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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Author Richard Smith Jr.
ISBN-10 9780080931302
Release 2013-12-08
Pages 752
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions



Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids Author Michael Türk
ISBN-10 9780444594433
Release 2014-11-06
Pages 152
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties



Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Author Gerd Brunner
ISBN-10 9780444594181
Release 2014-04-04
Pages 604
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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints



Topical Themes in Energy and Resources

Topical Themes in Energy and Resources Author Yasumitsu Tanaka
ISBN-10 9784431553090
Release 2015-01-30
Pages 270
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This book combines issues several critical ones in the energy field (low-energy technologies, renewable energies such as the hydrogen economy, and geothermal energy). Moving towards a more sustainable world requires a complete revolution in the way we manage energy and resources. However, from an academic perspective, this theme is so broad that most educators and researchers tend to focus on just one aspect, and maintaining the broad viewpoint which is necessary for making strategic judgments becomes difficult. Tohoku University addressed this challenge when developing a new education and training program for environmental leaders and brought together the extensive range of expertise available in specific fields into one special course which forms the basis of this book. Now in one volume, both students and educators can be brought up to date on a wide range of critical issues currently being addressed in the field of energy and resources. Chapters on resources include availability (for instance, rare earth metals), extraction and recycling of metals and plastics, and technological solutions to specific waste-disposal problems. In addition, broader strategic issues such as limits to growth and the interaction between the economic system and environmental issues are addressed. Even though each chapter provides topical data and knowledge from disparate and specialized fields, the book is written at a level that is readily understandable by students from all scientific, engineering, and humanities fields.



In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure Author Andreas Braeuer
ISBN-10 9780444634207
Release 2015-12-07
Pages 394
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In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure provides a comprehensive treatment of in-situ applications of spectroscopic techniques at high pressure and their working principles, allowing the reader to develop a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited. Coverage is also given to the instrumental requirements for these applications, with respect to the high pressure instrumentation and the spectroscopic components of the equipment. The pedagogical style of the book is supplemented by the inclusion of "study questions" which aim to make it useful for graduate-level courses. Bridges the gap between supercritical fluid science/technology and in-situ spectroscopic techniques Provides a powerful guide to applying spectroscopic techniques as gainful sensors at high pressure Highlights the influence of a high pressure environment and high pressure equipment on spectroscopic techniques Presents a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited



Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Author Maartje F. Kemmere
ISBN-10 9783527607051
Release 2006-05-12
Pages 358
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Recently, supercritical fluids have emerged as more sustainable alternatives for the organic solvents often used in polymer processes. This is the first book emphasizing the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide for polymer processes from an engineering point of view. It develops a state-of-the-art overview on polymer fundamentals, polymerization reactions and polymer processing in supercritical carbon dioxide. The book covers topics in a multidisciplinary approach starting from polymer chemistry and thermodynamics, going through monitoring, polymerization processes and ending with polymer shaping and post-processing. The authors are internationally recognized experts from different fields in polymer reaction engineering in supercritical fluids. The book was initiated by the Working Party on Polymer Reaction Engineering of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and further renowned international experts.



Comprehensive Biotechnology

Comprehensive Biotechnology Author
ISBN-10 9780080885049
Release 2011-08-26
Pages 5320
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The second edition of Comprehensive Biotechnology continues the tradition of the first inclusive work on this dynamic field with up-to-date and essential entries on the principles and practice of biotechnology. The integration of the latest relevant science and industry practice with fundamental biotechnology concepts is presented with entries from internationally recognized world leaders in their given fields. With two volumes covering basic fundamentals, and four volumes of applications, from environmental biotechnology and safety to medical biotechnology and healthcare, this work serves the needs of newcomers as well as established experts combining the latest relevant science and industry practice in a manageable format. It is a multi-authored work, written by experts and vetted by a prestigious advisory board and group of volume editors who are biotechnology innovators and educators with international influence. All six volumes are published at the same time, not as a series; this is not a conventional encyclopedia but a symbiotic integration of brief articles on established topics and longer chapters on new emerging areas. Hyperlinks provide sources of extensive additional related information; material authored and edited by world-renown experts in all aspects of the broad multidisciplinary field of biotechnology Scope and nature of the work are vetted by a prestigious International Advisory Board including three Nobel laureates Each article carries a glossary and a professional summary of the authors indicating their appropriate credentials An extensive index for the entire publication gives a complete list of the many topics treated in the increasingly expanding field



Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing

Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing Author Joyce Boye
ISBN-10 9781461415879
Release 2012-01-11
Pages 686
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This book will review the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sector in regard to green processing and provide strategies that can be used by the sector to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for production, processing. The book will look at the full spectrum from farm to fork beginning with chapters on life cycle analysis and environmental impact assessment of different agri-food sectors. This will be followed by reviews of current and novel on-farm practices that are more environmentally-friendly, technologies for food processing that reduce chemical and energy use and emissions as well as novel analytical techniques for R&D and QA which reduce solvent, chemical and energy consumption. Technologies for waste treatment, "reducing, reusing, recycling", and better water and energy stewardship will be reviewed. In addition, the last section of the book will attempt to look at technologies and processes that reduce the generation of process-induced toxins (e.g., trans fats, acrylamide, D-amino acids) and will address consumer perceptions about current and emerging technologies available to tackle these processing and environmental issues.



Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Author Concepcion Domingo Pascual
ISBN-10 9789814613415
Release 2015-10-22
Pages 566
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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.



Extraction of Natural Products Using Near Critical Solvents

Extraction of Natural Products Using Near Critical Solvents Author M.B. King
ISBN-10 9789401121385
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 325
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The aim of this book is to present the current state of the art of extracting natural products with near-critical solvents and to view the possibilities of further extensions of the technique. Relevant background theory is given but does not dominate the book. Carbon dioxide is the near-critical solvent used in most recent applications and inevitably receives prominence. In addition to general descriptions and reviews, the book contains three chapters by indus trial practitioners who describe in detail the operation of their processes and discuss the market for their products. Sections on the design of the pressure vessels and pumps required in these processes and on the acquisition of the data required for design are included. The costing of the processes is also discussed. There is good scope for combining a near-critical extraction step with other process steps in which the properties of near-critical solvents are utilised, for example as a reaction or crystallisation medium and a chapter is devoted to these important aspects. It is hoped that the work will be found to contain a great deal of specific information of use to those already familiar with this field. However the style of presentation and content is such that it will also be useful as an introduction. In particular it will be helpful to those wondering if this form of separation method has anything to offer for them, whether they are engineers, chemists or managers in industry, or in academic or research institutions.



Diamondoids

Diamondoids Author Sven Stauss
ISBN-10 9789814745192
Release 2017-03-16
Pages 258
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Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, most commonly fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have gained increasing interest in both science and industry, due to their advantageous properties that make them attractive for many applications in nanotechnology. Another class of the carbon nanomaterials family that has slowly been gaining (re)newed interest is diamond molecules, also called diamondoids, which consist of polycyclic carbon cages that can be superimposed on a cubic diamond lattice. Derivatives of diamondoids are used in pharmaceutics, but due to their promising properties—well-defined structures, high thermal and chemical stability, negative electron affinity, and the possibility to tune their bandgap—diamondoids could also serve as molecular building blocks in future nanodevices. This book is the first of its kind to give an exhaustive overview of the structures, properties, and current and possible future applications of diamondoids. It contains a brief historical account of diamondoids, from the discovery of the first diamondoid member, adamantane, to the isolation of higher diamondoids about a decade ago. It summarizes the different approaches to synthesizing diamondoids. In particular, current research on the conventional organic synthesis and new approaches based on microplasmas generated in high-pressure and supercritical fluids are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods discussed. The book will serve as a reference for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students in chemistry, physics, materials science, and nanotechnology and researchers in macromolecular science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those with an interest in nanoparticles.



Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction Author Mark McHugh
ISBN-10 9780080518176
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 608
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Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995



Wood and Fiber Science

Wood and Fiber Science Author
ISBN-10 MINN:31951P00848294O
Release 2006
Pages
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Wood and Fiber Science has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Wood and Fiber Science also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Wood and Fiber Science book for free.



Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques

Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques Author E.D. Ramsey
ISBN-10 9789401149488
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 432
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During the past decade supercritical fluid extration (SFE) has attracted considerable attention as a sample preparation procedure in analytical chemistry. The successful implementation of this technique can lead to improved sample throughput, more efficient recovery of analytes, cleaner extracts, economic replacement of halogenated solvents and a high level of automation, compared to conventional sample preparation procedures. This book provides an overview of basic principles of SFE as well as in-depth reviews of both on- and off-line SFE methods. The on-line coupling of SFE with both chromatographic and spectroscopics techniques has been the subject of a great deal of research effort and is dealt with in detail. Newer developments, such as off-line SFE of solid and liquid matrices, are starting to attract a great deal of interest, and the coverage of these areas will prove of particular value to the analytical chemist. The international team of authors has illustrated these topics with many `state-of-the-art' applications, and each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references. For the convenience of the reader, an appendix which contains pressure conversion scales and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide density tables appears at the end of the book. The volume's extensive coverage of both on-line and off-line extraction will be particularly useful to analytical chemists, in a wide range of environments, seeking to develop high quality, simple and robust SFE methods.



Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Author Richard Smith
ISBN-10 9780128076873
Release 2013-12-08
Pages 752
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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Introduction to Supercritical Fluids also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book for free.



Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids Author Richard Smith
ISBN-10 9780128076903
Release 2013-12-08
Pages 752
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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Introduction to Supercritical Fluids also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Introduction to Supercritical Fluids book for free.



Additives in Polymers

Additives in Polymers Author Jan C. J. Bart
ISBN-10 9780470012055
Release 2005-04-08
Pages 836
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This industrially relevant resource covers all established and emerging analytical methods for the deformulation of polymeric materials, with emphasis on the non-polymeric components. Each technique is evaluated on its technical and industrial merits. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability. Extensively illustrated throughout with over 200 figures, 400 tables, and 3,000 references.