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Instruments Travel and Science

Instruments  Travel and Science Author Marie Noëlle Bourguet
ISBN-10 9781134482894
Release 2003-08-29
Pages 316
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We are now accustomed to conceive of science as an instrumental activity, producing numbers, measurements and graphs by means of sophisticated devices. This book investigates the historical process that gave rise to this instrumental culture. The contributors trace the displacement of instruments across the globe, the spread of practices or precision and the circulation and appropriation of skills and knowledge. Through comparative and contextual approaches, the volume confronts the tension between the local and the global, examining the process of the universalization of science. Bringing together case studies ranging from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries, contributors discuss French, German and British initiatives, as well as the knowledge and techniques of travellers in countries such as India, Africa, South East Asia and the Americas. Students and researchers interested in the history of science in both Western and non-Western cultures will find this book a valuable and thought-provoking read.



Against Self Reliance

Against Self Reliance Author William Huntting Howell
ISBN-10 9780812247039
Release 2015-03-18
Pages 344
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Individualism is arguably the most vital tenet of American national identity: American cultural heroes tend to be mavericks and nonconformists, and independence is the fulcrum of the American origin story. But in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a number of American artists, writers, and educational philosophers cast imitation and emulation as central to the linked projects of imagining the self and consolidating the nation. Tracing continuities between literature, material culture, and pedagogical theory, William Huntting Howell uncovers an America that celebrated the virtues of humility, contingency, and connection to a complex whole over ambition and distinction. Against Self-Reliance revalues and rethinks what it meant to be repetitive, derivative or pointedly generic in the early republic and beyond. Howell draws on such varied sources as Benjamin Franklin's programs for moral reform, Phillis Wheatley's devotional poetry, David Rittenhouse's coins and astronomical machines, Benjamin Rush's psychological and political theory, Susanna Rowson's schoolbooks, and the novels of Charles Brockden Brown and Herman Melville to tease out patterns of dependence in early America. With its incisive critique of America's storied heroic individualism, Against Self-Reliance argues that the arts of dependence were—and are—critical to the project of American independence.



Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial Russia

Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial Russia Author Lisa Khachaturian
ISBN-10 9781351524674
Release 2018-02-06
Pages 256
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Nineteenth-century Armenia was a zone of competition between the Persian, Ottoman, and the Russian Empires. Yet over the course of the century a new generation of Armenian journalists, scholars, and writers worked to transform their geographically, socially, and linguistically fragmented communities threatened by regional isolation and dissent, into a patriotic and nationally conscious population. Lisa Khachaturian seeks to explain how this profoundly divided society managed to achieve a common cultural bond.The national project that captivated nineteenth-century Eastern Armenian intellectuals was a daunting task, especially since their efforts were directed in the Caucasus--a territory known for its volatile history, its ethnic heterogeneity, and its linguistic complexity. Although this cultural and social maelstrom was both aggravated and tempered by the new Russian arena of economic growth, urban development, and heightened technology and communication, diversity was hardly a recent phenomenon in the region; it had been an endemic part of Caucasian history for centuries. Armenians were no exception to this. While the Georgians, bound to their landed nobility, generally lived within kingdoms, the Armenians experienced centuries of forced resettlement, migration, and centuries of habitation among other peoples. Some Armenians had settled in faraway countries, but many remained in scattered colonies within the boundaries of historic Armenia.This is a study of the formation of modern Armenian national consciousness under Imperial Russian rule. The Tsarist acquisition of Armenian-populated territory and consequent efforts to integrate this territory into the empire imposed sufficient unity to provide a basis for a nascent national movement. The particular influences of Russian imperial rule met the Eastern Armenian communities to create a new environment for a modern national revival. This book reviews how nineteenth-century Armenian intellectuals discussed and conceived of the nation through the formation of the Armenian press. This is a rare blend of national culture and communication networking.



Expertise in Regulation and Law

Expertise in Regulation and Law Author Gary Edmond
ISBN-10 9781351937733
Release 2017-07-05
Pages
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This collection of essays examines the multi-faceted roles of experts and expertise in and around contemporary legal and regulatory cultures. The essays illustrate the complexity intrinsic to the production and use of expert knowledge, particularly during transition from specialist communities to other domains such as policy formulation, regulatory standard setting and litigation. Several themes pervade the collection. These include the need to recognize that: expert knowledge and opinion is often complex, controversial and contested; there are no simple criteria for resolving disagreements between experts; appeals to 'objectivity' and 'impartiality' tend to be rhetorical rather than analytical; contests in expertise are frequently episodes in larger campaigns; there are many different models of expertise and knowledge; processes designed to deal with expert knowledge are unavoidably political; questions around who is an expert and what should count as expertise are not always self-evident; and the evidence rarely 'speaks for itself'.



Research Report

Research Report Author Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105115047933
Release 1998
Pages
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Research Report has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Research Report also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Research Report book for free.



Traditions of science

Traditions of science Author B. V. Subbarayappa
ISBN-10 UOM:39015080548848
Release 2007-06-15
Pages 346
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Contributed articles.



Orden natural y orden social

Orden natural y orden social Author Mauricio Nieto Olarte
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105210633975
Release 2007
Pages 436
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Este libro nos enseña cómo la geografía, la historia natural, la medicina, los estudios sobre la población, el clima o la educación, son todas formas de construir un orden natural y un orden social.Se trata entonces de una investigación en historia de las ciencias con importantes aportes a la historia política en la cual el autor nos ofrece una mirada crítica y una novedosa reflexión sobre el papel que jugaron los hombres de ciencia americanos en el período de la independencia.



Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers Author J.M. Steele
ISBN-10 9789401595285
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 324
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Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.



Journalism Science and Society

Journalism  Science and Society Author Martin W. Bauer
ISBN-10 9781134187287
Release 2008-07-25
Pages 304
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Analyzing the role of journalists in science communication, this book presents a perspective on how this is going to evolve in the twenty-first century. The book takes three distinct perspectives on this interesting subject. Firstly, science journalists reflect on their ‘operating rules’ (science news values and news making routines). Secondly, a brief history of science journalism puts things into context, characterising the changing output of science writing in newspapers over time. Finally, the book invites several international journalists or communication scholars to comment on these observations thereby opening the global perspective. This unique project will interest a range of readers including science communication students, media studies scholars, professionals working in science communication and journalists.



The Occult Laboratory

The Occult Laboratory Author Michael Cyril William Hunter
ISBN-10 9780851158013
Release 2001
Pages 247
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Magic, science and second sight in 17c Scottish Higlands, with new edition of Kirk's Secret Commonwealth.



Mathematics Across Cultures

Mathematics Across Cultures Author Helaine Selin
ISBN-10 9789401143011
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 479
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Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.



Education for Life and Work

Education for Life and Work Author Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills
ISBN-10 9780309256506
Release 2013-01-01
Pages 229
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Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills." Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums.



Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy

Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy Author Henrik Lagerlund
ISBN-10 9781317672616
Release 2017-01-06
Pages 646
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Sixteenth century philosophy was a unique synthesis of several philosophical frameworks, a blend of old and new, including but not limited to Scholasticism, Humanism, Neo-Thomism, Aristotelianism, and Stoicism. Unlike most overviews of this period, The Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy?does not simplify this colorful era by applying some traditional dichotomies, such as the misleading line once drawn between scholasticism and humanism. Instead, the Companion closely covers an astonishingly diverse set of topics: philosophical methodologies of the time, the importance of the discovery of the new world, the rise of classical scholarship, trends in logic and logical theory, Nominalism, Averroism, the Jesuits, the Reformation, Neo-stoicism, the soul’s immortality, skepticism, the philosophies of language and science and politics, cosmology, the nature of the understanding, causality, ethics, freedom of the will, natural law, the emergence of the individual in society, the nature of wisdom, and the love of god. Throughout, the?Companion?seeks not to compartmentalize these philosophical matters, but instead to show that close attention paid to their continuity may help reveal both the diversity and the profound coherence of the philosophies that emerged in the sixteenth century. The Companion’s 27 chapters are published here for the first time, and written by an international team of scholars, and accessible for both students and researchers.



Science Technology and Society in Contemporary Japan

Science  Technology and Society in Contemporary Japan Author Morris Low
ISBN-10 0521654254
Release 1999-11-28
Pages 226
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This book explores the dynamic relationship between science, technology and Japanese society, examining how it has contributed to economic growth and national well-being. It presents a synthesis of recent debates by juxtaposing competing views about the role and direction of science, technology and medical care in Japan. Topics discussed include government policy, the private sector and community responses; computers and communication; the automobile industry, the aerospace industry and quality control; the environment; consumer electronics; medical care; and the role of gender. This is an ideal introductory text for students in the sociology of science and technology, the history and philosophy of science, and Japanese studies. Up-to-date research and case studies make this an invaluable resource for readers interested in the nature of science and technology in the twenty-first century.



Psychology of Physical Activity

Psychology of Physical Activity Author Stuart J. H. Biddle
ISBN-10 9781136339554
Release 2015-02-20
Pages 434
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The positive benefits of physical activity for physical and mental health are now widely acknowledged, yet levels of physical inactivity continue to increase throughout the developed world. Understanding the psychology of physical activity has therefore become an important concern for scientists, health professionals and policy-makers alike. Psychology of Physical Activity is a comprehensive and in-depth introduction to the fundamentals of exercise psychology, from theories of motivation and adherence to the design of successful interventions for increasing participation. Now in a fully revised, updated and expanded third edition, Psychology of Physical Activity is still the only textbook to offer a full survey of the evidence-base for theory and practice in exercise psychology, and the only textbook that explains how to interpret the quality of the research evidence. With international cases, examples and data included throughout, the book also provides a thoroughly detailed examination of the relationship between physical activity and mental health. A full companion website offers useful features to help students and lecturers get the most out of the book during their course, including multiple-choice revision questions, PowerPoint slides and a test bank of additional learning activities. Psychology of Physical Activity is the most authoritative, engaging and up-to-date introduction to exercise psychology currently available. It is essential reading for all students working in exercise and health sciences.



Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories

Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories Author Loren Graham
ISBN-10 9027715211
Release 1983-07-31
Pages 308
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Edward Gibbon's allegation at the beginning of his Essay on the Study of Literature (1764) that the history of empires is that of the miseries of humankind whereas the history of the sciences is that of their splendour and happiness has for a long time been accepted by professional scientists and by historians of science alike. For its practitioner, the history of a discipline displayed above all the always difficult but fmally rewarding approach to a truth which was incorporated in the discipline in its actual fonn. Looking back, it was only too easy to distinguish those who erred and heretics in the field from the few forerunners of true science. On the one hand, the traditional history of science was told as a story of hero and hero worship, on the other hand it was, paradoxically enough, the constant attempt to remind the scientist whom he should better forget. It is not surprising at all therefore that the traditional history of science was a field of only minor interest for the practitioner of a distinct scientific diSCipline or specialty and at the same time a hardly challenging task for the professional historian. Nietzsche had already described the historian of science as someone who arrives late after harvest-time: it is somebody who is only a tolerated guest at the thanksgiving dinner of the scientific community .



Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies

Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies Author Kirstie Ball
ISBN-10 9781136711060
Release 2012-04-27
Pages 460
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Surveillance is a central organizing practice. Gathering personal data and processing them in searchable databases drives administrative efficiency but also raises questions about security, governance, civil liberties and privacy. Surveillance is both globalized in cooperative schemes, such as sharing biometric data, and localized in the daily minutiae of social life. This innovative Handbook explores the empirical, theoretical and ethical issues around surveillance and its use in daily life. With a collection of over forty essays from the leading names in surveillance studies, the Handbook takes a truly multi-disciplinary approach to critically question issues of: surveillance and population control policing, intelligence and war production and consumption new media security identification regulation and resistance. The Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies is an international, accessible, definitive and comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing multi-disciplinary field of surveillance studies. The Handbook’s direct, authoritative style will appeal to a wide range of scholars and students in the social sciences, arts and humanities.