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Introduction to Tsallis Entropy Theory in Water Engineering

Introduction to Tsallis Entropy Theory in Water Engineering Author Vijay P. Singh
ISBN-10 9781498736619
Release 2016-01-05
Pages 436
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Focuses On an Emerging Field in Water Engineering A broad treatment of the Tsallis entropy theory presented from a water resources engineering point of view, Introduction to Tsallis Entropy Theory in Water Engineering fills a growing need for material on this theory and its relevant applications in the area of water engineering. This self-contained text includes several solved examples, and requires only a basic knowledge of mathematics and probability theory. Divided into four parts, the book begins with a detailed discussion of Tsallis entropy, moves on to hydraulics, expounds on the subject of hydrology, and ends with broad coverage on a wide variety of areas in water engineering. The author addresses: The Tsallis entropy theory for both discrete and continuous variables The procedure for deriving probability distributions One-dimensional velocity distributions Two-dimensional velocity distributions Methods for determining sediment concentration Sediment discharge Stage–discharge rating curve Precipitation variability Infiltration and the derivation of infiltration equations An introduction to soil moisture, soil moisture profiles, and their estimation Flow duration curves The eco-index and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) Measures of redundancy for water distribution networks, and more Introduction to Tsallis Entropy Theory in Water Engineering examines the basic concepts of the Tsallis entropy theory, and considers its current applications and potential for future use. This book advances further research on water engineering, hydrologic sciences, environmental sciences, and water resources engineering as they relate to the Tsallis entropy theory.



Entropy Theory and its Application in Environmental and Water Engineering

Entropy Theory and its Application in Environmental and Water Engineering Author Vijay P. Singh
ISBN-10 9781118428603
Release 2013-01-10
Pages 664
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Entropy Theory and its Application in Environmental and Water Engineering responds to the need for a book that deals with basic concepts of entropy theory from a hydrologic and water engineering perspective and then for a book that deals with applications of these concepts to a range of water engineering problems. The range of applications of entropy is constantly expanding and new areas finding a use for the theory are continually emerging. The applications of concepts and techniques vary across different subject areas and this book aims to relate them directly to practical problems of environmental and water engineering. The book presents and explains the Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME) and the Principle of Minimum Cross Entropy (POMCE) and their applications to different types of probability distributions. Spatial and inverse spatial entropy are important for urban planning and are presented with clarity. Maximum entropy spectral analysis and minimum cross entropy spectral analysis are powerful techniques for addressing a variety of problems faced by environmental and water scientists and engineers and are described here with illustrative examples. Giving a thorough introduction to the use of entropy to measure the unpredictability in environmental and water systems this book will add an essential statistical method to the toolkit of postgraduates, researchers and academic hydrologists, water resource managers, environmental scientists and engineers. It will also offer a valuable resource for professionals in the same areas, governmental organizations, private companies as well as students in earth sciences, civil and agricultural engineering, and agricultural and rangeland sciences. This book: Provides a thorough introduction to entropy for beginners and more experienced users Uses numerous examples to illustrate the applications of the theoretical principles Allows the reader to apply entropy theory to the solution of practical problems Assumes minimal existing mathematical knowledge Discusses the theory and its various aspects in both univariate and bivariate cases Covers newly expanding areas including neural networks from an entropy perspective and future developments.



Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics

Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics Author Constantino Tsallis
ISBN-10 9780387853581
Release 2009-03-11
Pages 382
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Metaphors, generalizations and unifications are natural and desirable ingredients of the evolution of scientific theories and concepts. Physics, in particular, obviously walks along these paths since its very beginning. This book focuses on nonextensive statistical mechanics, a current generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical mechanics, one of the greatest monuments of contemporary physics. Conceived more than 130 years ago by Maxwell, Boltzmann and Gibbs, the BG theory exhibits uncountable – some of them impressive – successes in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computational sciences, to name a few. Presently, more than two thousand publications, by over 1800 scientists around the world, have been dedicated to the nonextensive generalization. Remarkable applications have emerged, and its mathematical grounding is by now relatively well established. A pedagogical introduction to its concepts – nonlinear dynamics, extensivity of the nonadditive entropy, global correlations, generalization of the standard CLT’s, among others – is presented in this book as well as a selection of paradigmatic applications in various sciences together with diversified experimental verifications of some of its predictions. This is the first pedagogical book on the subject, written by the proponent of the theory Presents many applications to interdisciplinary complex phenomena in virtually all sciences, ranging from physics to medicine, from economics to biology, through signal and image processing and others Offers a detailed derivation of results, illustrations and for the first time detailed presentation of Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics



Entropy Theory in Hydraulic Engineering

Entropy Theory in Hydraulic Engineering Author Vijay P. Singh
ISBN-10 9780784478257
Release 2014-06-01
Pages 656
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Entropy Theory in Hydraulic Engineering: An Introduction is the first book to explain the basic concepts of entropy theory from a hydraulic perspective and demonstrate the theory?s application in solving practical engineering problems. In the hydraulic context, entropy is valuable as a way of measuring uncertainty or surprise?or even disorder or chaos?as a type of information. As hydraulic systems become more complex, entropy theory enables hydraulic engineers to quantify uncertainty, determine risk and reliability, estimate parameters, model processes, and design more robust and dependable water hydraulic systems. Drawing on many years of experience applying and teaching hydraulics, Vijay Singh provides a clear introduction to the fundamentals of entropy theory as it has evolved over the past 40 years. He explores its application in five areas important to hydraulic engineers: velocity distributions, sediment concentration and discharge, hydraulic geometry, channel design, and water distribution systems. More than 170 solved examples illustrate these applications, and each chapter concludes with problem sets and plentiful references. By illustrating the power, usefulness, and versatility of entropy theory, this book puts a valuable tool in the hands of practitioners. Graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and their professors will benefit from the lucid explanation of a complex theory and its applications.



Variational and Extremum Principles in Macroscopic Systems

Variational and Extremum Principles in Macroscopic Systems Author Stanislaw Sieniutycz
ISBN-10 0080456146
Release 2010-07-07
Pages 810
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Recent years have seen a growing trend to derive models of macroscopic phenomena encountered in the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, ecology, self-organisation theory and econophysics from various variational or extremum principles. Through the link between the integral extremum of a functional and the local extremum of a function (explicit, for example, in the Pontryagin’s maximum principle variational and extremum principles are mutually related. Thus it makes sense to consider them within a common context. The main goal of Variational and Extremum Principles in Macroscopic Systems is to collect various mathematical formulations and examples of physical reasoning that involve both basic theoretical aspects and applications of variational and extremum approaches to systems of the macroscopic world. The first part of the book is focused on the theory, whereas the second focuses on applications. The unifying variational approach is used to derive the balance or conservation equations, phenomenological equations linking fluxes and forces, equations of change for processes with coupled transfer of energy and substance, and optimal conditions for energy management. A unique multidisciplinary synthesis of variational and extremum principles in theory and application A comprehensive review of current and past achievements in variational formulations for macroscopic processes Uses Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms as a basis for the exposition of novel approaches to transfer and conversion of thermal, solar and chemical energy



Thermodynamic Approaches in Engineering Systems

Thermodynamic Approaches in Engineering Systems Author Stanislaw Sieniutycz
ISBN-10 9780128093399
Release 2016-05-20
Pages 738
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Thermodynamic Approaches in Engineering Systems responds to the need for a synthesizing volume that throws light upon the extensive field of thermodynamics from a chemical engineering perspective that applies basic ideas and key results from the field to chemical engineering problems. This book outlines and interprets the most valuable achievements in applied non-equilibrium thermodynamics obtained within the recent fifty years. It synthesizes nontrivial achievements of thermodynamics in important branches of chemical and biochemical engineering. Readers will gain an update on what has been achieved, what new research problems could be stated, and what kind of further studies should be developed within specialized research. Presents clearly structured chapters beginning with an introduction, elaboration of the process, and results summarized in a conclusion Written by a first-class expert in the field of advanced methods in thermodynamics Provides a synthesis of recent thermodynamic developments in practical systems Presents very elaborate literature discussions from the past fifty years



Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Systems with Long Range Interactions

Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Systems with Long Range Interactions Author Thierry Dauxois
ISBN-10 9783540458357
Release 2008-01-11
Pages 492
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Properties of systems with long range interactions are still poorly understood despite being of importance in most areas of physics. The present volume introduces and reviews the effort of constructing a coherent thermodynamic treatment of such systems by combining tools from statistical mechanics with concepts and methods from dynamical systems. Analogies and differences between various systems are examined by considering a large range of applications, with emphasis on Bose--Einstein condensates. Written as a set of tutorial reviews, the book will be useful for both the experienced researcher as well as the nonexpert scientist or postgraduate student.



Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications

Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications Author Sumiyoshi Abe
ISBN-10 9783540409199
Release 2008-01-11
Pages 278
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Nonextensive statistical mechanics is now a rapidly growing field and a new stream in the research of the foundations of statistical mechanics. This generalization of the well-known Boltzmann--Gibbs theory enables the study of systems with long-range interactions, long-term memories or multi-fractal structures. This book consists of a set of self-contained lectures and includes additional contributions where some of the latest developments -- ranging from astro- to biophysics -- are covered. Addressing primarily graduate students and lecturers, this book will also be a useful reference for all researchers working in the field.



Kappa Distributions

Kappa Distributions Author George Livadiotis
ISBN-10 9780128046395
Release 2017-04-19
Pages 738
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Kappa Distributions: Theory and Applications in Plasmas presents the theoretical developments of kappa distributions, their applications in plasmas, and how they affect the underpinnings of our understanding of space and plasma physics, astrophysics, and statistical mechanics/thermodynamics. Separated into three major parts, the book covers theoretical methods, analytical methods in plasmas, and applications in space plasmas. The first part of the book focuses on basic aspects of the statistical theory of kappa distributions, beginning with their connection to the solid backgrounds of non-extensive statistical mechanics. The book then moves on to plasma physics, and is devoted to analytical methods related to kappa distributions on various basic plasma topics, spanning linear/nonlinear plasma waves, solitons, shockwaves, and dusty plasmas. The final part of the book deals with applications in space plasmas, focusing on applications of theoretical and analytical developments in space plasmas from the heliosphere and beyond, in other astrophysical plasmas. Kappa Distributions is ideal for space, plasma, and statistical physicists; geophysicists, especially of the upper atmosphere; Earth and planetary scientists; and astrophysicists. Answers important questions, such as how plasma waves are affected by kappa distributions and how solar wind, magnetospheres, and other geophysical, space, and astrophysical plasmas can be modeled using kappa distributions Presents the features of kappa distributions in the context of plasmas, including how kappa indices, temperatures, and densities vary among the species populations in different plasmas Provides readers with the information they need to decide which specific formula of kappa distribution should be used for a certain occasion and system (toolbox)



Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Author Wassim M. Haddad
ISBN-10 1400826977
Release 2009-01-10
Pages 200
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This book places thermodynamics on a system-theoretic foundation so as to harmonize it with classical mechanics. Using the highest standards of exposition and rigor, the authors develop a novel formulation of thermodynamics that can be viewed as a moderate-sized system theory as compared to statistical thermodynamics. This middle-ground theory involves deterministic large-scale dynamical system models that bridge the gap between classical and statistical thermodynamics. The authors' theory is motivated by the fact that a discipline as cardinal as thermodynamics--entrusted with some of the most perplexing secrets of our universe--demands far more than physical mathematics as its underpinning. Even though many great physicists, such as Archimedes, Newton, and Lagrange, have humbled us with their mathematically seamless eurekas over the centuries, this book suggests that a great many physicists and engineers who have developed the theory of thermodynamics seem to have forgotten that mathematics, when used rigorously, is the irrefutable pathway to truth. This book uses system theoretic ideas to bring coherence, clarity, and precision to an extremely important and poorly understood classical area of science.



Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics

Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics Author Constantino Tsallis
ISBN-10 9780387853598
Release 2009-03-03
Pages 382
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Metaphors, generalizations and unifications are natural and desirable ingredients of the evolution of scientific theories and concepts. Physics, in particular, obviously walks along these paths since its very beginning. This book focuses on nonextensive statistical mechanics, a current generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical mechanics, one of the greatest monuments of contemporary physics. Conceived more than 130 years ago by Maxwell, Boltzmann and Gibbs, the BG theory exhibits uncountable – some of them impressive – successes in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computational sciences, to name a few. Presently, more than two thousand publications, by over 1800 scientists around the world, have been dedicated to the nonextensive generalization. Remarkable applications have emerged, and its mathematical grounding is by now relatively well established. A pedagogical introduction to its concepts – nonlinear dynamics, extensivity of the nonadditive entropy, global correlations, generalization of the standard CLT’s, among others – is presented in this book as well as a selection of paradigmatic applications in various sciences together with diversified experimental verifications of some of its predictions. This is the first pedagogical book on the subject, written by the proponent of the theory Presents many applications to interdisciplinary complex phenomena in virtually all sciences, ranging from physics to medicine, from economics to biology, through signal and image processing and others Offers a detailed derivation of results, illustrations and for the first time detailed presentation of Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics



Entropy Theory in Hydrologic Science and Engineering

Entropy Theory in Hydrologic Science and Engineering Author Vijay P. Singh
ISBN-10 9780071835473
Release 2014-09-22
Pages 848
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A THOROUGH INTRODUCTION TO ENTROPY THEORY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN HYDROLOGIC SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING This comprehensive volume addresses basic concepts of entropy theory from a hydrologic engineering perspective. The application of these concepts to a wide range of hydrologic engineering problems is discussed in detail. The book is divided into sections--preliminaries, rainfall and evapotranspiration, subsurface flow, surface flow, and environmental considerations. Helpful equations, solutions, tables, and diagrams are included throughout this practical resource. Entropy Theory in Hydrologic Science and Engineering covers: Introduction to entropy theory Maximum entropy production principle Performance measures Morphological analysis Evaluation and design of sampling and measurement networks Precipitation variability Rainfall frequency distributions Evaluation of precipitation forecasting schemes Assessment of potential water resources availability Evaporation Infiltration Soil moisture Groundwater flow Rainfall-runoff modeling Streamflow simulation Hydrologic frequency analysis Streamflow forecasting River flow regime classification Sediment yield Eco-index



Nonextensive Entropy

Nonextensive Entropy Author Murray Gell-Mann
ISBN-10 9780195159776
Release 2004
Pages 422
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Preface, Murray Gell-Mann and Constantino Tsallis. Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics: Construction and Physical Interpretation, Constantino Tsallis. Generalized Nonadditive Information Theory and Quantum Entanglement, Sumiyoshi Abe. Unifying Laws in Multidisciplinary Power-Law Phenomena: Fixed-Point Universality and Nonextensive Entropy, Alberto Robledo. Nonextensive Entropies and Sensitivity to Initial Conditions of Complex Systems, Marcelo L. Lyra. Numerical Analysis of Conservative Maps: A Possible Foundation of Nonextensive Phenomena, Fulvio Baldovin. Nonextensive Effects in Hamiltonian S.



Free Energy Calculations

Free Energy Calculations Author Christophe Chipot
ISBN-10 9783540384472
Release 2007-01-08
Pages 517
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Presenting an account of the concepts that underly different approaches devised for the determination of free energies, this book aims to give the reader, an insight into the theoretical and computational foundations of the subject. It is aimed at students and researchers having a background in chemistry, physics, engineering and physical biology.



Entropy Based Parameter Estimation in Hydrology

Entropy Based Parameter Estimation in Hydrology Author Vijay Singh
ISBN-10 9789401714310
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 368
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Since the pioneering work of Shannon in the late 1940's on the development of the theory of entropy and the landmark contributions of Jaynes a decade later leading to the development of the principle of maximum entropy (POME), the concept of entropy has been increasingly applied in a wide spectrum of areas, including chemistry, electronics and communications engineering, data acquisition and storage and retreival, data monitoring network design, ecology, economics, environmental engineering, earth sciences, fluid mechanics, genetics, geology, geomorphology, geophysics, geotechnical engineering, hydraulics, hydrology, image processing, management sciences, operations research, pattern recognition and identification, photogrammetry, psychology, physics and quantum mechanics, reliability analysis, reservoir engineering, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, topology, transportation engineering, turbulence modeling, and so on. New areas finding application of entropy have since continued to unfold. The entropy concept is indeed versatile and its applicability widespread. In the area of hydrology and water resources, a range of applications of entropy have been reported during the past three decades or so. This book focuses on parameter estimation using entropy for a number of distributions frequently used in hydrology. In the entropy-based parameter estimation the distribution parameters are expressed in terms of the given information, called constraints. Thus, the method lends itself to a physical interpretation of the parameters. Because the information to be specified usually constitutes sufficient statistics for the distribution under consideration, the entropy method provides a quantitative way to express the information contained in the distribution.



Multifractals and 1 Noise

Multifractals and 1    Noise Author Benoit B. Mandelbrot
ISBN-10 9781461221500
Release 2013-12-20
Pages 442
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Mandelbrot is a world renowned scientist, known for his pioneering research in fractal geometry and chaos theory. In this volume, Mandelbrot defends the view that multifractals are intimately interrelated through the two fractal themes of "wildness" and "self-affinity". This link involves a powerful collection of technical tools, which are of use to diverse scientific communities. Among the topics covered are: 1/f noise, fractal dimension and turbulence, sporadic random functions, and a new model for error clustering on telephone circuits.



Information Geometry and Its Applications

Information Geometry and Its Applications Author Shun-ichi Amari
ISBN-10 9784431559788
Release 2016-02-02
Pages 373
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This is the first comprehensive book on information geometry, written by the founder of the field. It begins with an elementary introduction to dualistic geometry and proceeds to a wide range of applications, covering information science, engineering, and neuroscience. It consists of four parts, which on the whole can be read independently. A manifold with a divergence function is first introduced, leading directly to dualistic structure, the heart of information geometry. This part (Part I) can be apprehended without any knowledge of differential geometry. An intuitive explanation of modern differential geometry then follows in Part II, although the book is for the most part understandable without modern differential geometry. Information geometry of statistical inference, including time series analysis and semiparametric estimation (the Neyman–Scott problem), is demonstrated concisely in Part III. Applications addressed in Part IV include hot current topics in machine learning, signal processing, optimization, and neural networks. The book is interdisciplinary, connecting mathematics, information sciences, physics, and neurosciences, inviting readers to a new world of information and geometry. This book is highly recommended to graduate students and researchers who seek new mathematical methods and tools useful in their own fields.