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Impacts of Oil Spill Disasters on Marine Habitats and Fisheries in North America

Impacts of Oil Spill Disasters on Marine Habitats and Fisheries in North America Author J. Brian Alford
ISBN-10 9781466557208
Release 2014-10-29
Pages 340
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At an increasingly global scale, aquatic scientists are heavily entrenched in understanding the fate of marine ecosystems in the face of human-altered environments. Oil spill disasters, especially large-scale ones like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon tragedy, have left uncertain and indelible marks on marine ecosystems. Impacts of Oil Spill Disasters on Marine Habitats and Fisheries in North America contains independent scientific findings and critical reviews from experts researching the impacts of the Exxon Valdez, Ixtoc I, and Deepwater Horizon oil spills on coastal fishery resources. Comprised of three sections, this seminal work: Details the physiological effects of oil-derived compounds on fishes, presenting results from field and laboratory investigations Addresses the science of assessing the impacts of oil spills and oil response measures on coastal habitats, with an emphasis on salt-marsh ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico Explores the quantified and potential impacts of oil spills on population and community dynamics of commercial and recreational fishery species Provides newly released results from the 25-year recovery of marine mammals, birds, and fishes following the Exxon Valdez spill Chapters discuss new techniques for collecting and processing blood samples for toxicity testing, new aerial radar techniques for detecting unseen oil on marshes, consequences of oil prevention measures (such as diverting fresh water to estuaries or building sand berms to stop oil) on coastal fishery resources, and non-traditional methods for assessing the herring stock in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA following the Exxon Valdez disaster.



Biopolymers and Biotech Admixtures for Eco Efficient Construction Materials

Biopolymers and Biotech Admixtures for Eco Efficient Construction Materials Author Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
ISBN-10 9780081002094
Release 2016-01-11
Pages 464
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Since 1930 more than 100,000 new chemical compounds have been developed and insufficient information exists on the health assessment of 95 percent of these chemicals in which a relevant percentage are used in construction products. For instance Portland cement concrete, the most used material on the Planet (10.000 million tons/year that in the next 40 years will increase around 100 %) currently used in around 15% of total concrete production contains chemicals used to modify their properties, either in the fresh or hardened state. Biopolymers are materials that are developed from natural resources. They reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is a worldwide demand to replace petroleum-based materials with renewable resources. Currently bio-admixtures represent just a small fraction of the chemical admixtures market (around 20%) but with environmental awareness for constituents in construction materials generally growing (the Construction Products Regulation is being enforced in Europe since 2013), the trend towards bio-admixtures is expected to continue. This book provides an updated state-of-the-art review on biopolymers and their influence and use as admixtures in the development of eco-efficient construction materials. Provides essential knowledge for researchers and producers working on the development of biopolymer-modified construction materials Discusses the various types of biopolymers currently available, their different production techniques, their use as bio-admixtures in concretes and mortars and applications in other areas of civil engineering such as soil stability, wood preservation, adhesives and coatings All contributions are made from leading researchers, who have intensive involvement in the design and use of biopolymers in construction materials



Habitat Population Dynamics and Metal Levels in Colonial Waterbirds

Habitat  Population Dynamics  and Metal Levels in Colonial Waterbirds Author Joanna Burger
ISBN-10 9781138032088
Release 2016-06-26
Pages 565
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This book is a result of the authors’ more than 40 years of study on the behavior, populations, and heavy metals in the colonial waterbirds nesting in Barnegat Bay and the nearby estuaries and bays in the Northeastern United States. From Boston Harbor to the Chesapeake, based on longitudinal studies of colonial waterbirds, it provides a clear picture of the toxic trends and effects of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. The authors take a food web, ecosystem approach to contaminants, using population dynamics, habitat selection, and inputs to the bay to examine metal levels. They also look at the human dimension, discuss what metals in birds tell us about human exposure, and describe stakeholder involvement in these issues. The book covers numbers and dynamics, colony sites and locations, and prey contaminant levels, and compares them to other comparable coastal estuaries. It uses colonial waterbirds as the focal point for an ecosystem approach to metals that begins with prey fish and goes through invertebrates to humans. Additionally, it provides information based on long-term integrative studies the authors have done on metal levels and bird species and compares the findings with data from the Harbor Estuaries Program, other Northeast bays, the Great Lakes, and the Wadden Sea.



Oil Spill Impacts

Oil Spill Impacts Author Yejun Wu
ISBN-10 9781498788236
Release 2016-04-05
Pages 288
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Starting with the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident, Oil Spill Impacts: Taxonomic and Ontological Approaches chronicles a timeline of events that focus on the impact of oil spills and provides an understanding of these incidents using a number of approaches. The book includes an interdisciplinary oil spill taxonomy, an oil spill topic map, and highlights information–organization tools, such as indexes, taxonomies, and topic maps that can be used to connect information resources with concepts of interest. The topic map combines the function of ontology with the function of organized information resources, and contains thousands of concepts and their relationships extracted from approximately 300 documents stemming from various academic conference presentations, journal articles, news reports, and web pages. Divided into four parts, the book begins with a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill events followed by a breakdown of the taxonomy concepts distributed into categories and their subcategories. The book then describes the oil spill topic map separated by concepts, relationships, and references. This interdisciplinary reference provides to its readers: The perspective of multiple disciplines instead of just one discipline An indication of the most important topics in the oil spill domain Developed research in the oil spill and oil drilling areas A broad and detailed view of oil spill issues The book serves students, teachers, and researchers interested in oil spill issues, oil spill incidents, and addresses their impacts that involve coastal and marine environmental sciences, biological sciences, chemistry, disaster management, geology, sociology, and government policy.



Marine Macrophytes as Foundation Species

Marine Macrophytes as Foundation Species Author Emil Olafsson
ISBN-10 9781315353630
Release 2016-11-25
Pages 285
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Marine macrophytes (macroalgae, seagrasses, and mangroves) comprise thousands of species distributed in shallow water areas along the world’s coastlines. They play a key role in marine ecosystems regarding biodiversity and energy flow. A large proportion of macrophyte species can be characterised as ecosystem engineers—organisms that directly or indirectly affect the availability of resources to other species by modifying, maintaining, and creating habitats. This book is divided into three main themes: • Marine macroalgae and seagrasses as sources of biodiversity gives an overview of the diversity of the main organisms associated with macrophytes, and their functional role and interactions within their hosts. • Primary and secondary production of Macrophytes synthesizes research on food web structures derived from/or associated with, macrophytes and the transfer of macrophytic primary and secondary production from one ecosystem to another. • Threats to macrophytic ecosystem engineers addresses human-induced effects including eutrophication, physical destruction, invasive species, and global warming. The book is among the first one to concentrate on the value of macrophytes for the well-being of marine habitats. The book is aimed at academics but may be useful for students, policy makers, and laymen alike.



Marine Mammal Physiology

Marine Mammal Physiology Author Michael A. Castellini
ISBN-10 9781482242690
Release 2015-11-18
Pages 356
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Suppose you were designing a marine mammal. What would you need to think about to allow it to live in the ocean? How would you keep it warm? What would you design to allow it to dive for very long periods to extreme depths? Where would it find water to drink? How would you minimize the cost of swimming, and how would it find its prey in the deep and dark? These questions and more are examined in detail throughout this book. Marine Mammal Physiology: Requisites for Ocean Living is the first textbook focused on how marine mammals live in the sea from a physiological point of view. It explores the essential aspects of what makes a marine mammal different from terrestrial mammals, beyond just their environment. Unlike many publications and books that cover these species from almost all perspectives, this textbook takes a step back to focus on the physiological and biochemical characteristics that have allowed these mammals as a group to exploit effectively the marine environment that is so hostile to humans. The chapter topics are grouped into major themes: diving and locomotion, nutrition and energetics, reproduction, sensory systems, and environmental interactions. Each chapter is arranged around a common perspective and theme: the big picture challenge and summary and what is known specifically by order. To aid you even further, the authors include a "Toolbox" section in each chapter where they discuss the newest methods for understanding and working on the physiology of marine mammals.



Oceanography and Marine Biology

Oceanography and Marine Biology Author R.N. Hughes
ISBN-10 9781498705462
Release 2015-08-26
Pages 366
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Ever-increasing interest in oceanography and marine biology and their relevance to global environmental issues create a demand for authoritative reviews summarizing the results of recent research. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review has catered to this demand since its founding by the late Harold Barnes more than 50 years ago. Its objectives are to consider, annually, the basic areas of marine research, returning to them when appropriate in future volumes; to deal with subjects of special and topical importance; and to add new subjects as they arise. The favourable reception and complimentary reviews accorded to all the volumes shows that the series is fulfilling a very real need. The 53rd volume follows closely the objectives and style of the earlier volumes, continuing to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of universities, marine laboratories, research institutes and government departments. It is consistently among the highest ranking series in terms of impact factor in the marine biology category of the citation indices compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science.



Marine Mammals Ashore

Marine Mammals Ashore Author Joseph R. Geraci
ISBN-10 9780977460908
Release 2005-01-01
Pages 371
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Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings (J.R. Geraci & V.J. Lounsbury)in the hardcover formatis back! A comprehensive manual for understanding and dealing with a stranded seal, manatee, dolphin, whale, or sea otter, this book contains information for the interested beach dweller or student and for the scientist or marine resource manager. Marine Mammals Ashore describes rescue operations, how to organize a response team, and how to deal with the media and the public. It includes basic information on marine mammal biology, life history, and health, and an extensive bibliography.Marine Mammals Ashore also provides stranding network participants with practical guidelines for collecting data and specimens to better understand the biology and behavior of marine animals and the condition of their environment.All chapters have been updated and expanded, with emphasis on topics that include: enhancing network organization, public education, and media relations. natural and human-related mortality in each major marine mammal group. recognizing, responding to, and investigating unusual mortality events. new or updated protocols for specimen and data collection (e.g., samples for PCR analysis; basic guidelines for investigating possible noise-related strandings; collecting environmental data and samples; and a detailed protocol for examining marine mammals for signs of human interactions). zoonoses and other public health issues. updated overview of marine mammal stranding frequency and distribution in North America, with coverage extended to Canada and Mexico. overview of special topics provided by invited authors: disentanglement (Peter Howorth, Santa Barbara Marine Mammal Center, Santa Barbara CA); tagging and monitoring (Anthony Martin, British Antarctic Survey); and GIS applications (Greg Early, A.I.S., Inc., New Bedford, MA). close to 600 new references (and a few new carcass disposal stories!).The 372-page second edition features water- and tear-resistant paper, a vinyl cover, and durable plastic coil binding. There are even strategically placed lined pages for adding personal notes and contact information.



The Physiology of Fishes Fourth Edition

The Physiology of Fishes  Fourth Edition Author David H. Evans
ISBN-10 9781439880302
Release 2013-11-25
Pages 491
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Following the success of the bestselling third edition, this newly updated and completely revised fourth edition of The Physiology of Fishes provides comprehensive coverage of the most important aspects of the form and function of fishes. It covers the most recent advances as well as fundamental subjects such as cardiovascular physiology, intestinal transport, and gill ion uptake. Written by an international group of experts, this book contains fresh approaches, with completely new treatment of the original topics and the addition of new chapters: Muscle plasticity Membranes and Metabolism Oxygen Sensing Endocrine Disruption Pain Perception Cardiac Regeneration Neuronal Regeneration Two decades after the publication of the first edition, this book remains the only published single-volume work on fish physiology. Each chapter contains an extensive bibliography, providing readers with the best sources from the primary literature. The fourth edition provides an important reference for aquatic biologists, ichthyologists, fisheries scientists, and comparative physiologists.



Handbook on Marine Environment Protection

Handbook on Marine Environment Protection Author Markus Salomon
ISBN-10 9783319601564
Release 2018-01-31
Pages 1024
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This handbook is the first of its kind to provide a clear, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to the most important scientific and management topics in marine environmental protection. Leading experts discuss the latest perspectives and best practices in the field with a particular focus on the functioning of marine ecosystems, natural processes, and anthropogenic pressures. The book familiarizes readers with the intricacies and challenges of managing coasts and oceans more sustainably, and guides them through the maze of concepts and strategies, laws and policies, and the various actors that define our ability to manage marine activities. Providing valuable thematic insights into marine management to inspire thoughtful application and further study, it is essential reading for marine environmental scientists, policy-makers, lawyers, practitioners and anyone interested in the field.



Shark Research

Shark Research Author Jeffery C. Carrier
ISBN-10 1138032921
Release 2018-08-28
Pages 392
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Over the last decade, the study of shark biology has benefited from the development, refinement, and rapid expansion of novel techniques and advances in technology. These have given new insight into the fields of shark genetics, feeding, foraging, bioenergetics, imaging, age and growth, movement, migration, habitat preference, and habitat use. This pioneering book, written by experts in shark biology, examines technologies such as autonomous vehicle tracking, underwater video approaches, molecular genetics techniques, and accelerometry, among many others. Each detailed chapter offers new insights and promises for future studies of elasmobranch biology, provides an overview of appropriate uses of each technique, and can be readily extended to other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles.



Oil in the Sea III

Oil in the Sea III Author Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects
ISBN-10 9780309505512
Release 2003-02-28
Pages 248
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Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments. Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis of—and more effective measures against—pollutant discharge. The book discusses: Input—where the discharges come from, including the role of two-stroke engines used on recreational craft. Behavior or fate—how oil is affected by processes such as evaporation as it moves through the marine environment. Effects—what we know about the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems. Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.



Coastal Lagoons

Coastal Lagoons Author Michael J. Kennish
ISBN-10 9781420088311
Release 2010-06-15
Pages 568
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Dynamic and productive ecosystems, coastal lagoons play an important role in local economies and often bear the brunt of coastal development, agricultural, and urban waste, overuse from fisheries, aquaculture, transportation, energy production, and other human activities. The features that make coastal lagoons vital ecosystems underline the importance of sound management strategies for long-term environmental and resource sustainability. Written by an internationally renowned group of contributors, Coastal Lagoons: Critical Habitats of Environmental Change examines the function and structure of coastal lagoonal ecosystems and the natural and anthropogenic drivers of change that affect them. The contributors examine the susceptibility of coastal lagoons to eutrophication, the indicators of eutrophic conditions, the influences of natural factors such as major storms, droughts and other climate effects, and the resulting biotic and ecosystem impairments that have developed worldwide. They provide detailed descriptions of the physical-chemical and biotic characteristics of diverse coastal lagoonal ecosystems, and address the environmental factors, forcing features, and stressors affecting hydrologic, biogeochemical, and trophic properties of these important water bodies. They also discuss the innovative tools and approaches used for assessing ecological change in the context of anthropogenically- and climatically-mediated factors. The book investigates the biogeochemical and ecological responses to nutrient enrichment and other pollutants in lagoonal estuaries and compares them to those in other estuarine types. With editors among the most noted international scholars in coastal ecology and contributors who are world-class in their fields, the chapters in this volume represent a wide array of studies on natural and anthropogenic drivers of change in coastal lagoons located in different regions of the world. Although a significant number of journal articles on the subject can be found in the literature, this book provides a single-source reference for coastal lagoons within the arena of the global environment.



Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management

Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management Author Stephen A. Bortone
ISBN-10 1439820082
Release 2011-05-09
Pages 348
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While artificial reefs may have much to offer, they remain an anecdote in the greater scheme of fisheries management, primarily due to the lack of data specific to validating their use. Based on papers presented at the 9th Conference on Artificial Reefs and Artificial Habitats (CARAH) and also including original articles written for this reference, Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management brings to the forefront the current state of knowledge regarding artificial reefs and their pragmatic application to furthering fisheries sustainability. It presents a timely compilation of research to increase options for the implementation of artificial reefs for fishery and natural resource managers. Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management offers an inclusive and encompassing description of the field by chapter authors drawn from diverse geographical areas. This approach gives readers the broadest of perspectives and reflects regional interests and experience with artificial reefs in different parts of the world. Coming at an opportune time in the field of artificial reefs, Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management aids researchers and natural resource managers more carefully consider the special features of artificial reefs in their application to resolving fisheries management problems. This book is an important step toward improving the prescribed use of artificial reefs as a viable option in many of the world’s fisheries in the quest to make more of the world’s fisheries sustainable.



Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate

Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate Author Roger Griffis
ISBN-10 9781610914802
Release 2013-09-19
Pages 288
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Prepared for the 2013 National Climate Assessment and a landmark study in terms of its breadth and depth of coverage, Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate is the result of a collaboration among numerous local, state, federal, and nongovernmental agencies to develop a comprehensive, state of the art look at the effects of climate change on the oceans and marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. This book provides an assessment of scientific knowledge of the current and projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the physical, chemical, and biological components and human uses of marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. It also provides assessment of the international implications for the U.S. due to climate impacts on ocean ecosystems and of efforts to prepare for and adapt to climate and acidification impacts on ocean ecosystem, including · Climate-Driven Physical and Chemical Changes in Marine Ecosystems · Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms · Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean · International Implications of Climate Change · Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing Climate · Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources Rich in science and case studies, it examines the latest climate change impacts, scenarios, vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacity and offers decision makers and stakeholders a substantial basis from which to make informed choices that will affect the well-being of the region’s inhabitants in the decades to come.



Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives Second Edition

Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives  Second Edition Author Jeffrey C. Carrier
ISBN-10 9781439839249
Release 2012-04-09
Pages 666
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Virtually every area of research associated with sharks and their relatives has been strongly impacted by the revolutionary growth in technology. The questions we can now ask are very different than those reported even two decades ago. Modern immunological and genetic techniques, satellite telemetry and archival tagging, modern phylogenetic analysis, GIS, and bomb dating, are just a few of the techniques and procedures that have become a part of our investigative lexicon. A modern synthesis of the biology of Chondrichthyans, Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, Second Edition discusses significant advances in the development and application of new molecular techniques to the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among and between these groups. The book considers the effect of global changes on the status of sharks and their relatives, and how advances in technology and analytical techniques have changed not only how we approach problem solving and scientific investigations, but how we formulate questions. The book also introduces applications of new and novel laboratory devices, techniques, and field instruments. This second edition of the award winning and groundbreaking original exploration of the fundamental elements of the taxonomy, systematics, physiology, and ecology of sharks, skates, rays, and chimera, presents cohesive and integrated coverage of key topics and discusses technological advances used in modern shark research. Offering a well-rounded picture for students and researchers, and far above competitors in scope and research, this new volume holds a wealth of data on the current status of Chondrichthyan research and provides the basis and springboard for original research. Cover photo by Justin Gilligan



Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate Author Kevin J. Noone
ISBN-10 9780124076617
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 376
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Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate summarizes the current state of several threats to the global oceans. What distinguishes this book most from previous works is that this book begins with a holistic, global-scale focus for the first several chapters and then provides an example of how this approach can be applied on a regional scale, for the Pacific region. Previous works usually have compiled local studies, which are essentially impossible to properly integrate to the global scale. The editors have engaged leading scientists in a number of areas, such as fisheries and marine ecosystems, ocean chemistry, marine biogeochemical cycling, oceans and climate change, and economics, to examine the threats to the oceans both individually and collectively, provide gross estimates of the economic and societal impacts of these threats, and deliver high-level recommendations. Nominated for a Katerva Award in 2012 in the Economy category State of the science reviews by known marine experts provide a concise, readable presentation written at a level for managers and students Links environmental and economic aspects of ocean threats and provides an economic analysis of action versus inaction Provides recommendations for stakeholders to help stimulate the development of policies that would help move toward sustainable use of marine resources and services