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Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust

Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust Author Sheldon Rubenfeld
ISBN-10 9783319057026
Release 2014-06-30
Pages 308
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“An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil ...a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." – Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of “applied biology.” They were not coerced to behave as they did—they enthusiastically exploited widely accepted eugenic theories to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers and euthanasia programs, which ultimately led to mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could do evil while believing they were doing good, can I be certain that I will never do the same?"



Pediatric Epidemiology

Pediatric Epidemiology Author W. Kiess
ISBN-10 9783318061239
Release 2017-11-27
Pages 156
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Pediatric epidemiology differs substantially from general epidemiology especially when it comes to ethical, developmental and societal aspects. This unique book addresses biological considerations and ethical and legal questions in dealing with pediatric and adolescent populations. Classic topics, such as how to recruit representative samples, how to deal with confounding variables, and how to work with genetic information are the core areas of the book are also in focus. Last but not the least, this volume adds to the current understanding of global trends in occurrence, transmission, and control of epidemic pediatric diseases. This book not only serves as a textbook for epidemiologists, pediatricians, geneticists, and child and public health specialists but is also a key reference for those embarking on pediatric cohort studies and epidemiological studies involving the pediatric population.



Medicine after the Holocaust

Medicine after the Holocaust Author S. Rubenfeld
ISBN-10 9780230102293
Release 2010-01-04
Pages 233
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Rubenfeld and the contributors to this collection posit that German physicians betrayed the Hippocratic Oath when they chose knowledge over wisdom, the state over the individual, a führer over God, and personal gain over professional ethics.



Problems Unique to the Holocaust

Problems Unique to the Holocaust Author Harry J. Cargas
ISBN-10 9780813121017
Release 1999-01-01
Pages 198
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In Problems Unique to the Holocaust, today's leading Holocaust scholars examine the difficult questions surrounding this terrible chapter in world history. Is it ever legitimate to betray others to save yourself? If a group of Jews is hiding behind a wall and a baby begins to cry, should an adult smother the child to protect the safety of the others? Should the men and women who took their own lives in the face of the Nazi onslaught be considered suicide or murder victims? How guilty are the bystanders who saw what was happening but did nothing to aid the victims of persecution?



The Nuremberg Trials International Criminal Law Since 1945

The Nuremberg Trials  International Criminal Law Since 1945 Author Lawrence Raful
ISBN-10 9783110944846
Release 2006-01-01
Pages 320
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60 years after the trials of the main German war criminals, the articles in this book attempt to assess the Nuremberg Trials from a historical and legal point of view, and to illustrate connections, contradictions and consequences. In view of constantly reoccurring reports of mass crimes from all over the world, we have only reached the halfway point in the quest for an effective system of international criminal justice. With the legacy of Nuremberg in mind, this volume is a contribution to the search for answers to questions of how the law can be applied effectively and those committing crimes against humanity be brought to justice for their actions.



Rethinking the Holocaust

Rethinking the Holocaust Author Yehuda Bauer
ISBN-10 0300093004
Release 2002
Pages 335
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Drawing on research from various historians, the author offers opinions on how to define and explain the Holocaust, comparison to other genocides, and the connection between the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel.



For the Good of Mankind

For the Good of Mankind Author Vicki Oransky Wittenstein
ISBN-10 9781467706599
Release 2013-10-01
Pages 96
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Experiment: A child is deliberately infected with the deadly smallpox disease without his parents' informed consent. Result: The world's first vaccine. Experiment: A slave woman is forced to undergo more than thirty operations without anesthesia. Result: The beginnings of modern gynecology. Incidents like these paved the way for crucial, lifesaving medical discoveries. But they also harmed and humiliated their test subjects, many of whom did not agree to the experiments in the first place. How do doctors balance the need to test new medicines and procedures with their ethical duty to protect the rights of human subjects? Take a harrowing journey through some of history's greatest medical advances?and its most horrifying medical atrocities?to discover how human suffering has gone hand in hand with medical advancement.



The Holocaust Industry

The Holocaust Industry Author Norman G. Finkelstein
ISBN-10 185984488X
Release 2003
Pages 286
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Controversial indictment of those who exploit the tragedy of the Holocaust for their own gain.



Doctors from Hell

Doctors from Hell Author Vivien Spitz
ISBN-10 9781591810322
Release 2005-01-01
Pages 318
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Provides a chilling account of the experiments and scientific research performed on human subjects, primarily concentration camp inmates, by Nazi physicians, based on previously unpublished photographs and documents used during the Nuremberg trials.



The Science of Evil

The Science of Evil Author Simon Baron-Cohen
ISBN-10 9780465023806
Release 2011-05-06
Pages 256
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Borderline personality disorder, autism, narcissism, psychosis, Asperger's: All of these syndromes have one thing in common--lack of empathy. In some cases, this absence can be dangerous, but in others it can simply mean a different way of seeing the world. In The Science of Evil Simon Baron-Cohen, an award-winning British researcher who has investigated psychology and autism for decades, develops a new brain-based theory of human cruelty. A true psychologist, however, he examines social and environmental factors that can erode empathy, including neglect and abuse. Based largely on Baron-Cohen's own research, The Science of Evil will change the way we understand and treat human cruelty.



Introduction to Research E Book

Introduction to Research   E Book Author Elizabeth DePoy
ISBN-10 9780323291071
Release 2013-12-24
Pages 384
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Bridge the gap between research and practice with DePoy and Gitlin's Introduction to Research: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies, 4th Edition. This completely updated, user-friendly text helps you better understand not only the research process, but also research designs and their applications to the real world of clinical practice. Covering multiple research strategies (including both qualitative and quantitative research), it gives you a balanced approach to various research traditions, addressing emerging key issues in today's health care environment. Offers a balanced approach to various research methods and multiple research strategies, including qualitative, quantitative, naturalistic and experimental-type, and more. Presents complex information in a clear, highly readable, and easy-to-understand manner. Keeps information relevant to today's health care environment with real-world "snapshots" and a final Stories from the Field chapter. Includes detailed discussions of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, a unique and balanced focus that makes this text more comprehensive than others in its field. Covers experimental-type, naturalistic, and mixed method design strategies, improving your ability to compare, contrast, and integrate different methods. Evolve online resources include statistics math tips to accompany Chapter 19, crossword puzzles, useful weblinks, and sample forms. Reflects recent changes in the field, including new material on preparing poster presentations, community and participatory research, translation issues, and advanced scale development, giving you the tools you need to devise successful research studies. Includes expanded evidence-based material and occupational therapy-specific information, discussing the methods used in each study.



Silent Partners

Silent Partners Author Rebecca Dresser
ISBN-10 9780190459277
Release 2016-11
Pages 302
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When is a human study ethical? For years, science and society have struggled with this question. Experts have put great effort into developing ethical principles and rules that adequately protect and respect volunteers in studies aimed at improving human health. But experts have missed something important. They have created a research ethics system without the help of people who know what it is like to be a research subject. This is a serious omission. Experienced research subjects can make valuable contributions to research ethics. People who have been in studies have information about the experience that other people can overlook. Their experience as subjects gives them special insights into ethics, too. Experienced subjects also know about problems that can lead people to refuse to join studies, or drop out before studies are complete. Scientists and ethicists often speak of subjects as partners in research, but the reality is quite different. Experienced subjects are rarely appointed to the advisory groups that create guidelines for ethical research, or to the committees that review individual studies to determine whether they meet ethical and regulatory standards. A large body of work describes the perceptions and viewpoints of people who have participated in research. But experts rarely use this material to guide improvements in human subject protection. Although subjects have the power to decide whether to participate in a study, they have little control over anything else that goes on in research. Silent Partners moves research subjects to the forefront. It examines what research participation is like for healthy volunteers and patients. It explains why subjects' voices should influence research ethics. Silent Partners shows how experienced research subjects can become real-not just symbolic-partners in research.



Research on Human Subjects

Research on Human Subjects Author David N. Weisstub
ISBN-10 0080434347
Release 1998
Pages 658
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There have been serious controversies in the latter part of the 20th century about the roles and functions of scientific and medical research. In whose interests are medical and biomedical experiments conducted and what are the ethical implications of experimentation on subjects unable to give competent consent? From the decades following the Second World War and calls for the global banning of medical research to the cautious return to the notion that in controlled circumstances, medical research on human subjects is in the best interest of the given individual and the broader population, this book addresses the key implications of experimentation on humans. This volume covers major ethical themes within biomedical research providing historical, philosophical, legal and policy reflections on the literature and specific issues in the field of research on human subjects. Focusing on special populations (the elderly, children, prisoners and the cognitively impaired) it represents the most up-to-date review of the special ethical and legal conflicts that arise with relation to experimentation on subjects from these groups. In the light of current initiatives for law reform pertaining to research ethics the world over, this volume provides a timely, comprehensive and provocative exploration of the field. The volume has been carefully organized to present important philosophical perspectives on organizing principles that should underlie any practical application. A forward-looking historical review of the regulatory regimes of principal jurisdictions, including of the legal controls already in place, provides the backdrop for future policy initiatives. Additionally, in the light of global restructuring of health care systems, several chapters have been devoted to epidemiological research and related issues.



Jewish Medical Resistance in the Holocaust

Jewish Medical Resistance in the Holocaust Author Michael A. Grodin, M.D.
ISBN-10 9781782384182
Release 2014-09-30
Pages 328
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Faced with infectious diseases, starvation, lack of medicines, lack of clean water, and safe sewage, Jewish physicians practiced medicine under severe conditions in the ghettos and concentration camps of the Holocaust. Despite the odds against them, physicians managed to supply public health education, enforce hygiene protocols, inspect buildings and latrines, enact quarantine, and perform triage. Many gave their lives to help fellow prisoners. Based on archival materials and featuring memoirs of Holocaust survivors, this volume offers a rich array of both tragic and inspiring studies of the sanctification of life as practiced by Jewish medical professionals. More than simply a medical story, these histories represent the finest exemplification of a humanist moral imperative during a dark hour of recent history.



Encyclopedia of Race Ethnicity and Society

Encyclopedia of Race  Ethnicity  and Society Author Richard T. Schaefer
ISBN-10 9781412926942
Release 2008-03-20
Pages 1622
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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area



Research Administration and Management

Research Administration and Management Author Elliott C. Kulakowski
ISBN-10 9781449666071
Release 2008-07-03
Pages 916
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This reference text addresses the basic knowledge of research administration and anagement, and includes everything from a review of research administration and the infrastructure that is necessary to support research, to project development and post-project plans. Examples of concepts, case studies, a glossary of terms and acronyms, and references to books, journal articles, monographs, and federal regulations are also included.



Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services

Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services Author Jeane W. Anastas
ISBN-10 9780231529280
Release 2000-01-28
Pages 608
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Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services integrates a range of research techniques into a single epistemological framework and presents a balanced approach to the teaching of research methods in the "helping professions." Jeane W. Anastas begins with a discussion of the different philosophical perspectives within which social research occurs and continues with problem formulation, research design, and methodological issues influencing data collection, analysis, and dissemination. She presents both fixed (quantitative) and flexible (qualitative) methods of research, granting legitimacy, value, utility, and relevance to both styles of inquiry. Utilizing complete case studies to illustrate different methodological approaches, Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services integrates material on women and people of color, and draws attention to the ways racism, heterosexism, sexism, and classism affect the conceptualization and conduct of research. Anastas not only exposes these biases but actively addresses the experiences, needs, and concerns of clients of both genders and different races, ethnicities, sexual orientations, cultures, and classes.