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Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Author Virginia H. Dale
ISBN-10 0387896864
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 284
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Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot s- port marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or ee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational shing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 2 1 16,500 km during its peak summer months , an area slightly larger than the state 2 2 of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km to a high of 22,000 km . To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together represen- tives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Of ce of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scienti c assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR).



Modeling Coastal Hypoxia

Modeling Coastal Hypoxia Author Dubravko Justic
ISBN-10 9783319545714
Release 2017-07-21
Pages 433
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This book provides a snapshot of representative modeling analyses of coastal hypoxia and its effects. Hypoxia refers to conditions in the water column where dissolved oxygen falls below levels that can support most metazoan marine life (i.e., 2 mg O2 l-1). The number of hypoxic zones has been increasing at an exponential rate since the 1960s; there are currently more than 600 documented hypoxic zones in the estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Hypoxia develops as a synergistic product of many physical and biological factors that affect the balance of dissolved oxygen in seawater, including temperature, solar radiation, wind, freshwater discharge, nutrient supply, and the production and decay of organic matter. A number of modeling approaches have been increasingly used in hypoxia research, along with the more traditional observational and experimental studies. Modeling is necessary because of rapidly changing coastal circulation and stratification patterns that affect hypoxia, the large spatial extent over which hypoxia develops, and limitations on our capabilities to directly measure hypoxia over large spatial and temporal scales. This book consists of 15 chapters that are broadly organized around three main topics: (1) Modeling of the physical controls on hypoxia, (2) Modeling of biogeochemical controls and feedbacks, and, (3) Modeling of the ecological effects of hypoxia. The final chapter is a synthesis chapter that draws generalities from the earlier chapters, highlights strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art modeling, and offers recommendations on future directions.



Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment

Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment Author Jeremy B. Jones
ISBN-10 9780124059191
Release 2016-07-07
Pages 548
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Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment synthesizes the current understanding of stream ecosystem ecology, emphasizing nutrient cycling and carbon dynamics, and providing a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change. Each chapter includes a section focusing on anticipated and ongoing dynamics in stream ecosystems in a changing environment, along with hypotheses regarding controls on stream ecosystem functioning. The book, with its innovative sections, provides a bridge between papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and the findings of researchers in new areas of study. Presents a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change Provides a synthesis of the latest findings on stream ecosystems ecology in one concise volume Includes thought exercises and discussion activities throughout, providing valuable tools for learning Offers conceptual models and hypotheses to stimulate conversation and advance research



Past and Present Water Column Anoxia

Past and Present Water Column Anoxia Author Lev N. Neretin
ISBN-10 1402042620
Release 2006
Pages 541
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Life on Earth emerged under anaerobic conditions. Many fundamental b- chemical and metabolic pathways evolved before the atmosphere contained oxygen. Today, anaerobic (anoxic) conditions in marine milieus are generally restricted to sediments and to basins isolated from oxygenated deep-sea cir- lation. Oxygen-de?cientorhypoxicconditionsarede?nedinoperationalterms. In speaking of the degree of O -de?ciency, the term hypoxic is usually de?ned 2 as ranging between 22 and 64?MofO , while suboxic refers to a range below 2 10?M, and anoxic is the complete absence of oxygen. Biologists commonly use the term hypoxia to describe the point at which animals suffocate. But the papers presented in this book deal with the whole range of oxygen-de?cient conditions, and the de?nitions some authors have used here may vary. Enhanced oxygen consumption by decomposition of organic matter and slow downward mixing and diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the surface waters can lead to oxygen de?ciency in the water column in highly productive waters, forming the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Bottom waters of coastal upwelling regions are frequently exposed to hypoxic (suboxic) or anaerobic conditions owing to extremely high primary productivity. The development of these conditions represents an acute perturbation to ecological dynamics and ?sheries. Inthepast,anoxicconditionsinthewatercolumnmayhavedeveloped morereadily. Oceanicanoxicevents(OAE)wereepisodesofgloballyenhanced organic carbon burial that signi?cantly affected global climate by reducing atmospheric CO . An excess of nutrient loading leads to eutrophication of 2 coastal areas and enclosed seas, a wide-spread global problem.



Dying and Dead Seas Climatic Versus Anthropic Causes

Dying and Dead Seas Climatic Versus Anthropic Causes Author Jacques C.J. Nihoul
ISBN-10 9789400709676
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 384
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There are incentive indications that the growth of human population, the increasing use and abuse of natural resources combined with climate changes (probably due to anthropic pollution, to some extent) exert a considerable stress on closed (or semi-enclosed) seas and lakes. In many regions of the world, marine and lacustrine hydrosystems are (or have been) the object of severe or fatal alterations, from changes in regional hydrological regimes and/or modifications of the quantity or the quality of water resources associated with (natural or man-made) land reclamation, deterioration of geochemical balances (increased salinity, oxygen's depletion .. . ), mutations of ecosystems (eutrophication, dramatic decrease in biological diversity ... ) to geological disturbances and to the socio-economic perturbations which have been - or may be in the near future - the consequences of them. Seas and lakes are dying all over the world and some may be regarded as already dead and there is an urgent need to try to understand how this is happening and identify the causes of the observed mutations, weighing the relative effects of climatic evolution and anthropic interferences. This book is the outcome of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in Liege in May 2003. The Workshop was organized at th the University of Liege as a follow on meeting to the 35 International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, dedicated in 2003 to Dying and Dead Seas. The book contains the synthesis of the lectures given by 16 main speakers during the ARW.



Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems

Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems Author Jesper H. Andersen
ISBN-10 9048133858
Release 2010-05-30
Pages 264
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Coastal eutrophication has been and still remains an important issue for the scientific community. Despite many efforts to mitigate coastal eutrophication, the problems associated with eutrophication are still far from being solved. This book focusses on the most recent scientific results in relation to specific eutrophication issues, e.g. definition(s) and causes; nutrient loads, cycling and limitation; reference conditions, primary effects and secondary effects; trend reversal (oligotrophication), as well as links to other pressures (climate change and top/down control). It also focusses on monitoring and modelling of coastal eutrophication, and adaptive and science-based nutrient management strategies. The book is based on selected papers from the Second International Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems, held 20-23 June 2006 in Nyborg, Denmark.



Stressors in the Marine Environment

Stressors in the Marine Environment Author Martin Solan
ISBN-10 9780198718833
Release 2015-08-01
Pages 384
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A multitude of direct and indirect human influences have significantly altered the environmental conditions, composition, and diversity of marine communities. However, understanding and predicting the combined impacts of single and multiple stressors is particularly challenging because observed ecological feedbacks are underpinned by a number of physiological and behavioural responses that reflect stressor type, severity, and timing. Furthermore, integration between the traditional domains of physiology and ecology tends to be fragmented and focused towards the effects of a specific stressor or set of circumstances. This novel volume summarises the latest research in the physiological and ecological responses of marine species to a comprehensive range of marine stressors, including chemical and noise pollution, ocean acidification, hypoxia, UV radiation, thermal and salinity stress before providing a perspective on future outcomes for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today. Stressors in the Marine Environment synthesises the combined expertise of a range of international researchers, providing a truly interdisciplinary and accessible summary of the field. It is essential reading for graduate students as well as professional researchers in environmental physiology, ecology, marine biology, conservation biology, and marine resource management. It will also be of particular relevance and use to the regulatory agencies and authorities tasked with managing the marine environment, including social scientists and environmental economists.



Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems

Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems Author Jesper H. Andersen
ISBN-10 9048133858
Release 2010-05-30
Pages 264
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Coastal eutrophication has been and still remains an important issue for the scientific community. Despite many efforts to mitigate coastal eutrophication, the problems associated with eutrophication are still far from being solved. This book focusses on the most recent scientific results in relation to specific eutrophication issues, e.g. definition(s) and causes; nutrient loads, cycling and limitation; reference conditions, primary effects and secondary effects; trend reversal (oligotrophication), as well as links to other pressures (climate change and top/down control). It also focusses on monitoring and modelling of coastal eutrophication, and adaptive and science-based nutrient management strategies. The book is based on selected papers from the Second International Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems, held 20-23 June 2006 in Nyborg, Denmark.



Applying Ecological Principles to Land Management

Applying Ecological Principles to Land Management Author Virginia H. Dale
ISBN-10 9781461300991
Release 2011-06-27
Pages 346
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This volume incorporates case studies that explore past and current land use decisions on both public and private lands, and includes practical approaches and tools for land use decision-making. The most important feature of the book is the linking of ecological theory and principle with applied land use decision-making. The theoretical and empirical are joined through concrete case studies of actual land use decision-making processes.



Sustainable Use and Development of Watersheds

Sustainable Use and Development of Watersheds Author I. Ethem Gönenç
ISBN-10 9781402085581
Release 2008-07-15
Pages 532
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John Wesley Powell, U.S. scientist and geographer, put it best when he said that a watershed is: ...that area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross sectorial boundaries (e.g. county, state/province, and country). No matter where you are, you are in a watershed! World-wide, watersheds supply drinking water, provide r- reation and respite, and sustain life. Watersheds are rich in natural capital, producing goods (agriculture and fisheries products) and services (industry and technology) for broad geographic areas. In many countries, at the base of watersheds where tributaries empty into large water-bodies (e.g. estuaries, seas, oceans) are centers of society and are typically densely populated areas. These areas serve as concentrated centers of the socio-economic system. They also are centers of domestic and international trade, tourism, and c- merce as well as the center of governments (capitals) where local, regional and national legislatures are located. As we all live in a watershed, our individual actions can directly affect it. The cumulative effects of all the individual actions of everyone within a watershed may be, and often are devastating to the quality of water resources and affect the health of living things including humans. Therefore, watershed systems are highly subject to threat to human security and peace.



Long Island Sound

Long Island Sound Author James S. Latimer
ISBN-10 9781461461265
Release 2013-11-22
Pages 558
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The U.S. Ocean Commission Report identified the need for regional ecosystem assessments to support coastal and ocean management. These assessments must provide greater understanding of physical and biological dynamics than assessments at global and national scales can provide but transcend state and local interests. This need and timeliness is apparent for Long Island Sound, where a multi-state regional restoration program is underway for America’s most urbanized estuary. Synthesis of the Long Island Sound ecosystem is needed to integrate knowledge across disciplines and provide insight into understanding and managing pressing issues, such as non-point sources of pollution, coastal development, global climatic change, and invasive species. Currently, there is a need for a comprehensive volume that summarizes the ecological and environmental dynamics and status of Long Island Sound and its myriad ecosystems. It has been 30 years since a comprehensive summary of Long Island Sound was prepared and 50 years since the pioneering work of Gordon Riley. Major advances in estuarine science are providing new insights into these systems, and yet, the condition of many estuaries is in decline in the face of continuing coastal development. There is an opportunity to lay a foundation for integrative coastal observing systems that truly provide the foundation for improved decision-making. This book will provide a key reference of our scientific understanding for work performed over the past three decades and guide future research and monitoring in a dynamic urbanized estuary.



Hydrodynamics and Water Quality

Hydrodynamics and Water Quality Author Zhen-Gang Ji
ISBN-10 9781119371939
Release 2017-05-09
Pages 612
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The primary reference for the modeling of hydrodynamics and water quality in rivers, lake, estuaries, coastal waters, and wetlands This comprehensive text perfectly illustrates the principles, basic processes, mathematical descriptions, case studies, and practical applications associated with surface waters. It focuses on solving practical problems in rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal waters, and wetlands. Most of the theories and technical approaches presented within have been implemented in mathematical models and applied to solve practical problems. Throughout the book, case studies are presented to demonstrate how the basic theories and technical approaches are implemented into models, and how these models are applied to solve practical environmental/water resources problems. This new edition of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries has been updated with more than 40% new information. It features several new chapters, including one devoted to shallow water processes in wetlands as well as another focused on extreme value theory and environmental risk analysis. It is also supplemented with a new website that provides files needed for sample applications, such as source codes, executable codes, input files, output files, model manuals, reports, technical notes, and utility programs. This new edition of the book: Includes more than 120 new/updated figures and 450 references Covers state-of-the-art hydrodynamics, sediment transport, toxics fate and transport, and water quality in surface waters Provides essential and updated information on mathematical models Focuses on how to solve practical problems in surface waters—presenting basic theories and technical approaches so that mathematical models can be understood and applied to simulate processes in surface waters Hailed as “a great addition to any university library” by the Journal of the American Water Resources Association (July 2009), Hydrodynamics and Water Quality, Second Edition is an essential reference for practicing engineers, scientists, and water resource managers worldwide.



Integration of Information for Environmental Security

Integration of Information for Environmental Security Author H. Gonca Coskun
ISBN-10 9781402065743
Release 2008-10-28
Pages 484
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Water management and disasters, including droughts and floods are becoming very important subjects in the international platforms. This book will provide information about high technology techniques to solve important problems using remote sensing and GIS for topics such as the environmental security, water resources management, disaster forecast and prevention and information security.



The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours

The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours Author Eric Wolanski
ISBN-10 140203654X
Release 2006-01-18
Pages 498
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Urbanization has reached unprecedented levels in the estuarine and coastal zone, particularly in the Asia Pacific region where mega-cities and mega-harbours are still growing. This book demonstrates the different solutions and pitfalls, successes and failures in a large number of ports and harbours in the Asia Pacific Region, and shows how science can provide ecologically sustainable solutions that apply wherever the growth of mega-harbours occurs.



Threats to Mangrove Forests

Threats to Mangrove Forests Author Christopher Makowski
ISBN-10 9783319730165
Release 2018-04-20
Pages 724
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This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Examples are drawn from many different geographic areas, including North and South America, India, and Southeast Asia. Subject areas covered include both human-induced and natural impacts to mangroves, intended or otherwise, as well as the efforts being made by coastal researchers to promote restoration of these coastal fringing forests.



The impact of the proposed total maximum daily load regulations on agriculture and silviculture

The impact of the proposed total maximum daily load regulations on agriculture and silviculture Author United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry
ISBN-10 MINN:31951D02017754J
Release 2000
Pages 296
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The impact of the proposed total maximum daily load regulations on agriculture and silviculture has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The impact of the proposed total maximum daily load regulations on agriculture and silviculture also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The impact of the proposed total maximum daily load regulations on agriculture and silviculture book for free.



Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St Helens

Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St  Helens Author Virginia H. Dale
ISBN-10 0387281509
Release 2006-01-16
Pages 342
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The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused tragic loss of life and property, but also created a unique opportunity to study a huge disturbance of natural systems and their subsequent responses. This book synthesizes 25 years of ecological research into of volcanic activity, and shows what actually happens when a volcano erupts, what the immediate and long-term dangers are, and how life reasserts itself in the environment.