social psychology, developmental psychology, language, and applied contexts. Written by leading scientists in these disciplines, every article has been peer-reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. The most comprehensive reference source to provide both depth and breadth to the study of human behavior, the encyclopedia will again be a much-used reference source. This set appeals to public, corporate, university and college libraries, libraries in two-year colleges, and some secondary schools. Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users—whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology—understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do. Named a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field Each article features suggested further readings, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedi Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom



Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author Benjamin Martin Bly
ISBN-10 0080488501
Release 1999-10-18
Pages 391
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The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception, and linguistics. Focusing on the main areas of exploration in this field today, Cognitive Science presents comprehensive overviews of research findings and discusses new cross-over areas of interest. Contributors represent the most senior and well-established names in the field. This volume serves as a high-level introduction, with sufficient breadth to be a graduate-level text, and enough depth to be a valued reference source to researchers.