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Introduction to Biofuels

Introduction to Biofuels Author David M. Mousdale
ISBN-10 9781439812082
Release 2010-07-29
Pages 455
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What role will biofuels play in the scientific portfolio that might bring energy independence and security, revitalize rural infrastructures, and wean us off of our addiction to oil? The shifting energy landscape of the 21st century, with its increased demand for renewable energy technology, poses a worrying challenge. Discussing the multidisciplinary study of bioenergy and its potential for replacing fossil fuels in the coming decades, Introduction to Biofuels provides a roadmap for understanding the broad sweep of technological, sociological, and energy policy issues that intermingle and intertwine. Copiously illustrated and with numerous examples, this book explores key technologies, including biotechnology, bioprocessing, and genetic reprogramming of microorganisms. The author examines the future of biofuels from a broader perspective, addressing the economic, social, and environmental issues crucial for studying the sustainable development of bioenergy. Each chapter begins with questions and provides the answers later in the chapter as key informational points. Embedded Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) sections provide detailed derivations and equations for a subset of topics that can be found easily as buzzwords in popular media and on web sites. Together, the STEM topics form a thread of essential technologies and a guide to how researchers have established quantitative parameters that are crucial to the ever-growing biofuels database. With so much information scattered throughout the literature, it is often difficult to make sense of what is real and what is an optimistic selling of ideas with no scientific credibility. This book does an excellent job of filtering through volumes of data, providing a historical perspective on which to anchor the information, and outlining the strengths and constraints of the different biofuels.

Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems Third Edition

Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems  Third Edition Author Charles F. Kutscher
ISBN-10 9780429939167
Release 2018-08-06
Pages 630
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PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS, Third Edition, surveys the range of sustainable energy sources and the tools that engineers, scientists, managers, and policy makers use to analyze energy generation, usage, and future trends. The text provides complete and up-to-date coverage of all renewable technologies, including solar and wind power, biofuels, hydroelectric, nuclear, ocean power, and geothermal energy. The economics of energy are introduced, with the SAM software package integrated so students can explore the dynamics of energy usage and prediction. Climate and environmental factors in energy use are integrated to give a complete picture of sustainable energy analysis and planning.

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound Author Zhen Fang
ISBN-10 9789401796248
Release 2014-11-26
Pages 358
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Conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research and development area as trends move to replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources. By integrating processing methods with ultrasound and microwave irradiation into biorefineries, the time-scale of many operations can be greatly reduced while the efficiency of the reactions can be remarkably increased so that process intensification can be achieved. “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound” and “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave” are two independent volumes in the Biofuels and Biorefineries series that take different, but complementary approaches for the pretreatment and chemical transformation of biomass into chemicals and biofuels. The volume “Ultrasound” provides current research advances and prospects in mechanistic principles of acoustic cavitation in sonochemistry, physical and chemical mechanisms in biofuel synthesis, reactor design for transesterification and esterification reactions, lipid extraction from algal biomass, microalgae extraction, biodiesel and bioethanol synthesis, practical technologies and systems, pretreatment of biomass waste sources including lignocellulosic materials, manures and sludges for biogas production, vibration-assisted pelleting, combined chemical-mechanical methods, valorization of starch-based wastes and techno-economic methodology. Each of the 12 chapters has been peer-reviewed and edited to improve both the quality of the text and the scope and coverage of the topics. Both volumes “Ultrasound” and “Microwave” are references designed for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering and include introductory chapters to highlight present concepts of the fundamental technologies and their application. Dr. Zhen Fang is Professor in Bioenergy, Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and is also adjunct Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. Dr. Richard L Smith, Jr. is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, Japan. Dr. Xinhua Qi is Professor of Environmental Science, Nankai University, China.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co products

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research     Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co products Author Umakanta Jena
ISBN-10 9782889451982
Release 2017-05-18
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Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Advanced Technologies In Biodiesel

Advanced Technologies In Biodiesel Author Aminul Islam
ISBN-10 9781606505038
Release 2014-12-31
Pages 166
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The important strategic issue of the 21st century states that the struggle for existence is the struggle for sustainable energy. In the last few years, the interest in renewable fuels has increased dramatically due to high demand of energy and the limitation of fossil fuel. Given the rapidly increasing demand for energy which is projected to double by mid-21st century, it is expected that biodiesels will become an important part of the global energy mix and make a significant contribution to meeting energy demand. This valuable book gives a critical review on the recently emerged process intensification technologies for biodiesel production as well as the various methods for assessing biodiesel fuel quality. You will also learn about monitoring the transesterification reaction with advantages and drawbacks. The authors offer suggestions on selection of appropriate methods, which could provide a thrilling adventure ahead for all interested scientists, making this book of particular interest to biochemical engineers, academics, post graduate and graduate students, and industrial researchers.

Green Aviation

Green Aviation Author Ramesh Agarwal
ISBN-10 9781118866504
Release 2016-09-20
Pages 536
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Green Aviation is the first authoritative overview of both engineering and operational measures to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation. It addresses the current status of measures to reduce the environmental impact of air travel. The chapters cover such items as: Engineering and technology-related subjects (aerodynamics, engines, fuels, structures, etc.), Operations (air traffic management and infrastructure) Policy and regulatory aspects regarding atmospheric and noise pollution. With contributions from leading experts, this volume is intended to be a valuable addition, and useful resource, for aerospace manufacturers and suppliers, governmental and industrial aerospace research establishments, airline and aviation industries, university engineering and science departments, and industry analysts, consultants, and researchers.

Green Aviation

Green Aviation Author Emily S. Nelson
ISBN-10 9781136318191
Release 2018-06-12
Pages 358
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Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

Biofuels Engineering Process Technology

Biofuels Engineering Process Technology Author Caye M. Drapcho
ISBN-10 9780071509923
Release 2007-04-22
Pages 448
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New Process Technology for Developing Low-Cost, Environmentally Safe Biofuels Rising fuel prices have created a surge in the worldwide demand for biofuels made from plant and animal feedstocks. Filled with a wealth of illustrations, Biofuels Engineering Process Technology fully explains the concepts, systems, and technology now being used to produce biofuels on both an industrial and small scale. Written by a team of leading biofuels experts, this lucid guide presents a complete introduction to biofuels and biorefining processes...state-of-the-art information on biofuels processed from fermentations of ethanol, hydrogen, microbial oils, and material on the production of biodiesel from plant and algal oils...and the use of microbial fuel cells to produce bioelectricity. Biofuels Engineering Process Technology takes readers step by step through: The key concepts, systems, and technology of biofuels A review of the basic concepts of fermentation pathways and kinetic modeling of bioreactors Biofuels produced from fermentations of agricultural feedstocks and biomass-ethanol, hydrogen, microbial oils, and methane Biodiesel fuels processed from the chemical conversion of microbial and plant oils Bioelectricity produced from microbial fuel cells The latest sustainable biorefinery concepts and methods Inside This Cutting-Edge Biofuels Engineering Guide • Introduction • Fuels from Fermentations: Ethanol • Hydrogen • Microbial Oils • Methane • Fuel from Chemical Conversion of Plant and Algal Oils: Biodiesel • Microbial Fuel Cells • Technical Resources

Principles of Sustainable Energy

Principles of Sustainable Energy Author Frank Kreith
ISBN-10 9781439894248
Release 2010-12-16
Pages 895
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A transition from a fossil fuel–based economy to one that uses renewable energy has become inevitable; this transition will not only be an engineering challenge, but will also be an economic and environmental one. Offering an interdisciplinary, quantitative approach, Principles of Sustainable Energy presents a comprehensive overview of the major renewable energy technologies currently available, including biomass and biofuels, solar thermal conversion, photovoltaics, and wind energy conversion. Written by renowned expert Frank Kreith, the book emphasizes economics as well as energy return on investment analyses for each technology and integrates the need for energy conservation with the overall aspects of building a sustainable energy system with renewable sources. The author covers energy storage in depth, because it is considered one of the most important, and problematic, requirements for building a sustainable renewable energy system. Treatments of the economics of nuclear power and options for transportation systems are also included. The book contains worked-out example problems illustrating engineering analyses from a systems perspective and problem sets to reinforce concepts and applications. Examples and exercises relating to solar energy systems cover latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and use current worldwide solar radiation data. But this text is not merely academic: its clearheaded look at the energy picture from the ground up, and the environmental, economic, and sustainability benefits that renewable energy systems can provide, make it a resource for government and industry as well as a text for engineering students.

CRC Handbook of Thermal Engineering Second Edition

CRC Handbook of Thermal Engineering  Second Edition Author Frank Kreith
ISBN-10 9781498715294
Release 2017-11-08
Pages 1649
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The CRC Handbook of Thermal Engineering, Second Edition, is a fully updated version of this respected reference work, with chapters written by leading experts. Its first part covers basic concepts, equations and principles of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. Following that is detailed coverage of major application areas, such as bioengineering, energy-efficient building systems, traditional and renewable energy sources, food processing, and aerospace heat transfer topics. The latest numerical and computational tools, microscale and nanoscale engineering, and new complex-structured materials are also presented. Designed for easy reference, this new edition is a must-have volume for engineers and researchers around the globe.

Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems Second Edition

Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems  Second Edition Author Frank Kreith
ISBN-10 9781466556973
Release 2013-08-19
Pages 790
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Completely revised and updated, Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems, Second Edition presents broad-based coverage of sustainable energy sources and systems. The book is designed as a text for undergraduate seniors and first-year graduate students. It focuses on renewable energy technologies, but also treats current trends such as the expanding use of natural gas from fracking and development of nuclear power. It covers the economics of sustainable energy, both from a traditional monetary as well as from an energy return on energy invested (EROI) perspective. The book provides complete and up-to-date coverage of all renewable technologies, including solar and wind power, biological processes such as anaerobic digestion and geothermal energy. The new edition also examines social issues such as food, water, population, global warming, and public policies of engineering concern. It discusses energy transition—the process by which renewable energy forms can effectively be introduced into existing energy systems to replace fossil fuels. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Extended treatment of the energy and social issues related to sustainable energy Analytic models of all energy systems in the current and future economy Thoroughly updated chapters on biomass, wind, transportation, and all types of solar power Treatment of energy return on energy invested (EROI) as a tool for understanding the sustainability of different types of resource conversion and efficiency projects Introduction of the System Advisor Model (SAM) software program, available from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), with examples and homework problems Coverage of current issues in transition engineering providing analytic tools that can reduce the risk of unsustainable fossil resource use Updates to all chapters on renewable energy technology engineering, in particular the chapters dealing with transportation, passive design, energy storage, ocean energy, and bioconversion Written by Frank Kreith and Susan Krumdieck, this updated version of a successful textbook takes a balanced approach that looks not only at sustainable energy sources, but also provides examples of energy storage, industrial process heat, and modern transportation. The authors take an analytical systems approach to energy engineering, rather than the more general and descriptive approach usually found in textbooks on this topic.

Multiphase Flow Handbook Second Edition

Multiphase Flow Handbook  Second Edition Author Efstathios Michaelides
ISBN-10 9781315354620
Release 2016-10-26
Pages 1394
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The Multiphase Flow Handbook, Second Edition is a thoroughly updated and reorganized revision of the late Clayton Crowe’s work, and provides a detailed look at the basic concepts and the wide range of applications in this important area of thermal/fluids engineering. Revised by the new editors, Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides and John D. Schwarzkopf, the new Second Edition begins with two chapters covering fundamental concepts and methods that pertain to all the types and applications of multiphase flow. The remaining chapters cover the applications and engineering systems that are relevant to all the types of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The twenty-one chapters and several sections of the book include the basic science as well as the contemporary engineering and technological applications of multiphase flow in a comprehensive way that is easy to follow and be understood. The editors created a common set of nomenclature that is used throughout the book, allowing readers to easily compare fundamental theory with currently developing concepts and applications. With contributed chapters from sixty-two leading experts around the world, the Multiphase Flow Handbook, Second Edition is an essential reference for all researchers, academics and engineers working with complex thermal and fluid systems.

Aircraft Propulsion

Aircraft Propulsion Author Saeed Farokhi
ISBN-10 9781118806760
Release 2014-04-01
Pages 1048
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New edition of the successful textbook updated to include new material on UAVs, design guidelines in aircraft engine component systems and additional end of chapter problems Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition follows the successful first edition textbook with comprehensive treatment of the subjects in airbreathing propulsion, from the basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components and system integration. This new edition has been extensively updated to include a number of new and important topics. A chapter is now included on General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Propulsion Systems that includes a discussion on electric and hybrid propulsion. Propeller theory is added to the presentation of turboprop engines. A new section in cycle analysis treats Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) and Geared Turbofan engines. New material on drop-in biofuels and design for sustainability is added to refl ect the FAA’s 2025 Vision. In addition, the design guidelines in aircraft engine components are expanded to make the book user friendly for engine designers. Extensive review material and derivations are included to help the reader navigate through the subject with ease. Key features: General Aviation and UAV Propulsion Systems are presented in a new chapter Discusses Ultra-High Bypass and Geared Turbofan engines Presents alternative drop-in jet fuels Expands on engine components' design guidelines The end-of-chapter problem sets have been increased by nearly 50% and solutions are available on a companion website Presents a new section on engine performance testing and instrumentation Includes a new 10-Minute Quiz appendix (with 45 quizzes) that can be used as a continuous assessment and improvement tool in teaching/learning propulsion principles and concepts Includes a new appendix on Rules of Thumb and Trends in aircraft propulsion Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for graduate and undergraduate students, and is also an excellent source of information for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace and power industry.

Energy Systems Engineering Evaluation and Implementation Second Edition

Energy Systems Engineering  Evaluation and Implementation  Second Edition Author Francis Vanek
ISBN-10 9780071787796
Release 2012-06-02
Pages 672
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The defining guide to energy systems engineering--updated for the latest technologies "Broad in scope, with focused instructional detail, this text offers a uniquely excellent, student-accessible educational resource for integrating thermodynamic, alternative, and renewable energy conversion processes." -- Professor Randy L. Vander Wal, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State University "A carefully written book, providing good breadth as well as depth on major conventional and sustainable energy systems." -- Professor David Dillard, Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech Fully revised throughout, Energy Systems Engineering, Second Edition discusses fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy sources, emphasizing a technology-neutral, portfolio approach to energy systems options. The book covers major energy technologies, describing how they work, how they are quantitatively evaluated, their cost, and their benefit or impact on the natural environment. Evaluating project scope, cost, energy consumption, and technical efficiency is clearly addressed. Example problems help you to quantify the performance of each technology and better assess its potential. Hundreds of illustrations and end-of-chapter exercises aid in your understanding of the concepts presented in this practical guide. Coverage includes: Systems and economic tools for energy systems Climate change and climate modeling Fossil fuel resources Stationary combustion systems Carbon sequestration Nuclear energy systems Solar resource evaluation Solar photovoltaic technologies Active and passive solar thermal systems Wind energy systems New chapter on energy from biological sources Transportation energy technologies Systems perspective on transportation engineering

Direct and Large Eddy Simulation IX

Direct and Large Eddy Simulation IX Author Jochen Fröhlich
ISBN-10 9783319144481
Release 2015-01-27
Pages 700
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This volume reflects the state of the art of numerical simulation of transitional and turbulent flows and provides an active forum for discussion of recent developments in simulation techniques and understanding of flow physics. Following the tradition of earlier DLES workshops, these papers address numerous theoretical and physical aspects of transitional and turbulent flows. At an applied level it contributes to the solution of problems related to energy production, transportation, magneto-hydrodynamics and the environment. A special session is devoted to quality issues of LES. The ninth Workshop on 'Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation' (DLES-9) was held in Dresden, April 3-5, 2013, organized by the Institute of Fluid Mechanics at Technische Universität Dresden. This book is of interest to scientists and engineers, both at an early level in their career and at more senior levels.

Biofuels Refining and Performance

Biofuels Refining and Performance Author Ahindra Nag
ISBN-10 9780071594783
Release 2008-01-07
Pages 448
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Learn about the ways to economically manufacture biofuels Written by a team of international experts, Biofuels Refining and Performance describes the refining processes and issues involved in producing fuel derived from recently living organisms or their by-products. Each chapter offers detailed discussion of theory as well as the actual experimental procedure used to economically manufacture biofuels on a commercial scale.

Air Distribution in Buildings

Air Distribution in Buildings Author Essam E. Khalil
ISBN-10 9781466594654
Release 2013-11-22
Pages 255
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Air Distribution in Buildings is a concise and practical guide to air distribution system design and managing air conditioning systems in buildings. Making use of 40 years of experience in the design of air conditioning and ventilations systems, and other electromechanical services, this structured reference for built environment engineering offers in-depth coverage of air distribution technology. The text brings together a wide range of information and offers technical guidance on the design, calculation, and efficient operation of air distribution in buildings. The text highlights the special characteristics of air distribution in individual spaces. It presents the basic and fundamental concepts of air distribution as it relates to grilles and outlets, room space, and buildings. It focuses on air distribution systems in large buildings, starting with simple rooms and then moving on to more complex configurations. It also sums up the latest standards and best practices in air conditioning engineering. Includes knowledge of the new trends in buildings’ air distribution Provides systematic analyses of the air flow regimes, heat transfer, and relative humidity in a collection of special built environments Presents energy analyses of the air conditioning systems for operating theaters and sporting facilities in unusual and severe climatic conditions Offers a description of flow characteristics in archeological monuments with emphasis on combating excessive moisture Introduces examples of very dense occupancy built environments, moisture sensitive environments, and open space air conditioning Details advanced treatment of flow characterization in large public buildings This text serves as an ideal resource for air conditioning engineers, contractors, and consultants. It also benefits mechanical and architectural engineering students.