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Human Rights Acts

Human Rights Acts Author Kris Gledhill
ISBN-10 9781782254843
Release 2015-05-28
Pages 476
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There are now a number of statutes in different parts of the world that offer non-constitutional protection for human rights through mechanisms such as strong interpretive obligations, quasi-tort actions and obligations on legislatures to consider whether statutes are felt to breach human rights obligations. They exist in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria. The aim of this book is to consider the jurisprudence that has developed in these various jurisdictions relating to these mechanics for the promotion of human rights; relevant case law from countries such as Canada, South Africa and the United States that have a supreme law constitutional approach is also featured. Chapters cover such matters as the choice between a supreme law and non-supreme law bill of rights, the different approaches adopted as to how legislators are alerted to possible breaches of fundamental rights as Bills progress, the extent of the interpretive obligation, the consequences of failing to reach a rights-compliant interpretation, and the remedies available in litigation. The book is aimed at practitioners and also at academics and policy makers. '… Kris Gledhill addresses for the first time, and in some considerable detail, the dynamics operating within different common law systems that seek to integrate international fundamental rights obligations into domestic law . . . The strength of this book is to explore apparent antitheses . . . with intellectual depth so that the relationship between human rights law on the international level and human rights law on the domestic level becomes clearer and comes to be seen not so much as a sharp legal dichotomy but, rather, as the fashioning of mechanisms . . . to integrate international and domestic fundamental rights regimes so that they work harmoniously.' From the Foreword by Richard Gordon QC, Brick Court Chambers 'Gledhill's study bridges the gap between the promise of international human rights commitments and the protection afforded those rights by statutory bills of rights, a model that has been adopted in countries such as New Zealand, the UK, Ireland, and Australia. It is an invaluable resource.' Grant Huscroft, Western University Faculty of Law



Principled Reasoning in Human Rights Adjudication

Principled Reasoning in Human Rights Adjudication Author Se-shauna Wheatle
ISBN-10 9781782259824
Release 2017-04-20
Pages 224
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Implied constitutional principles form part of the landscape of the development of fundamental rights in common law jurisdictions, affecting issues ranging from the remuneration of judges to the appropriation of property by the state. Principled Reasoning in Human Rights Adjudication offers thematic analysis of the use of the implied constitutional principles of the rule of law and separation of powers in human rights cases. The book examines the functions played by those principles in rights adjudication in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, and the United Kingdom. It argues that a complete understanding of implied constitutional principles requires thoroughgoing analysis of the sources and methods of implication and of the specific roles played by such principles in the adjudicative process. By disaggregating particular functions and placing those functions within their respective institutional contexts, this book develops an understanding of the features of cases in which implied constitutional principles are invoked and the work done by those principles.



Parliaments and Human Rights

Parliaments and Human Rights Author Murray Hunt
ISBN-10 9781782254386
Release 2015-04-30
Pages 478
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In many countries today there is a growing and genuinely-held concern that the institutional arrangements for the protection of human rights suffer from a 'democratic deficit'. Yet at the same time there appears to be a new consensus that human rights require legal protection and that all branches of the state have a shared responsibility for upholding and realising those legally protected rights. This volume of essays tries to understand this paradox by considering how parliaments have sought to discharge their responsibility to protect human rights. Contributors seek to take stock of the extent to which national and sub-national parliaments have developed legislative review for human rights compatibility, and the effect of international initiatives to increase the role of parliaments in relation to human rights. They also consider the relationship between legislative review and judicial review for human rights compatibility, and whether courts could do more to incentivise better democratic deliberation about human rights. Enhancing the role of parliaments in the protection and realisation of human rights emerges as an idea whose time has come, but the volume makes clear that there is a great deal more to do in all parliaments to develop the institutional structures, processes and mechanisms necessary to put human rights at the centre of their function of making law and holding the government to account. The sense of democratic deficit is unlikely to dissipate unless parliaments empower themselves by exercising the considerable powers and responsibilities they already have to interpret and apply human rights law, and courts in turn pay closer attention to that reasoned consideration. 'I believe that this book will be of enormous value to all of those interested in human rights, in modern legislatures, and the relationship between the two. As this is absolutely fundamental to the characterand credibility of democracy, academic insight of this sort is especially welcome. This is an area where I expect there to be an ever expanding community of interest.' From the Foreword by the Rt Hon John Bercow MP, Speaker of the House of Commons



The Nordic Constitutions

The Nordic Constitutions Author Helle Krunke
ISBN-10 9781509910953
Release 2018-08-23
Pages 224
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This book analyses the Nordic constitutional systems of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in a comparative context. It has two main aims: first to fill a gap in the literature by providing an accessible English language account of the Nordic constitutions, and second to provide a comparative analysis of them, revealing their similarities and differences within their political, historical and cultural contexts. In this respect, the book challenges the assumption that the Nordic countries form a homogeneous constitutional system due to their cultural and historical affinities, a view not necessarily supported by a close comparative examination. A key issue is EU membership –where the Nordic countries have made different choices at different times – and the book will show how this has affected the individual countries and whether a divide between EU member states (Denmark, Finland and Sweden) and non-members (Iceland and Norway) has appeared. Another key issue is how the ECHR has impacted the Nordic constitutional systems and whether the convention draws the Nordic systems closer to each other. The book represents a first of its kind in the English language, and will provide constitutional scholars with a valuable comparative resource on the Nordic region.



Law in Politics Politics in Law

Law in Politics  Politics in Law Author David Feldman
ISBN-10 9781782252832
Release 2014-07-18
Pages 294
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A great deal has been written on the relationship between politics and law. Legislation, as a source of law, is often highly political, and is the product of a process or the creation of officials often closely bound into party politics. Legislation is also one of the exclusive powers of the state. As such, legislation is plainly both practical and inevitably political; at the same time most understandings of the relationship between law and politics have been overwhelmingly theoretical. In this light, public law is often seen as part of the political order or as inescapably partisan. We know relatively little about the real impact of law on politicians through their legal advisers and civil servants. How do lawyers in government see their roles and what use do they make of law? How does politics actually affect the drafting of legislation or the making of policy? This volume will begin to answer these and other questions about the practical, day-to-day relationship between law and politics in a number of settings. It includes chapters by former departmental legal advisers, drafters of legislation, law reformers, judges and academics, who focus on what actually happens when law meets politics in government.



Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making

Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making Author Gideon Sapir
ISBN-10 9781782251859
Release 2014-07-18
Pages 578
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In the domain of comparative constitutionalism, Israeli constitutional law is a fascinating case study constituted of many dilemmas. It is moving from the old British tradition of an unwritten constitution and no judicial review of legislation to fully-fledged constitutionalism endorsing judicial review and based on the text of a series of basic laws. At the same time, it is struggling with major questions of identity, in the context of Israel's constitutional vision of 'a Jewish and Democratic' state. Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making offers a comprehensive study of Israeli constitutional law in a systematic manner that moves from constitution-making to specific areas of contestation including state/religion relations, national security, social rights, as well as structural questions of judicial review. It features contributions by leading scholars of Israeli constitutional law, with comparative comments by leading scholars of constitutional law from Europe and the United States.



New Directions in European Public Law

New Directions in European Public Law Author J. Beatson
ISBN-10 9781901362244
Release 1998
Pages 198
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From two symposia in the winter and spring of 1997 at Cambridge, England, 13 essays analyze a cluster of issues arising in the European Union public law arena. Some deal with issues of liability and the availability of remedies in European and domestic law. Others take a broader view, looking at the phenomenon of cross-fertilization among national legal systems and between national systems and European Union law.



The Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

The Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights Author Paul Gragl
ISBN-10 9781782251644
Release 2014-10-01
Pages 362
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After more than 30 years of discussion, negotiations between the Council of Europe and the European Union on the EU's accession to the European Convention on Human Rights have resulted in a Draft Accession Agreement. This will allow the EU to accede to the Convention within the next couple of years. As a consequence, the Union will become subject to the external judicial supervision of an international treaty regime. Individuals will also be entitled to submit applications against the Union, alleging that their fundamental rights have been violated by legal acts rooted in EU law, directly to the Strasbourg Court. As the first comprehensive monograph on this topic, this book examines the concerns for the EU's legal system in relation to accession and the question of whether and how accession and the system of human rights protection under the Convention can be effectively reconciled with the autonomy of EU law. It also takes into account how this objective can be attained without jeopardising the current system of individual human rights protection under the Convention. The main chapters deal with the legal status and rank of the Convention and the Accession Agreement within Union law after accession; the external review of EU law by Strasbourg and the potential subordination of the Luxembourg Court; the future of individual applications and the so-called co-respondent mechanism; the legal arrangement of inter-party cases after accession and the presumable clash of jurisdictions between Strasbourg and Luxembourg; and the interplay between the Convention's subsidiarity principle (the exhaustion of local remedies) and the prior involvement of the Luxembourg Court in EU-related cases. The analysis presented in this book comes at a crucial point in the history of European human rights law, offering a holistic and detailed enquiry into the EU's accession to the ECHR and how this move can be reconciled with the autonomy of EU law.



The Grey Zone

The Grey Zone Author Mark Lattimer
ISBN-10 9781509908646
Release 2018-07-26
Pages 480
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The high civilian death toll in modern, protracted conflicts such as those in Syria or Iraq indicate the limits of international law in offering protections to civilians at risk. A recent conference of states convened by the International Committee of the Red Cross referred to 'an institutional vacuum in the area of international humanitarian law implementation'. Yet both international humanitarian law and the law of human rights establish a series of rights intended to protect civilians. But which law or laws apply in a particular situation, and what are the obstacles to their implementation? How can the law offer greater protections to civilians caught up in new methods of warfare, such as drone strikes, or targeted by new forms of military organisation, such as transnational armed groups? Can the implementation gap be filled by the growing use of human rights courts to remedy violations of the laws of armed conflict, or are new instruments or mechanisms of civilian legal protection needed? This volume brings together contributions from leading academic authorities and legal practitioners on the situation of civilians in the grey zone between human rights and the laws of war. The chapters in Part 1 address key contested or boundary issues in defining the rights of civilians or non-combatants in today's conflicts. Those in Part 2 examine remedies and current mechanisms for redress both at the international and national level, and those in Part 3 assess prospects for the development of new mechanisms for addressing violations. As military intervention to protect civilians remains contested, this volume looks at the potential for developing alternative approaches to the protection of civilians and their rights.



The National Security Constitution

The National Security Constitution Author Paul F Scott
ISBN-10 9781509911035
Release 2018-05-17
Pages 208
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This book addresses the various ways in which modern approaches to the protection of national security have impacted upon the constitutional order of the United Kingdom. It outlines and assesses the constitutional significance of the three primary elements of the United Kingdom's response to the possibility of terrorism and other phenomena that threaten the security of the state: the body of counter-terrorism legislation that has grown up in the last decade and a half; the evolving law of investigatory powers; and, to the extent relevant to the domestic constitution, the law and practice governing international military action and co-operation. Following on from this, the author demonstrates that considerations of national security – as a good to be protected and promoted in contemporary Britain – are reflected not merely in the existence of discrete bodies of law by which it is protected at home and abroad, but simultaneously and increasingly leaked into other areas of public law. Elements of the constitution which are not directly and inherently linked to national security nevertheless become (by both accident and design) implicated in the state's national security endeavours, with significant and at times far-reaching consequences for the constitutional order generally. A renewed and strengthened concern for national security since September 2001 has, it is argued, dragged into its orbit a variety of constitutional phenomena and altered them in its image, giving rise to what we might call a national security constitution.



Domestic Counter Terrorism in a Global World

Domestic Counter Terrorism in a Global World Author Daniel Alati
ISBN-10 9781134850310
Release 2017-07-14
Pages 196
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Although both Canada and the United Kingdom had experienced terrorism prior to the attacks of 9/11 and already had in place extensive provisions to deal with terrorism, the events of that day led to the enactment of new and expansive counter-terrorism legislation being enacted in both jurisdictions. This book explores these changes to counter-terrorism laws and policies in the United Kingdom and Canada in order to demonstrate that despite the force of international legal instruments, including the heavily scrutinized UN Security Council Resolution 1373, the evolution of counter-terrorism policies in different jurisdictions is best analysed and understood as a product of local institutional structures and cultures. The book compares legal and political structures and cultures within Canada and the United Kingdom. It analyses variations in the evolution of post-9/11 counter-terrorism measures in the two jurisdictions and explores the domestic reasons for them. While focus is primarily geared towards security certificates and bail with recognizance/investigative hearings in Canada, and detention without trial, control orders and TPIMs in the United Kingdom , the use of secret evidence in the wider national security context (terrorist listing, civil litigation, criminal prosecutions, etc.) is also discussed. The book reveals how domestic structures and cultures, including the legal system, the relative stability of government, local human rights culture and geopolitical relationships all influence how counter-terrorism measures evolve. In this sense, the book utilizes a methodology that is both comparative and interdisciplinary by engaging in legal, political, historical and cultural analyses. This book will be particularly useful for target audiences in the fields of comparative law and criminal justice, counter-terrorism law, human rights law and international relations and politics.



Amnesty Human Rights and Political Transitions

Amnesty  Human Rights and Political Transitions Author Louise Mallinder
ISBN-10 9781847314574
Release 2008-09-10
Pages 598
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Amnesty laws are political tools used since ancient times by states wishing to quell dissent, introduce reforms, or achieve peaceful relationships with their enemies. In recent years, they have become contentious due to a perception that they violate international law, particularly the rights of victims, and contribute to further violence. This view is disputed by political negotiators who often argue that amnesty is a necessary price to pay in order to achieve a stable, peaceful, and equitable system of government. This book aims to investigate whether an amnesty necessarily entails a violation of a state's international obligations, or whether an amnesty, accompanied by alternative justice mechanisms, can in fact contribute positively to both peace and justice. This study began by constructing an extensive Amnesty Law Database that contains information on 506 amnesty processes in 130 countries introduced since the Second World War. The database and chapter structure were designed to correspond with the key aspects of an amnesty: why it was introduced, who benefited from its protection, which crimes it covered, and whether it was conditional. In assessing conditional amnesties, related transitional justice processes such as selective prosecutions, truth commissions, community-based justice mechanisms, lustration, and reparations programmes were considered. Subsequently, the jurisprudence relating to amnesty from national courts, international tribunals, and courts in third states was addressed. The information gathered revealed considerable disparity in state practice relating to amnesties, with some aiming to provide victims with a remedy, and others seeking to create complete impunity for perpetrators. To date, few legal trends relating to amnesty laws are emerging, although it appears that amnesties offering blanket, unconditional immunity for state agents have declined. Overall, amnesties have increased in popularity since the 1990s and consequently, rather than trying to dissuade states from using this tool of transitional justice, this book argues that international actors should instead work to limit the more negative forms of amnesty by encouraging states to make them conditional and to introduce complementary programmes to repair the harm and prevent a repetition of the crimes. David Dyzenhaus "This is one of the best accounts in the truth and reconciliation literature I've read and certainly the best piece of work on amnesty I've seen." Diane Orentlicher "Ms Mallinder's ambitious project provides the kind of empirical treatment that those of us who have worked on the issue of amnesties in international law have long awaited. I have no doubt that her book will be a much-valued and widely-cited resource."



Corruption and Human Rights Law in Africa

Corruption and Human Rights Law in Africa Author Kolawole Olaniyan
ISBN-10 9781782254522
Release 2014-12-01
Pages 337
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This important new book provides a framework for complementarity between promoting and protecting human rights and combating corruption. The book makes three major points regarding the relationship between corruption and human rights law. First, corruption per se is a human rights violation, insofar as it interferes with the right of the people to dispose of their natural wealth and resources and thereby increases poverty and frustrates socio-economic development. Second, corruption leads to a multitude of human rights violations. Third, the book demonstrates that human rights mechanisms have the capacity to provide more effective remedies to victims of corruption than can other criminal and civil legal mechanisms. The book takes up one of the pervasive problems of governance--large-scale corruption--to examine its impact on human rights and the degree to which a human rights approach to confronting corruption can buttress the traditional criminal law response. It examines three major aspects of human rights in practice--the importance of governing structures in the implementation and enjoyment of human rights, the relationship between corruption, poverty and underdevelopment, and the threat that systemic poverty poses to the entire human rights edifice. The book is a very significant contribution to the literature on good governance, human rights and the rule of law in Africa. Endorsements "Kolawole Olaniyan has taken up one of the pervasive problems of governance - large-scale corruption - to examine its impact on human rights and the degree to which a human rights approach to confronting corruption can buttress the traditional criminal law response. His focus is Africa, but the valuable lessons he teaches in this comprehensive study can resonate throughout the world. The result is a comprehensive and holistic legal framework for addressing some of the root causes of human rights violations and poverty, not only in Africa, but wherever corruption exists." Dinah Shelton Manatt/Ahn Professor of International Law (emeritus) The George Washington University Law School "This book demonstrates the author's mastery of complex jurisprudential and theoretical discourses. His review of the existing literature is extensive, the doctrinal analysis rigorous and the treatment of the subject innovative. Dr. Olaniyan's willingness to introduce fresh eyes to the ways in which doctrine contributes to an understanding of seemingly mundane problems lays the foundation for fertile trajectories from which future scholars can launch exciting inquiries on the relationship between corruption and human rights. Overall, this book makes an important and valuable contribution to the growth and understanding of the corruption/human rights discourse as it is presently constructed." Ndiva Kofele-Kale, University Distinguished Professor of Law, SMU Dedman School of Law, Dallas, USA.



UK Public Law and European Law

UK Public Law and European Law Author Gordon Anthony
ISBN-10 9781847311955
Release 2002-05-11
Pages 256
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Academic attention has,in recent years, increasingly focused upon the Europeanization of national legal orders. The interaction of domestic and supranational standards, while often presented as problematic, enables national courts to use European law as a reference point against which to develop domestic principle and practice. The effects of such borrowing can be far-reaching. Courts may assume an enhanced institutional role relative to other branches of the State and individuals may benefit from the introduction of new remedies and principles of judicial review. This book examines the dynamics of the process whereby UK courts borrow principle and practice from European law. It argues that recent internal developments in UK law, notably the passage of the Human Rights Act, present new possibilities for legal integration. Although UK courts have already demonstrated a willingness to use European law creatively, the book suggests that integration has been unduly constrained by the previously unincorporated status of the ECHR and by the courts' justification for the reception of EU law. Focusing in particular on the principles of administrative law applied by courts in judicial review proceedings, the book highlights how the emergence of new principles of review has been frustrated by the courts' inability to view EU law and the ECHR as part of an interlocking whole. The book's central argument, therefore, is that the Human Rights Act, coupled with the more general programme of constitutional reform introduced by New Labour, now offers the courts the opportunity to reassess the nature of the interactive relationship that domestic law has with European law. UK Public Law and European Law: The Dynamics of Legal Integration will be of interest to public lawyers, European lawyers and political scientists alike. It offers a comprehensive overview of existing jurisprudence dealing with the reception of European law into the domestic order. More significantly, it places that jurisprudence within the wider context of legal and political change ongoing within and without the United Kingdom.



Protecting Vulnerable Groups

Protecting Vulnerable Groups Author Francesca Ippolito
ISBN-10 9781782256144
Release 2015-04-30
Pages 388
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The concept of vulnerability has not been unequivocally interpreted either in regional or in universal international legal instruments. This book analyses the work of the EU and the Council of Europe in ascertaining a clear framework or a set of criteria suitable to determine those who should be considered vulnerable and disadvantaged. It also explores the measures required to protect their human rights. Key questions can be answered by analysing the different methods used to determine the levels of protection offered by the two European systems. These questions include whether the Convention and the case law of the Strasbourg Court, the monitoring mechanisms of the Council of Europe, EU law and the case law of the European Court of Justice enhance the protection of vulnerable groups and expand the protection of their rights, or, alternatively, whether they are mainly used to fill in relatively minor gaps or occasional lapses in national rights guarantees. The analysis also shows the extent to which these two European systems provide analogous, or indeed divergent, standards and how any such divergence might be problematic in light of the EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights.



Fundamental Rights in EU Internal Market Legislation

Fundamental Rights in EU Internal Market Legislation Author Vasiliki Kosta
ISBN-10 9781782258971
Release 2015-11-05
Pages 336
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This book attempts to systematise the present interrelationship between fundamental rights and the EU internal market in the field of positive integration. Its intention is simple: to examine the way in which, and the extent to which, fundamental rights protection is realised through EU internal market legislation. To that end, the analysis is conducted around four rights or sets of rights: data protection, freedom of expression, fundamental labour rights and the right to health. The book assesses not only what substantive level of protection is achieved for these fundamental rights, but it also estimates whether there is a 'fundamental rights culture' that informs current legislative practice. Finally, it asks the overarching question whether the current state of harmonisation amounts to a 'fundamental rights policy'. The book offers a much more varied picture of the EU's fundamental rights policy in and through the EU internal market than perhaps initially expected. Moreover, it builds the case for a more conscious approach to dealing with and enhancing fundamental rights protection in and through internal market legislation, and advocates a leading role for the legislature in the establishment of an internal market that is firmly based on respect for fundamental rights.



Civilian Oversight of Policing

Civilian Oversight of Policing Author Andrew John Goldsmith
ISBN-10 9781841130309
Release 2000
Pages 331
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How the police are policed is no longer just a domestic issue. The involvement of police,and other security forces, in systematic abuses of human rights in many developing countries, as well as in so called developed countries, has placed the control of police on a number of international agendas. More and more countries are experimenting with different forms of police accountability and many are turning to civilian oversight bodies in an attempt to improve the process.This book examines recent experiences with, and prospects for, civilian oversight. It looks at how this relatively new method of police accountability has been interpreted and implemented in a wide range of jurisdictions around the world. While looking at recent experiences in countries which have used the civilian oversight process for some years (the United States of America, United Kingdom, Northern Ireland and Australia), it also looks at recent attempts to establish civilian oversight bodies in South Africa, Israel, Central and South America and Palestine. Some chapters explain how, in several of these countries, oversight of police conduct is a fundamental governance issues, and relates to concerns about democratisation and rebuilding civil society. Other chapters deal with the complex issue of how to evaluate public complaints mechanisms and the political conditions that enable or frustrate the introduction and maintenance of effective civilian oversight.