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Hyperbolic Geometry

Hyperbolic Geometry Author James W. Anderson
ISBN-10 9781447139874
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 230
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Thoroughly updated, featuring new material on important topics such as hyperbolic geometry in higher dimensions and generalizations of hyperbolicity Includes full solutions for all exercises Successful first edition sold over 800 copies in North America



Elementary Differential Geometry

Elementary Differential Geometry Author A.N. Pressley
ISBN-10 9781848828919
Release 2010-03-10
Pages 474
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Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces suitable for a first course on the subject. Prerequisites are kept to an absolute minimum – nothing beyond first courses in linear algebra and multivariable calculus – and the most direct and straightforward approach is used throughout. New features of this revised and expanded second edition include: a chapter on non-Euclidean geometry, a subject that is of great importance in the history of mathematics and crucial in many modern developments. The main results can be reached easily and quickly by making use of the results and techniques developed earlier in the book. Coverage of topics such as: parallel transport and its applications; map colouring; holonomy and Gaussian curvature. Around 200 additional exercises, and a full solutions manual for instructors, available via www.springer.com ul>



Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry

Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry Author John Stillwell
ISBN-10 0821809229
Release 1996
Pages 153
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This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincare that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue--not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincare brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincare in their full brilliance.



Worlds Out of Nothing

Worlds Out of Nothing Author Jeremy Gray
ISBN-10 0857290606
Release 2011-02-01
Pages 384
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Based on the latest historical research, Worlds Out of Nothing is the first book to provide a course on the history of geometry in the 19th century. Topics covered in the first part of the book are projective geometry, especially the concept of duality, and non-Euclidean geometry. The book then moves on to the study of the singular points of algebraic curves (Plücker’s equations) and their role in resolving a paradox in the theory of duality; to Riemann’s work on differential geometry; and to Beltrami’s role in successfully establishing non-Euclidean geometry as a rigorous mathematical subject. The final part of the book considers how projective geometry rose to prominence, and looks at Poincaré’s ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and their physical and philosophical significance. Three chapters are devoted to writing and assessing work in the history of mathematics, with examples of sample questions in the subject, advice on how to write essays, and comments on what instructors should be looking for.



Introduction to Hyperbolic Geometry

Introduction to Hyperbolic Geometry Author Arlan Ramsay
ISBN-10 9781475755855
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 289
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This book is an introduction to hyperbolic and differential geometry that provides material in the early chapters that can serve as a textbook for a standard upper division course on hyperbolic geometry. For that material, the students need to be familiar with calculus and linear algebra and willing to accept one advanced theorem from analysis without proof. The book goes well beyond the standard course in later chapters, and there is enough material for an honors course, or for supplementary reading. Indeed, parts of the book have been used for both kinds of courses. Even some of what is in the early chapters would surely not be nec essary for a standard course. For example, detailed proofs are given of the Jordan Curve Theorem for Polygons and of the decomposability of poly gons into triangles, These proofs are included for the sake of completeness, but the results themselves are so believable that most students should skip the proofs on a first reading. The axioms used are modern in character and more "user friendly" than the traditional ones. The familiar real number system is used as an in gredient rather than appearing as a result of the axioms. However, it should not be thought that the geometric treatment is in terms of models: this is an axiomatic approach that is just more convenient than the traditional ones.



Lectures on Hyperbolic Geometry

Lectures on Hyperbolic Geometry Author Riccardo Benedetti
ISBN-10 9783642581588
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 330
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Focussing on the geometry of hyperbolic manifolds, the aim here is to provide an exposition of some fundamental results, while being as self-contained, complete, detailed and unified as possible. Following some classical material on the hyperbolic space and the Teichmüller space, the book centers on the two fundamental results: Mostow's rigidity theorem (including a complete proof, following Gromov and Thurston) and Margulis' lemma. These then form the basis for studying Chabauty and geometric topology; a unified exposition is given of Wang's theorem and the Jorgensen-Thurston theory; and much space is devoted to the 3D case: a complete and elementary proof of the hyperbolic surgery theorem, based on the representation of three manifolds as glued ideal tetrahedra.



Symmetries

Symmetries Author D.L. Johnson
ISBN-10 9781447102434
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 198
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" ... many eminent scholars, endowed with great geometric talent, make a point of never disclosing the simple and direct ideas that guided them, subordinating their elegant results to abstract general theories which often have no application outside the particular case in question. Geometry was becoming a study of algebraic, differential or partial differential equations, thus losing all the charm that comes from its being an art." H. Lebesgue, Ler;ons sur les Constructions Geometriques, Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1949. This book is based on lecture courses given to final-year students at the Uni versity of Nottingham and to M.Sc. students at the University of the West Indies in an attempt to reverse the process of expurgation of the geometry component from the mathematics curricula of universities. This erosion is in sharp contrast to the situation in research mathematics, where the ideas and methods of geometry enjoy ever-increasing influence and importance. In the other direction, more modern ideas have made a forceful and beneficial impact on the geometry of the ancients in many areas. Thus trigonometry has vastly clarified our concept of angle, calculus has revolutionised the study of plane curves, and group theory has become the language of symmetry.



Low dimensional Geometry

Low dimensional Geometry Author Francis Bonahon
ISBN-10 9780821848166
Release 2009-07-14
Pages 384
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The study of 3-dimensional spaces brings together elements from several areas of mathematics. The most notable are topology and geometry, but elements of number theory and analysis also make appearances. In the past 30 years, there have been striking developments in the mathematics of 3-dimensional manifolds. This book aims to introduce undergraduate students to some of these important developments. Low-Dimensional Geometry starts at a relatively elementary level, and its early chapters can be used as a brief introduction to hyperbolic geometry. However, the ultimate goal is to describe the very recently completed geometrization program for 3-dimensional manifolds. The journey to reach this goal emphasizes examples and concrete constructions as an introduction to more general statements. This includes the tessellations associated to the process of gluing together the sides of a polygon. Bending some of these tessellations provides a natural introduction to 3-dimensional hyperbolic geometry and to the theory of kleinian groups, and it eventually leads to a discussion of the geometrization theorems for knot complements and 3-dimensional manifolds. This book is illustrated with many pictures, as the author intended to share his own enthusiasm for the beauty of some of the mathematical objects involved. However, it also emphasizes mathematical rigor and, with the exception of the most recent research breakthroughs, its constructions and statements are carefully justified.



The Geometry of Special Relativity

The Geometry of Special Relativity Author Tevian Dray
ISBN-10 9781466510470
Release 2012-07-02
Pages 150
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The Geometry of Special Relativity provides an introduction to special relativity that encourages readers to see beyond the formulas to the deeper geometric structure. The text treats the geometry of hyperbolas as the key to understanding special relativity. This approach replaces the ubiquitous γ symbol of most standard treatments with the appropriate hyperbolic trigonometric functions. In most cases, this not only simplifies the appearance of the formulas, but also emphasizes their geometric content in such a way as to make them almost obvious. Furthermore, many important relations, including the famous relativistic addition formula for velocities, follow directly from the appropriate trigonometric addition formulas. The book first describes the basic physics of special relativity to set the stage for the geometric treatment that follows. It then reviews properties of ordinary two-dimensional Euclidean space, expressed in terms of the usual circular trigonometric functions, before presenting a similar treatment of two-dimensional Minkowski space, expressed in terms of hyperbolic trigonometric functions. After covering special relativity again from the geometric point of view, the text discusses standard paradoxes, applications to relativistic mechanics, the relativistic unification of electricity and magnetism, and further steps leading to Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The book also briefly describes the further steps leading to Einstein’s general theory of relativity and then explores applications of hyperbola geometry to non-Euclidean geometry and calculus, including a geometric construction of the derivatives of trigonometric functions and the exponential function.



The Foundations of Geometry and the Non Euclidean Plane

The Foundations of Geometry and the Non Euclidean Plane Author G.E. Martin
ISBN-10 9781461257257
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 512
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This book is a text for junior, senior, or first-year graduate courses traditionally titled Foundations of Geometry and/or Non Euclidean Geometry. The first 29 chapters are for a semester or year course on the foundations of geometry. The remaining chap ters may then be used for either a regular course or independent study courses. Another possibility, which is also especially suited for in-service teachers of high school geometry, is to survey the the fundamentals of absolute geometry (Chapters 1 -20) very quickly and begin earnest study with the theory of parallels and isometries (Chapters 21 -30). The text is self-contained, except that the elementary calculus is assumed for some parts of the material on advanced hyperbolic geometry (Chapters 31 -34). There are over 650 exercises, 30 of which are 10-part true-or-false questions. A rigorous ruler-and-protractor axiomatic development of the Euclidean and hyperbolic planes, including the classification of the isometries of these planes, is balanced by the discussion about this development. Models, such as Taxicab Geometry, are used exten sively to illustrate theory. Historical aspects and alternatives to the selected axioms are prominent. The classical axiom systems of Euclid and Hilbert are discussed, as are axiom systems for three and four-dimensional absolute geometry and Pieri's system based on rigid motions. The text is divided into three parts. The Introduction (Chapters 1 -4) is to be read as quickly as possible and then used for ref erence if necessary.



Geometry Euclid and Beyond

Geometry  Euclid and Beyond Author Robin Hartshorne
ISBN-10 9780387226767
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 528
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This book offers a unique opportunity to understand the essence of one of the great thinkers of western civilization. A guided reading of Euclid's Elements leads to a critical discussion and rigorous modern treatment of Euclid's geometry and its more recent descendants, with complete proofs. Topics include the introduction of coordinates, the theory of area, history of the parallel postulate, the various non-Euclidean geometries, and the regular and semi-regular polyhedra.



Modeling of Curves and Surfaces with MATLAB

Modeling of Curves and Surfaces with MATLAB  Author Vladimir Rovenski
ISBN-10 9780387712772
Release 2010-06-10
Pages 452
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This text on geometry is devoted to various central geometrical topics including: graphs of functions, transformations, (non-)Euclidean geometries, curves and surfaces as well as their applications in a variety of disciplines. This book presents elementary methods for analytical modeling and demonstrates the potential for symbolic computational tools to support the development of analytical solutions. The author systematically examines several powerful tools of MATLAB® including 2D and 3D animation of geometric images with shadows and colors and transformations using matrices. With over 150 stimulating exercises and problems, this text integrates traditional differential and non-Euclidean geometries with more current computer systems in a practical and user-friendly format. This text is an excellent classroom resource or self-study reference for undergraduate students in a variety of disciplines.



Geometry

Geometry Author R.S. Millman
ISBN-10 9781468401301
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 355
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This book is intended as a first rigorous course in geometry. As the title indicates, we have adopted Birkhoff's metric approach (i.e., through use of real numbers) rather than Hilbert's synthetic approach to the subject. Throughout the text we illustrate the various axioms, definitions, and theorems with models ranging from the familiar Cartesian plane to the Poincare upper half plane, the Taxicab plane, and the Moulton plane. We hope that through an intimate acquaintance with examples (and a model is just an example), the reader will obtain a real feeling and intuition for non Euclidean (and in particular, hyperbolic) geometry. From a pedagogical viewpoint this approach has the advantage of reducing the reader's tendency to reason from a picture. In addition, our students have found the strange new world of the non-Euclidean geometries both interesting and exciting. Our basic approach is to introduce and develop the various axioms slowly, and then, in a departure from other texts, illustrate major definitions and axioms with two or three models. This has the twin advantages of showing the richness of the concept being discussed and of enabling the reader to picture the idea more clearly. Furthermore, encountering models which do not satisfy the axiom being introduced or the hypothesis of the theorem being proved often sheds more light on the relevant concept than a myriad of cases which do.



Geometry from a Differentiable Viewpoint

Geometry from a Differentiable Viewpoint Author John McCleary
ISBN-10 9780521116077
Release 2012-10-22
Pages 357
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A thoroughly revised second edition of a textbook for a first course in differential/modern geometry that introduces methods within a historical context.



A Geometric Approach to Differential Forms

A Geometric Approach to Differential Forms Author David Bachman
ISBN-10 9780817683047
Release 2012-02-02
Pages 156
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This text presents differential forms from a geometric perspective accessible at the undergraduate level. It begins with basic concepts such as partial differentiation and multiple integration and gently develops the entire machinery of differential forms. The subject is approached with the idea that complex concepts can be built up by analogy from simpler cases, which, being inherently geometric, often can be best understood visually. Each new concept is presented with a natural picture that students can easily grasp. Algebraic properties then follow. The book contains excellent motivation, numerous illustrations and solutions to selected problems.



Mathematics and Its History

Mathematics and Its History Author John Stillwell
ISBN-10 9781441960528
Release 2010-08-02
Pages 662
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From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.



Basic Linear Algebra

Basic Linear Algebra Author Thomas S. Blyth
ISBN-10 9781447134961
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 201
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Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students, working from concrete examples towards abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. The book explains the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations, and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms, which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices, leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. The authors are well known algebraists with considerable experience of teaching introductory courses on linear algebra to students at St Andrews. This book is based on one previously published by Chapman and Hall, but it has been extensively updated to include further explanatory text and fully worked solutions to the exercises that all 1st year students should be able to answer.