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Human Missions to Mars

Human Missions to Mars Author Donald Rapp
ISBN-10 9783319222493
Release 2015-10-31
Pages 582
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A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of elements critical to a human Mars mission, including life support consumables, radiation effects and shielding, microgravity effects, abort options and mission safety, possible habitats on the Martian surface and aero-assisted orbit entry decent and landing. For any human mission to the Red Planet the possible utilization of any resources indigenous to Mars would be of great value and such possibilities, the use of indigenous resources is discussed at length. He also discusses the relationship of lunar exploratio n to Mars exploration. Detailed appendices describe the availability of solar energy on the Moon and Mars, and the potential for utilizing indigenous water on Mars. The second edition provides extensive updating and additions to the first edition, including many new figures and tables, and more than 70 new references, as of 2015.



Martian Outpost

Martian Outpost Author Erik Seedhouse
ISBN-10 9780387981918
Release 2010-04-11
Pages 304
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Mars Outpost provides a detailed insight into the various technologies, mission architectures, medical requirements, and training needed to send humans to Mars. It focuses on mission objectives and benefits, and the risks and complexities that are compounded when linked to an overall planet exploration program involving several expeditions and setting up a permanent presence on the surface. The first section provides the background to sending a human mission to Mars. Analogies are made with early polar exploration and the expeditions of Shackleton, Amundsen, and Mawson. The interplanetary plans of the European Space Agency, NASA, and Russia are examined, including the possibility of one or more nations joining forces to send humans to Mars. Current mission architectures, such as NASA’s Constellation, ESA’s Aurora, and Ross Tierney’s DIRECT, are described and evaluated. The next section looks at how humans will get to the Red Planet, beginning with the preparation of the crew. The author examines the various analogues to understand the problems Mars-bound astronauts will face. Additional chapters describe the transportation hardware necessary to launch 4-6 astronauts on an interplanetary trajectory to Mars, including the cutting edge engineering and design of life support systems required to protect crews for more than a year from the lethal radiation encountered in deep space. NASA’s current plan is to use standard chemical propulsion technology, but eventually Mars crews will take advantage of advanced propulsion concepts, such as the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, ion drives and nuclear propulsion. The interplanetary options for reaching Mars, as well as the major propulsive maneuvers required and the trajectories and energy requirements for manned and unmanned payloads, are reviewed . Another chapter addresses the daunting medical problems and available countermeasures for humans embarking on a mission to Mars: the insidious effects of radiation on the human body and the deleterious consequences of bone and muscle deconditioning. Crew selection will be considered, bearing in mind the strong possibility that they may not be able to return to Earth. Still another chapter describes the guidance, navigation, and control system architecture, as well as the lander design requirements and crew tasks and responsibilities required to touch down on the Red Planet. Section 3 looks at the surface mission architectures. Seedhouse describes such problems as radiation, extreme temperatures, and construction challenges that will be encountered by colonists. He examines proposed concepts for transporting cargo and astronauts long distances across the Martian surface using magnetic levitation systems, permanent rail systems, and flying vehicles. In the penultimate chapter of the book, the author explains an adaptable and mobile exploration architecture that will enable long-term human exploration of Mars, perhaps making it the next space-based tourist location.



Yearbook on Space Policy 2016

Yearbook on Space Policy 2016 Author Cenan Al-Ekabi
ISBN-10 9783319724652
Release 2018-02-22
Pages 328
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The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.



Space Debris

Space Debris Author Heiner Klinkrad
ISBN-10 9783540376743
Release 2006-09-01
Pages 430
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The future evolution of the debris environment will be forecast on the basis of traffic models and possible hazard mitigation practices. The text shows how large trackable objects will have re-entry pinpointed and predictions made on related risk assessment for possible ground impact. Models will also be described for meteoroids which are also a prevailing risk.



Exploring the Martian Moons

Exploring the Martian Moons Author Manfred “Dutch” von Ehrenfried
ISBN-10 9783319527000
Release 2017-04-11
Pages 255
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This book explores the once popular idea of 'Flexible Path' in terms of Mars, a strategy that would focus on a manned orbital mission to Mars's moons rather than the more risky, expensive and time-consuming trip to land humans on the Martian surface. While currently still not the most popular idea, this mission would take advantage of the operational, scientific and engineering lessons to be learned from going to Mars's moons first. Unlike a trip to the planet's surface, an orbital mission avoids the dangers of the deep gravity well of Mars and a very long stay on the surface. This is analogous to Apollo 8 and 10, which preceded the landing on the Moon of Apollo 11. Furthermore, a Mars orbital mission could be achieved at least five years, possibly 10 before a landing mission. Nor would an orbital mission require all of the extra vehicles, equipment and supplies needed for a landing and a stay on the planet for over a year. The cost difference between the two types of missions is in the order of tens of billions of dollars. An orbital mission to Deimos and Phobos would provide an early opportunity to acquire scientific knowledge of the moons and Mars as well, since some of the regolith is presumed to be soil ejected from Mars. It may also offer the opportunity to deploy scientific instruments on the moons which would aid subsequent missions. It would provide early operational experience in the Mars environment without the risk of a landing. The author convincingly argues this experience would enhance the probability of a safe and successful Mars landing by NASA at a later date, and lays out the best way to approach an orbital mission in great detail. Combining path-breaking science with achievable goals on a fast timetable, this approach is the best of both worlds--and our best path to reaching Mars safely in the future.



Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion

Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion Author Martin J. L. Turner
ISBN-10 9783540692034
Release 2008-11-05
Pages 414
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The revised edition of this practical, hands-on book discusses the launch vehicles in use today throughout the world, and includes the latest details on advanced systems being developed, such as electric and nuclear propulsion. The author covers the fundamentals, from the basic principles of rocket propulsion and vehicle dynamics through the theory and practice of liquid and solid propellant motors, to new and future developments. He provides a serious exposition of the principles and practice of rocket propulsion, from the point of view of the user who is not an engineering specialist.



Yearbook on Space Policy 2016

Yearbook on Space Policy 2016 Author Cenan Al-Ekabi
ISBN-10 9783319724652
Release 2018-02-22
Pages 328
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The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.



The Cassini Huygens Visit to Saturn

The Cassini Huygens Visit to Saturn Author Michael Meltzer
ISBN-10 9783319076089
Release 2015-01-02
Pages 409
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Cassini-Huygens was the most ambitious and successful space journey ever launched to the outer Solar System. This book examines all aspects of the journey: its conception and planning; the lengthy political processes needed to make it a reality; the engineering and development required to build the spacecraft; its 2.2-billion mile journey from Earth to the Ringed Planet and the amazing discoveries from the mission. The author traces how the visions of a few brilliant scientists matured, gained popularity and eventually became a reality. Innovative technical leaps were necessary to assemble such a multifaceted spacecraft and reliably operate it while it orbited a planet so far from our own. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft design evolved from other deep space efforts, most notably the Galileo mission to Jupiter, enabling the voluminous, paradigm-shifting scientific data collected by the spacecraft. Some of these discoveries are absolute gems. A small satellite that scientists once thought of as a dead piece of rock turned out to contain a warm underground sea that could conceivably harbor life. And we now know that hiding under the mist of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is a world with lakes, fluvial channels, and dunes hauntingly reminiscent of those on our own planet, except that on Titan, it’s not water that fills those lakes but hydrocarbons. These and other breakthroughs illustrate why the Cassini-Huygens mission will be remembered as one of greatest voyages of discovery ever made.



Yearbook on Space Policy 2015

Yearbook on Space Policy 2015 Author Cenan Al-Ekabi
ISBN-10 9783709148600
Release 2017-01-02
Pages 307
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The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.



Next Stop Mars

Next Stop Mars Author Giancarlo Genta
ISBN-10 9783319443119
Release 2016-12-30
Pages 415
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This book covers the possible manned mission to Mars first discussed in the 1950s and still a topic of much debate, addressing historic and future plans to visit the Red Planet. Considering the environmental dangers and the engineering and design needed for a successful trip, it covers every aspect of a possible mission and outpost. The chapters explain the motivations behind the plan to go to Mars, as well as the physical factors that astronauts on manned missions will face on Mars and in transit. The author provides a comprehensive exposure to the infrastructure needs on Mars itself, covering an array of facilities including power sources, as well as addressing earth-based communication networks that will be necessary. Mechanisms for return to Earth are also addressed. As the reality of a manned Mars voyage becomes more concrete, the details are still largely up in the air. This book presents an overview of proposed approaches past, present, and future, both from NASA and, increasingly, from other space agencies and private companies. It clearly displays the challenges and the ingenious solutions involved in reaching Mars with human explorers.



Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems

Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Author Claudio Bruno
ISBN-10 9783540888147
Release 2009-03-20
Pages 560
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An understandable perspective on the types of space propulsion systems necessary to enable low-cost space flights to Earth orbit and to the Moon and the future developments necessary for exploration of the solar system and beyond to the stars.



Expedition Mars

Expedition Mars Author Martin J.L. Turner
ISBN-10 1852337354
Release 2004-01-09
Pages 321
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The technical challenges of a human expedition to Mars are the principal theme to be explored by Martin Turner in Expedition Mars. The author begins by describing how the very latest rocket propulsion and spacecraft technology, and planned developments in nuclear and electric propulsion technologies, are the key factors which will enable a human expedition to Mars to take place. Of particular importance are the challenges of transporting cargo to Mars and in providing necessary life support for the crew, including the supply of consumables, such as food, water, air and fuel, for the return journey. In this regard the author considers how the International Space Station fits into the strategy for a human journey to the Red Planet, in its preparation of astronauts for long-duration spaceflight and the possible hazards posed by space radiation and prolonged weightlessness. The author discusses the relative merits of fast and slow journeys to Mars, i.e. is quicker also safer and cheaper? Also of importance is the role of unmanned robotic explorers in preparing the ground for human activities on Mars and in defining what the surface of Mars is like. The means by which future explorers will live and work on Mars are also explored, including issues such as habitation, modules, Mars buggies, spacesuits, scientific experiments and communications with Earth. He concludes by looking at the possible political obstacles to such a journey, but points out that sooner or later humans will have to make a choice; stay here on Earth or explore the Solar System beyond. One route takes us nowhere, the other leads to the stars.



Deep Space Probes

Deep Space Probes Author Gregory L. Matloff
ISBN-10 9783540273400
Release 2006-08-31
Pages 242
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The Space Age is nearly 50 years old but exploration of the outer planets and beyond has only just begun. Deep-Space Probes Second Edition draws on the latest research to explain why we should explore beyond the edge of the Solar System and how we can build highly sophisticated robot spacecraft to make the journey. Many technical problems remain to be solved, among them propulsion systems to permit far higher velocities, and technologies to build vehicles a fraction of the size of today’s spacecraft. Beyond the range of effective radio control, robot vehicles for exploring deep space will need to be intelligent, ‘thinking’ craft – able to make vital decisions entirely on their own. Gregory Matloff also looks at the possibility for human travel into interstellar space, and some of the immense problems that such journeys would entail. This second edition includes an entirely new chapter on holographic message plaques for future interstellar probes – a NASA-funded project.



SpaceX

SpaceX Author Erik Seedhouse
ISBN-10 9781461455141
Release 2013-06-15
Pages 206
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This first account of commercial spaceflight’s most successful venture describes the extraordinary feats of engineering and human achievement that have placed SpaceX at the forefront of the launch industry and made it the most likely candidate for transporting humans to Mars. Since its inception in 2002, SpaceX has sought to change the space launch paradigm by developing a family of launch vehicles that will ultimately reduce the cost and increase the reliability of space access tenfold. Coupled with the newly emerging market for governmental, private, and commercial space transport, this new model will re-ignite humanity's efforts to explore and develop space. Formed in 2002 by Elon Musk, the founder of PayPal and the Zip2 Corporation, SpaceX has already developed two state-of-the-art new launch vehicles, established an impressive launch manifest, and been awarded COTS funding by NASA to demonstrate delivery and return of cargo to the ISS. This book describes how simplicity, low-cost, and reliability can go hand in hand, as promoted in the philosophy of SpaceX. It explains how, by eliminating the traditional layers of internal management and external sub-contractors and keeping the vast majority of manufacturing in house, SpaceX reduces its costs while accelerating decision making and delivery, controls quality, and ensures constant liaison between the design and manufacturing teams.



The Politics and Perils of Space Exploration

The Politics and Perils of Space Exploration Author Linda Dawson
ISBN-10 9783319388137
Release 2016-11-22
Pages 199
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Written by a former Aerodynamics Officer on the space shuttle program, this book provides a complete overview of the “new” U. S. space program, which has changed considerably over the past 50 years.The future of space exploration has become increasingly dependent on other countries and private enterprise. Can private enterprise fill NASA's shoes and provide the same expertise, safety measures and lessons learned? In order to tell this story, it is important to understand the politics of space as well as the dangers, why it is so difficult to explore and utilize the resources of space. Some past and recent triumphs and failures will be discussed, pointing the way to a successful space policy that includes taking risks but also learning how to mitigate them.



Human Spaceflight

Human Spaceflight Author Wiley J. Larson
ISBN-10 007236811X
Release 1999
Pages 1035
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"Human spaceflight: mission analysis and design" is for you if you manage, design, or operate systems for human spaceflight! It provides end-to-end coverage of designing human space systems for Earth, Moon, and Mars. If you are like many others, this will become the dog-eared book that is always on your desk -and used. The book includes over 800 rules of thumb and sanity checks that will enable you to identify key issues and errors early in the design processes. This book was written by group of 67 professional engineers, managers, and educators from industry, government, and academia that collectively share over 600 years of space-related experience! The team from the United States, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia worked for four-and-one-half years to capture industry and government best practices and lessons-learned from industry and government in an effort to baseline global conceptual design experience for human spaceflight. "Human spaceflight: mission analysis and design" provides a much-needed big-picture perspective that can be used by managers, engineers and students to integrate the myriad of elements associated with human spaceflight.



Yearbook on Space Policy 2007 2008

Yearbook on Space Policy 2007 2008 Author Kai-Uwe Schrogl
ISBN-10 9783211990919
Release 2010-07-19
Pages 312
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At the time of ?nalising this second volume of the ?Yearbook on Space Policy? which covers the period mid-2007 to mid-2008, Europe is as visible and strong in the area of space activities as never before. Its space probes are present on the Moon, around Mars, and on Saturn?s Moon Titan, and are chasing asteroids and comets; Ariane V is the most successful commercial launch vehicle; and more and more European space applications satellites are in operation. Finally, with the successful launch of the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) – the most prominent highlight of this period which is also depicted on the cover of this Yearbook – and the ?rst Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), Europe has become a decisive player in human space?ight. This is accompanied by new policy initiatives on the ministerial level which have been bringing the European Space Agency and the European Union steadily closer. Europe?s outstanding development and positioning in the space ?eld is based not only on Europe?s successful engineering and scienti?c capabilities and capacities, but also on the forceful political determination of all European actors to maintain and even further their engagement in the use of outer space. And it is this political determination which provides the focus for this ?Yearbook on Space Policy?. The Yearbook describes and analyses the contexts and contents of space policy. Its primary ?eld of investigation is Europe, but it also covers the whole range of global space activities and their in?uence on European endeavours.