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International Responses to Issues of Credit and Over indebtedness in the Wake of Crisis

International Responses to Issues of Credit and Over indebtedness in the Wake of Crisis Author Therese Wilson
ISBN-10 9781317113744
Release 2016-04-22
Pages 272
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This book explores the political, economic and regulatory context in which credit regulation is taking place following the global financial crisis. It suggests that current neoliberal economic policies favour multi-national corporations rather than consumers and examines regulatory responses to the internationalization of consumer finance protection. Detailing how EU consumers have been affected by national economic conditions, the book also analyses the lending regimes of Europe, Australia, the US and South Africa and offers suggestions for responsible lending to avoid over-indebtedness and corrupt mortgage-lending. Finally, new approaches and directions for consumer credit regulations are outlined, such as protection for small businesses, protection against risky credit products, reorganization of mortgage securitization and the possibility of a partnership model to address financial exclusion. The book includes contributions from leading names in the field of consumer law and will be invaluable to those interested in banking, business and commercial law.



The Financialisation of the Citizen

The Financialisation of the Citizen Author Guido Comparato
ISBN-10 9781509919239
Release 2018-08-23
Pages 232
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This book discusses the role of private law as an instrument to produce financial and social inclusion in a context characterised by the redefinition of the role of the State and by the financialisation of society. By depicting the political and economic developments behind the popular idea of financial inclusion, the book deconstructs that notion, illustrating the existence and interaction of different discourses surrounding it. The book further traces the evolution of inclusion, specifically in the European context, and thus moves on to analyse the legal rules which are most relevant for the purposes of bringing about the financialisation of the citizen. Hence, the author focuses more on four highly topical areas: access to a bank account, access to credit, over indebtedness, and financial education. Adopting a critical and inter-disciplinary approach, The Financialisation of the Citizen takes the reader through a top-down journey starting from the political economy of financialisation, to the law and policy of the European Union, and finally to more specific private law rules.



Consumer Debt and Social Exclusion in Europe

Consumer Debt and Social Exclusion in Europe Author Professor Hans W Micklitz
ISBN-10 9781472449030
Release 2015-07-28
Pages 250
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This study fills a vital gap in the current literature on the effects of the financial and economic crisis, and features detailed reports from six European countries which form the empirical background for five analyses of different aspects of the social inclusion-exclusion dichotomy through over-indebtedness in Europe since 2008. The account shows how the current design of the consumer credit and mortgage system in Europe has helped to produce individual over-indebtedness while disregarding the consequential danger of social exclusion.



Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence Author Thérèse Wilson
ISBN-10 9780674071919
Release 2013-02-14
Pages 176
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Bioluminescence is everywhere on earth—most of all in the ocean, from angler fish in the depths to flashing dinoflagellates at the surface. Wilson and Hastings explore the natural history, evolution, and biochemistry of the diverse array of organisms that emit light and offer an evolutionary explanation for their sporadic distribution and rarity.



Financial Crises Causes Consequences and Policy Responses

Financial Crises  Causes  Consequences  and Policy Responses Author Stijn Claessens
ISBN-10 9781484355268
Release 2014-02-19
Pages 669
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Financial Crises: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses provides a comprehensive overview of research into financial crises and policy lessons learned. The book covers a wide range of crises, including banking, balance of payments, and sovereign debt crises. It begins with an overview of the various types of crises and introduces a comprehensive database of crises. Broad lessons on crisis prevention and management, as well as the short-term economic effects of crises, recessions, and recoveries are discussed. The medium-term effects of financial crises on economic growth, as well as policy measures to prevent booms, mitigate busts, and avoid crises are analyzed. Finally, policy measures for mitigating the adverse impact of crises and ways to restructure banks, households, and sovereigns are presented. The collection of research in this book provides an excellent overview of critical policy areas, with valuable lessons on how countries can better monitor their economies and financial systems.



Effective Crisis Response and Openness

Effective Crisis Response and Openness Author Simon J. Evenett
ISBN-10 9781907142017
Release 2009-01-01
Pages 362
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The world has now faced the most severe global economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Governments have responded to the crisis with many initiatives, often with implications for the openness of their national economies to global markets. While the primary objectives have been to support demand and thus economic activity and employment, recognition of cross-border spillovers has led to calls for international cooperation and to refrain from beggar-thy-neighbour measures. Arguably these calls have been heard. Efforts have been made to coordinate policy responses, through the G20 and other fora. As recovery becomes an ever greater prospect in late 2009, the question arises as to whether current, primarily non-binding inter-governmental cooperation will be sustained. Protectionist pressures may increase as trade recovers, imports into markets expand, and job growth still lags. Also, many governments are left with little margin for manoeuvre in fiscal and monetary policy, and in the event of an economic relapse, trade and industrial policies threaten to become the default stop-gap. The purpose of this book is to examine the ways in which the existing manifestations of openness, including binding international accords, have constrained or enhanced the options available to national policymakers during the crisis and influenced the degree, and potentially even the effectiveness, of cross-border cooperation. By examining state responses during the crisis in a number of distinct policy domains, the different chapters reveal potential complementarities and tensions as governments seek to tackle sharp national recessions while being mindful of the growing role that the international dimension has played in influencing national economies in an era of globalization.



Resolving China s Corporate Debt Problem

Resolving China   s Corporate Debt Problem Author Wojciech Maliszewski
ISBN-10 9781475545296
Release 2016-10-14
Pages 43
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Corporate credit growth in China has been excessive in recent years. This credit boom is related to the large increase in investment after the Global Financial Crisis. Investment efficiency has fallen and the financial performance of corporates has deteriorated steadily, affecting asset quality in financial institutions. The corporate debt problem should be addressed urgently with a comprehensive strategy. Key elements should include identifying companies in financial difficulties, proactively recognizing losses in the financial system, burden sharing, corporate restructuring and governance reform, hardening budget constraints, and facilitating market entry. A proactive strategy would trade off short-term economic pain for larger longer-term gain.



Financial Crises Explanations Types and Implications

Financial Crises Explanations  Types  and Implications Author Stijn Claessens
ISBN-10 9781475579086
Release 2013-01-30
Pages 66
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This paper reviews the literature on financial crises focusing on three specific aspects. First, what are the main factors explaining financial crises? Since many theories on the sources of financial crises highlight the importance of sharp fluctuations in asset and credit markets, the paper briefly reviews theoretical and empirical studies on developments in these markets around financial crises. Second, what are the major types of financial crises? The paper focuses on the main theoretical and empirical explanations of four types of financial crises—currency crises, sudden stops, debt crises, and banking crises—and presents a survey of the literature that attempts to identify these episodes. Third, what are the real and financial sector implications of crises? The paper briefly reviews the short- and medium-run implications of crises for the real economy and financial sector. It concludes with a summary of the main lessons from the literature and future research directions.



Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and Challenges Ahead An Update

Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and Challenges Ahead  An Update Author Ms. May Y. Khamis
ISBN-10 9781455287994
Release 2010-07-21
Pages 22
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Departmental papers are usually focused on a specific economic topic, country, or region. They are prepared in a timely way to support the outreach needs of the IMF’s area and functional departments.



Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises Author Thomas Laryea
ISBN-10 9781452736198
Release 2010-01-26
Pages 32
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This paper starts from a discussion of the economic case for moderated government intervention in debt restructuring in the nonfinancial corporate sector. It then draws on lessons from past crises to explain three broad approaches that have been applied to corporate debt restructurings in the aftermath of a crisis. From there, it addresses challenges in designing and implementing a comprehensive debt restructuring strategy and draws together some key principles.



Housing Finance Policy in Emerging Markets

Housing Finance Policy in Emerging Markets Author Loic Chiquier
ISBN-10 9780821377512
Release 2009
Pages 491
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Housing finance markets have been changing dramatically in both emerging and developed economies. On the one hand, housing finance markets are expanding and represent a powerful engine for economic growth in many emerging economies. However, the unfolding sub-prime mortgage crisis highlights the risks and potential turbulence that this sector can introduce into the financial system when expanding without proper infrastructure and regulation. As housing finance keeps growing in emerging economies to match a rising demand for housing, new risk management approaches, business models, funding tools, and policy instruments can help. Yet many questions remain about the right balance between innovation and regulation, the extent of risks to the financial system, the appropriate role of the state to promote affordable housing, and the effects of the sub-prime crisis. This book provides a guide for policymakers dealing with housing finance in emerging markets. It highlights the prerequisites for an effective housing finance system; it lays out several policy alternatives and models of housing finance; and it explores the role of governments in expanding access to housing finance for lower-income households. There is no "best" model set out in this book. The aim is to provide a developmental roadmap that can be tailored and sequenced to each country's situation and timing.



The Stiglitz Report

The Stiglitz Report Author Joseph E. Stiglitz
ISBN-10 9781595585202
Release 2010
Pages 204
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The fact that the global economy is broken may be widely accepted, but what precisely needs to be fixed has become the subject of enormous controversy. In 2008, the President of the United Nations General Assembly convened an international panel, chaired by Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz and including 20 leading experts on the international monetary system, to address this crucial issue. This report controversially establishes a bold agenda for policy change, both broad in scope and profound in its ambitions.



Global Financial Crisis and Its Ramifications on Capital Markets

Global Financial Crisis and Its Ramifications on Capital Markets Author Ümit Hacioğlu
ISBN-10 9783319470214
Release 2017-03-16
Pages 659
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This book assesses the 2008-2009 financial crisis and its ramifications for the global economy from a multidisciplinary perspective. Current market conditions and systemic issues pose a risk to financial stability and sustained market access for emerging market borrowers. The volatile environment in the financial system became the source of major threats and some opportunities such as takeovers, mergers and acquisitions for international business operations. This volume is divided into six sections. The first evaluates the 2008-2009 Global Financial Crisis and its impacts on Global Economic Activity, examining the financial crisis in historical context, the economic slowdown, transmission of the crisis from advanced economies to emerging markets, and spillovers. The second section evaluates global imbalances, especially financial instability and the economic outlook for selected regional economies, while the third focuses on international financial institutions and fiscal policy applications. The fourth section analyzes the capital market mechanism, price fluctuations and global trade activity, while the fifth builds on new trends and business cycles to derive effective strategies and solutions for international entrepreneurship and business. In closing, the final section explores the road to economic recovery and stability by assessing the current outlook and fiscal strategies.



Regulatory Cycles Revisiting the Political Economy of Financial Crises

Regulatory Cycles  Revisiting the Political Economy of Financial Crises Author Jihad Dagher
ISBN-10 9781484337806
Release 2018-01-15
Pages 89
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Financial crises are traditionally analyzed as purely economic phenomena. The political economy of financial booms and busts remains both under-emphasized and limited to isolated episodes. This paper examines the political economy of financial policy during ten of the most infamous financial booms and busts since the 18th century, and presents consistent evidence of pro-cyclical regulatory policies by governments. Financial booms, and risk-taking during these episodes, were often amplified by political regulatory stimuli, credit subsidies, and an increasing light-touch approach to financial supervision. The regulatory backlash that ensues from financial crises can only be understood in the context of the deep political ramifications of these crises. Post-crisis regulations do not always survive the following boom. The interplay between politics and financial policy over these cycles deserves further attention. History suggests that politics can be the undoing of macro-prudential regulations.



The Subprime Virus

The Subprime Virus Author Kathleen C. Engel
ISBN-10 0199780099
Release 2010-11-10
Pages 368
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The subprime crisis shook the American economy to its core. How did it happen? Where was the government? Did anyone see the crisis coming? Will the new financial reforms avoid a repeat performance? In this lively new book, Kathleen C. Engel and Patricia A. McCoy answer these questions as they tell the story behind the subprime crisis. The authors, experts in the law and the economics of financial regulation and consumer lending, offer a sharply reasoned, but accessible account of the actions that produced the greatest economic collapse since the Great Depression. The Subprime Virus reveals how consumer abuses in a once obscure corner of the home mortgage market led to the near meltdown of the world's financial system. The authors also delve into the roles of federal banking and securities regulators, who knew of lenders' hazardous mortgages and of Wall Street's addiction to high stakes financing, but did nothing until the crisis erupted. This is the first book to offer a comprehensive description of the government's failure to act and to analyze the financial reform legislation of 2010. Blending expert analysis, vivid examples, and clear prose, Engel and McCoy offer an informed portrait of the political and financial failures that led to the crisis. Equally important, they show how we can draw lessons from the crisis to inform the building of a new, more stable, prosperous, and just financial order.



Rethinking the Financial Crisis

Rethinking the Financial Crisis Author Alan S. Blinder
ISBN-10 9781610448154
Release 2013-01-03
Pages 376
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Some economic events are so major and unsettling that they “change everything.” Such is the case with the financial crisis that started in the summer of 2007 and is still a drag on the world economy. Yet enough time has now elapsed for economists to consider questions that run deeper than the usual focus on the immediate causes and consequences of the crisis. How have these stunning events changed our thinking about the role of the financial system in the economy, about the costs and benefits of financial innovation, about the efficiency of financial markets, and about the role the government should play in regulating finance? In Rethinking the Financial Crisis, some of the nation’s most renowned economists share their assessments of particular aspects of the crisis and reconsider the way we think about the financial system and its role in the economy. In its wide-ranging inquiry into the financial crash, Rethinking the Financial Crisis marshals an impressive collection of rigorous and yet empirically-relevant research that, in some respects, upsets the conventional wisdom about the crisis and also opens up new areas for exploration. Two separate chapters–by Burton G. Malkiel and by Hersh Shefrin and Meir Statman – debate whether the facts of the financial crisis upend the efficient market hypothesis and require a more behavioral account of financial market performance. To build a better bridge between the study of finance and the “real” economy of production and employment, Simon Gilchrist and Egan Zakrasjek take an innovative measure of financial stress and embed it in a model of the U.S. economy to assess how disruptions in financial markets affect economic activity—and how the Federal Reserve might do monetary policy better. The volume also examines the crucial role of financial innovation in the evolution of the pre-crash financial system. Thomas Philippon documents the huge increase in the size of the financial services industry relative to real GDP, and also the increasing cost per financial transaction. He suggests that the finance industry of 1900 was just as able to produce loans, bonds, and stocks as its modern counterpart—and it did so more cheaply. Robert Jarrow looks in detail at some of the major types of exotic securities developed by financial engineers, such as collateralized debt obligations and credit-default swaps, reaching judgments on which make the real economy more efficient and which do not. The volume’s final section turns explicitly to regulatory matters. Robert Litan discusses the political economy of financial regulation before and after the crisis. He reviews the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, which he considers an imperfect but useful response to a major breakdown in market and regulatory discipline. At a time when the financial sector continues to be a source of considerable controversy, Rethinking the Financial Crisis addresses important questions about the complex workings of American finance and shows how the study of economics needs to change to deepen our understanding of the indispensable but risky role that the financial system plays in modern economies.



Personal Insolvency in the 21st Century

Personal Insolvency in the 21st Century Author Iain Ramsay
ISBN-10 9781509900985
Release 2017-05-04
Pages 224
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Since 1979 the world has witnessed a remarkable cycle of personal insolvency law reform. Changes in capitalist economies, financial crises and political interest groups all contributed to this cycle of reform. This book examines the role of interest groups and distinct narratives in shaping reform in different countries while drawing attention to the role of timing, path dependency and unintended consequences in the development of personal insolvency law. The book presents case studies of personal insolvency law in the US, France, Sweden, and England and Wales. It then analyses how, following the Great Recession of 2008, international financial institutions paid greater attention to the significance of household debt in contributing to financial instability and the role of individual insolvency law in providing a fresh start. Personal insolvency law reform became part of EU responses to the eurozone crisis and the EU has proposed harmonisation of individual insolvency law to promote entrepreneurialism. This book examines the extent to which these developments represent an emerging international commonsense about personal insolvency and its relationship to neo-liberalism. Finally, this book discusses whether the international emergence of individual personal insolvency law represents a progressive step or a band-aid for the costs of neo-liberal policies, where a significant number of people live close to the precipice of over-indebtedness.