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Hygrothermal Risk on Building Heritage

Hygrothermal Risk on Building Heritage Author João M.P.Q. Delgado
ISBN-10 9783319191140
Release 2015-05-05
Pages 60
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This book presents a critical review of a criterion of risk, created to assess the flood risk to heritage buildings, and evaluates this criterion by applying it to the sample Portuguese heritage buildings. In a first approach, the total number of potential parameters is effectively reduced and the selected criteria are divided into two different groups: the monument’s location in relation to a waterway, and the behaviour of its construction material in contact with water. Above all, the book discusses the importance of architectural heritage and argues for the need to safeguard it from extreme climatic phenomena such as floods. As such, the book vividly reminds the scientific community that the intensification of the global warming and climate change will worsen throughout the 21st century, and that it is therefore necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimize, mitigate and control these adverse effects if we hope to avoid catastrophic consequences. At the same time, the book takes into account a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil engineering and architecture, offering a synthesis of the current state of knowledge to benefit and guide experts and practitioners in related fields.



Nearly Zero Energy Buildings and Proliferation of Microorganisms

Nearly Zero Energy Buildings and Proliferation of Microorganisms Author Elisa Di Giuseppe
ISBN-10 9783319023564
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 94
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This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to counter the biological phenomenon are examined, and an outline is provided for future innovations in a field not yet widely investigated.



Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics

Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics Author João M.P.Q. Delgado
ISBN-10 9783642350030
Release 2012-12-15
Pages 66
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This book presents a critical review on the development and application of hygrothermal analysis methods to simulate the coupled transport processes of Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) transfer for one or multidimensional cases. During the past few decades there has been relevant development in this field of study and an increase in the professional use of tools that simulate some of the physical phenomena that are involved in Heat, Air and Moisture conditions in building components or elements. Although there is a significant amount of hygrothermal models referred in the literature, the vast majority of them are not easily available to the public outside the institutions where they were developed, which restricts the analysis of this book to only 14 hygrothermal modelling tools. The special features of this book are (a) a state-of-the-art of numerical simulation tools applied to building physics, (b) the boundary conditions importance, (c) the material properties, namely, experimental methods for the measurement of relevant transport properties, and (d) the numerical investigation and application The main benefit of the book is that it discusses all the topics related to numerical simulation tools in building components (including state-of-the-art and applications) and presents some of the most important theoretical and numerical developments in building physics, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, this book will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, etc... The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.



Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media

Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media Author J.M.P.Q. Delgado
ISBN-10 3642219667
Release 2011-10-08
Pages 266
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This book, "Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media", presents a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a porous medium domain, as well as related material properties and their measurements. The book contents include both theoretical and experimental developments, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, these topics will encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering, etc. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a short monograph in which the authors summarize the current state of knowledge for benefit of professionals.



On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language Author Giovanni Acampora
ISBN-10 9783642354885
Release 2012-12-14
Pages 188
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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.



Hygrothermal Behavior Building Pathology and Durability

Hygrothermal Behavior  Building Pathology and Durability Author Vasco Peixoto de Freitas
ISBN-10 9783642311581
Release 2012-08-29
Pages 232
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The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.



School Buildings Rehabilitation

School Buildings Rehabilitation Author Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida
ISBN-10 9783319153599
Release 2015-05-25
Pages 83
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This book discusses the effect of different school building rehabilitation strategies on the classrooms’ indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and presents a multi-objective methodology for school building enclosure optimization combining artificial neural networks and lifecycle costs. The special features of this book are that it (a) presents the state-of-the-art in school building rehabilitation, (b) covers the IEQ assessment of several school buildings, including non-rehabilitated and rehabilitated according to different strategies; and (c) proposes a multi-objective optimization procedure. The rehabilitation of a school building should be regarded as a procedure combining a number of (sometimes conflicting) variables and objectives, including energy, IEQ and costs (initial, operational and maintenance), in the search for an “optimum solution.” The main benefit of the book is that it discusses the main topics related to school building rehabilitation, presents results of the IEQ assessment on 9 school buildings and launches a discussion on how the “in-use” performance of schools is key to understanding how designed performance is actually experienced. It maps the most commonly used multi-objective algorithms and artificial neural network architectures and proposes a methodology for combining these numerical tools with dynamic building simulations and lifecycle cost analysis to optimize school building enclosures. This methodology will be of value to scientists and engineers alike, while also addressing a variety of related disciplines, such as civil and mechanical engineering, architecture and mathematics.



Numerical Simulation for Next Generation Thermal Power Plants

Numerical Simulation for Next Generation Thermal Power Plants Author Falah Alobaid
ISBN-10 9783319762340
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 431
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The book provides highly specialized researchers and practitioners with a major contribution to mathematical models’ developments for energy systems. First, dynamic process simulation models based on mixture flow and two-fluid models are developed for combined-cycle power plants, pulverised coal-fired power plants, concentrated solar power plant and municipal waste incineration. Operation data, obtained from different power stations, are used to investigate the capability of dynamic models to predict the behaviour of real processes and to analyse the influence of modeling assumptions on simulation results. Then, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation programme, so-called DEMEST, is developed. Here, the fluid-solid, particle-particle and particle-wall interactions are modeled by tracking all individual particles. To this purpose, the deterministic Euler-Lagrange/Discrete Element Method (DEM) is applied and further improved. An emphasis is given to the determination of inter-phase values, such as volumetric void fraction, momentum and heat transfers, using a new procedure known as the offset-method and to the particle-grid method allowing the refinement of the grid resolution independently from particle size. Model validation is described in detail. Moreover, thermochemical reaction models for solid fuel combustion are developed based on quasi-single-phase, two-fluid and Euler-Lagrange/MP-PIC models. Measurements obtained from actual power plants are used for validation and comparison of the developed numerical models.



Regenerative and Positive Impact Architecture

Regenerative and Positive Impact Architecture Author Shady Attia
ISBN-10 9783319667188
Release 2017-09-19
Pages 94
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This book is a guide to energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment in high-performance buildings projects. It compares four state-of-the-art buildings to examine the steps needed for a transition from negative impact reduction architecture to positive impact regenerative architecture, utilizing life cycle analysis. The book provides a solid grounding in the areas of energy-efficient building and building materials life-cycle assessment, discussing carbon efficiency within a wider context that includes its technical, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions and covers the key areas for green buildings performance (operational and embodied energy). The analysis and comparison of four case studies of state-of-art modern building projects in Europe and North America serve as inspiring examples for architects and building professionals in the fields of high performance buildings, ecological materials and carbon efficiency.



Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors Author Inge Brouns
ISBN-10 3642227724
Release 2011-10-06
Pages 118
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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.



Historic Indoor Microclimate of the Heritage Buildings

Historic Indoor Microclimate of the Heritage Buildings Author Marco Pretelli
ISBN-10 9783319603438
Release 2017-10-24
Pages 273
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Offering readers essential insights into the relationship between ancient buildings, their original and current indoor microclimates, this book details how the (generally) virtuous relationship between buildings and their typical microclimate changed due to the introduction of new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in historic buildings. The new approach to the study of their Historic Indoor Microclimate (HIM) put forward in this book is an essential component to monitoring and evaluating building and artefact conservation. Highlighting the advantages of adopting an indoor microclimatic approach to the preservation of existing historic materials by studying the original conditions of the buildings, the book proposes a new methodology linking the preservation/restoration of the historic indoor microclimate with diachronic analysis for the optimal preservation of historic buildings. Further, it discusses a number of frequently overlooked topics, such as the simple and well-coordinated opening and closing of windows (an example extracted from a real case study). In turn, the authors elaborate the concept of an Historic Indoor Microclimate (HIM) based on “Original Indoor Microclimate” (OIM), which proves useful in identifying the optimal conditions for preserving the materials that make up historic buildings. The book’s main goal is to draw attention to the advantages of an indoor microclimatic approach to the preservation of existing historic materials/manufacture, by studying the original conditions of the buildings. The introduction of new systems in historic buildings not only has a direct traumatic effect on the actual building and its components, but also radically changes one of its vital immaterial elements: the Indoor Microclimate. Architects, restorers and engineers will find that the book addresses the monitoring of the indoor microclimate in selected historic buildings that have managed to retain their original state due to the absence of new HVAC systems, and reflects on the advantages of a renewed attention to these aspects.



Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control

Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control Author Waldemar Rebizant
ISBN-10 085729802X
Release 2011-07-28
Pages 316
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Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed by measurement algorithms of the most commonly-used protection criteria values and decision-making methods in protective relays. A large part of the book is devoted to the basic theory and applications of artificial intelligence techniques for protection and control. Fuzzy logic based schemes, artificial neural networks, expert systems and genetic algorithms with their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. AI techniques are compared and it is also shown how they can be combined to eliminate the disadvantages and magnify the useful features of particular techniques. The information provided in Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control can be useful for protection engineers working in utilities at various levels of the electricity network, as well as for students of electrical engineering, especially electrical power engineering. It may also be helpful for other readers who want to get acquainted with and to apply the filtering, measuring and decision-making algorithms for purposes other than protection and control, everywhere fast and on-line signal analysis is needed for proper functioning of the apparatus.



Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures

Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures Author Serge Abrate
ISBN-10 9789400753297
Release 2012-11-02
Pages 643
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This book presents a broad view of the current state of the art regarding the dynamic response of composite and sandwich structures subjected to impacts and explosions. Each chapter combines a thorough assessment of the literature with original contributions made by the authors. The first section deals with fluid-structure interactions in marine structures. The first chapter focuses on hull slamming and particularly cases in which the deformation of the structure affects the motion of the fluid during the water entry of flexible hulls. Chapter 2 presents an extensive series of tests underwater and in the air to determine the effects of explosions on composite and sandwich structures. Full-scale structures were subjected to significant explosive charges, and such results are extremely rare in the open literature. Chapter 3 describes a simple geometrical theory of diffraction for describing the interaction of an underwater blast wave with submerged structures. The second section addresses the problem of impact on laminated composite structures with chapters devoted to ballistic impacts on pre-stressed composite structures, tests developed to simulate dynamic failure in marine structures, damage mechanisms and energy absorption in low velocity impacts, perforation, the numerical simulation of intra and inter-ply damage during impact, and hail impact on laminated composites. Sandwich structures with laminated facings are considered in Section 3 with chapters dealing with the discrete modeling of honeycomb core during the indentation of sandwich structures, the behavior of fold core sandwich structures during impact, and impact on helicopter blades. The fourth section consists of two chapters presenting experimental results and numerical simulation of composite structures subjected to crash. This volume is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and engineers interested and involved in analysis and design of composite structures.



Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings

Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings Author Brian Meacham
ISBN-10 9781461481423
Release 2013-08-05
Pages 83
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Environmental concerns and advances in architectural technologies have lead to a greater number of green buildings or buildings with green, eco-friendly elements. However, from a practical standpoint, there is no incident reporting system in the world that tracks data on fire incidents in green buildings. Fire safety objectives are not explicitly considered in most green rating schemes, and green design features have been associated with photovoltaic panels and roof materials, lightweight timber frame buildings, and combustible insulation materials. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is the result of an extensive global literature review that sought to identify issues related to green building elements or features and ways to ensure those issues are tracked for future improvement. The book identifies actual incidents of fires in green buildings or involving green building elements, points out issues with green building elements that would increase fire risk, clarifies reports and studies that address ways to reduce fire risk in green design elements, and compares research studies that explicitly incorporate fire safety into green building design. The authors also pinpoint gaps and specific research needs associated with understanding and addressing fire risk and hazards with green building design. Using their data, the authors developed a set of matrices relating these green attributes and potential fire hazards. With these comprehensive tools, potential mitigation strategies for addressing the relative increase in fire risk or hazard associated with the green building elements and features have been identified. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing building safety issues in green architecture and developing methods for tracking data related to green design elements and their potential hazards. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.



Basic Earthquake Engineering

Basic Earthquake Engineering Author Halûk Sucuoğlu
ISBN-10 9783319010267
Release 2014-05-09
Pages 288
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This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building structures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calculator.



Impact Engineering of Composite Structures

Impact Engineering of Composite Structures Author Serge Abrate
ISBN-10 3709105234
Release 2011-02-24
Pages 403
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The book provides an introduction to the mechanics of composite materials, written for graduate students and practitioners in industry. It examines ways to model the impact event, to determine the size and severity of the damage and discusses general trends observed during experiments.



Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability

Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability Author Anantha Pai
ISBN-10 9781461316350
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 240
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This research monograph is in some sense a sequel to the author's earlier one (Power System Stability, North Holland, New York 1981) which devoted cons- erable attention to Lyapunov stability theory, construction of Lyapunov fu- tions and vector Lyapunov functions as applied to power systems. This field of research has rapidly grown since 1981 and the more general concept of energy funct ion has found wide spread application in power systems. There have been advances in five distinct areas (i) Developing energy functions for structure preserving models which can incorporate non-linear load models (ii) Energy fu- tions to include detailed model of the generating unit i. e. , the synchronous machine and the excitation system (iii) Reduced order energy functions for large scale power systems, the simplest being the single machine infinite bus system (iv) Characterization of the stability boundary of the post-fault stable eQui- brium point (v) Applications for large power networks as a tool for dynamic security assessment. It was therefore felt appropriate to capture the essential features of these advances and put them in a somewhat cohesive framework. The chapters in the book rough ly fo llow this sequence. It is interesting to note how different research groups come to the same conclusion via different reas- ings.