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Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Randolf Menzel
ISBN-10 9780123982605
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Piero Amodio
ISBN-10 9780128071717
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Octopus is an invertebrate well-known for the extreme richness of its behavioral repertoire and plasticity. Recent field observations including mimicry, communicative skills, and tool use capabilities have further supported this view. This chapter briefly reviews the most recent knowledge on octopus learning capabilities, focusing on its capability to learn by observation of conspecifics. Social learning is classically conceived as a behavioral trait shown by gregarious and long-lived animals. However, it has recently been considered to occur in solitary vertebrate and invertebrate species. This chapter provides an update on the experimental evidence for observational learning in the octopus and discusses the constraints and peculiarities of social learning and the potential evolutionary meanings of this capability in this cephalopod mollusk.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author M. Heisenberg
ISBN-10 9780128071502
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Animals owe much of their fitness to their behavior. They often have a large behavioral repertoire that they have to manage. For this, they need their brain. Using Drosophila as the study case, this chapter depicts animals as autonomous agents and the brain as a behavioral organizer. Behavior is active. It is generated for its consequences. It serves to change or restore the animal’s condition, with no guarantee for improvement. There are two kinds of activity—reactivity and initiating activity. If in a special situation, the animal’s repertoire contains a behavior with sufficiently positive inferred outcome and this is activated, it is called a reaction. Most situations, however, provide no special cues for which reactions would be available. Animals do not have to wait. They can activate behaviors ‘by themselves,’ in search of one with positive outcome.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Martin Giurfa
ISBN-10 9780128071519
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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The behavior of insects transcends elementary forms of adaptive responding to environmental changes. We discuss examples of exploration, instrumental and observational learning, expectation, learning in a social context, and planning of future actions. We show that learning about sensory cues allows insects to transfer flexibly their responses to novel stimuli attaining thereby different levels of complexity, from basic generalization to categorization and concept learning consistent with rule extraction. We argue that updating of existing memories requires multiple forms of memory processing. A key element in these processes is working memory, an active form of memory considered to allow evaluation of actions on the basis of expected outcome. We discuss which of these cognitive faculties can be traced to specific neural processes and how they relate to the overall organization of the insect brain.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Ludovic Dickel
ISBN-10 9780128071731
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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This chapter summarizes the literature on the anatomical and functional organization of the cuttlefish brain, with a focus on the structures involved in learning and memory processes (namely the vertical lobe system and optic lobes). Also, different learning paradigms that are commonly used in Sepia officinalis are described with, when possible, their neural correlates. Recent work on the early development of brain and memory is also reviewed. Some research directions to follow in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory in cuttlefish are suggested to better understand the extraordinary behavioral plasticity of these sophisticated invertebrates.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Michael Schleyer
ISBN-10 9780128071533
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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The brain is the organ of behavior organization. It structures the solution to the problem of what to do. This is complicated because usually we cannot be certain which behavior would be relatively the best. These processes, taking place between the moment when an uncertainty between behavioral options is recognized and the actual expression of behavior, we regard as ‘taking a decision.’ Such decision making needs to integrate (1) sensory input, (2) the current status reflecting evolutionary and individual history, (3) the available behavioral options, and (4) their expected outcomes. We focus on the decision to behaviorally express an associative memory trace—or not. After sketching the architecture of the chemobehavioral system in larval Drosophila, we present a working hypothesis of odor–taste associative memory trace formation and then discuss whether outcome expectations contribute to the organization of conditioned behavior. We argue that indeed conditioned olfactory behavior is organized according to its expected outcome, namely toward finding reward or escaping punishment, respectively. Conditioned olfactory behaviors are thus not responsive in nature but, rather, are actions expressed for the sake of the sought-for reward and the attempted relief. In addition to the organization of such outcome expectations, we discuss parametric features (‘axes’) of behavioral tasks that we believe bear upon the decision character of the underlying process and discuss whether these features can be found, or may reasonably be sought for, in larval Drosophila. It is argued that rather than trying to draw a line between behavioral processes that reflect decisions and those that are not, it is more useful to ask how strong the decision character of a given behavioral faculty is?



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Alan Gelperin
ISBN-10 9780128071700
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Terrestrial slugs and snails are particularly favorable subjects for studies of comparative cognition. Chemosensation is their dominant distance sense for locating food, mates, predators, and nest sites. A variety of conditioning phenomena have been demonstrated using odors as conditioned stimuli, including higher order conditioning such as second-order conditioning and blocking. Learning has been evaluated by measuring local reflexes and whole body orientation to odors. Behaviors with learned components involve homeostatic mechanisms for water, temperature, nutrition, and circadian activity. Cellular substrates and neural correlates for plasticity in odor processing have focused on a unique brain region, the procerebral lobe, which is necessary and sufficient for learning about odor stimuli. The rich set of learning phenomena displayed by terrestrial slugs and snails emphasize the importance of seeking evidence for complex cognitive tasks by asking experimental questions appropriate to the Ümwelt of the animal. In general, invertebrates can implement most vertebrate learned logic operations.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Uli Müller
ISBN-10 9780128071793
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Appetitive associative conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera provides the basis to address the molecular link between training parameters and memory focusing on the induction and maintenance of memory phases. Special techniques developed to monitor and manipulate signaling cascades at high temporal and spatial resolution uncovered the critical role of learning-induced dynamic changes of signaling cascades and their contribution to distinct aspects of memory formation. This analysis demonstrated an important role of cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signaling processes acting in parallel. Both reside in the antennal lobes and are critical for the induction of long-term memory and the maintenance of midterm memory.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Shin Murakami
ISBN-10 9780128071601
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Age-related memory impairment (AMI), also called aging associated memory impairment, is a normal condition observed in a wide variety of species from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. AMI occurs unexpectedly early during the reproductive phase, which may be a tradeoff relevant to evolution. An important but frequently missed concept is that the early phase of AMI is associated with reduced memory of new information but also with well-retained memory of certain old information, leading to a shift of behavioral plasticity. Early AMI affects short-term memory and long-term memory, which are modulated by the serotonin pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the genes involved in memory formation. This chapter describes the current understanding of AMI and clarifies misunderstandings in this emerging field of C. elegans AMI. It discusses the “middle-life crisis” theory that can apply to cognitive aging, including endocrine and epigenetic changes.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Rüdiger Wehner
ISBN-10 9780128071878
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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The spatial behavior of ants consists of the flexible and context-specific interaction of various task-specific routines operating within the realms of path integration and view-based landmark guidance. This chapter focuses on the degree of experience-dependent flexibility in the interplay between and even within these routines, and it describes experimental paradigms developed to study this interplay in desert ants, such as the interplay between global path integration vectors and local site-based steering commands. Due to the ant’s short life span and small brain size, the observed behavioral plasticity is largely bounded in experience-dependent and development-related ways. Experience- and development-dependent plasticity is also demonstrated within the neural circuitries of the ant’s mushroom body neuropils, where it occurs especially in the context of the major (indoor/outdoor) transition within the ant’s lifetime. Age-specific structural reorganization of microglomerular synaptic complexes is associated with experience-dependent transformations of these complexes from the default to the functional state.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Elodie Urlacher
ISBN-10 9780128071809
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Aversive learning in young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be suppressed by pheromone released by the queen bee. In addition, studies have shown that pheromone released by guard bees inhibits appetitive learning in bees recruited for colony defense. In this chapter, we examine the chemical signals that mediate these effects and the mechanisms that support pheromone modulation of learning behavior in the bee. We also consider the possible adaptive value of pheromone modulation of learning in the honeybee and its potential contribution to the survival of the colony as a whole.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Riccardo Mozzachiodi
ISBN-10 9780128071632
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Although classical and operant conditioning are operationally distinct, it is unclear to what extent they are mechanistically similar or different. Feeding behavior in the mollusk Aplysia californica is a useful model system to analyze these two ubiquitous forms of associative learning and compare the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Here, we review studies that have analyzed and compared the mechanisms underlying classical and operant conditioning at the circuit, single-cell, and molecular levels. These analyses reveal similarities and intriguing differences. Both forms of learning lead to increased biting in vivo and fictive ingestion in vitro and also share a common reinforcement pathway, which uses dopamine as the reinforcement transmitter. Although the identified neuron B51 is a locus of plasticity common to both classical and operant conditioning, its activity is altered in opposite ways by these two forms of learning. B51 excitability is increased by operant conditioning, whereas it is decreased by classical conditioning.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Robert D. Hawkins
ISBN-10 9780128071649
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Whereas short-term (minutes) plasticity is either presynaptic or postsynaptic, long-term (days) plasticity involves synaptic remodeling and growth, which require both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. In addition, an intermediate-term stage has been identified that lasts tens of minutes and involves the recruitment of synaptic proteins but not growth. These findings have raised two fundamental questions: How are the different stages of plasticity related, and when and how does plasticity spread from one side of the synapse to both sides? Studies of the mechanisms of short-term and intermediate-term facilitation in Aplysia have begun to answer these questions. Intermediate-term facilitation is the first stage to involve both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Furthermore, increased spontaneous transmitter release from the presynaptic neuron during the short-term stage acts as an anterograde signal to recruit postsynaptic mechanisms of intermediate-term facilitation, which may be first steps in a cascade that can lead to synaptic growth during long-term facilitation.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Ken Lukowiak
ISBN-10 9780128071694
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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Stress can alter adaptive behaviors and also either enhance or diminish learning, memory formation, and/or memory recall. We focus our studies on how environmentally relevant stressors such as predator detection, crowding, and low concentrations of environmental Ca2+ alter learning and long-term memory (LTM) formation in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We specifically focus on operant conditioning of aerial respiration and whether or not LTM forms following the acquisition of the learned event. In addition, we have begun to assay the consequences of combing different stressors together. Our conclusion so far is that the effects of different combinations of stressors on LTM formation are an emergent property and thus can only be ascertained following direct experimentation. We also examine the strain differences in Lymnaea that allow or cause isolated populations to possess different heritable capabilities, as manifested by differing abilities to form LTM.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author Yuichi Iino
ISBN-10 9780128071618
Release 2013-06-18
Pages 600
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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans raised under standard conditions shows chemotaxis to salts such as NaCl. However, after exposure to the salt under starved conditions, these animals learn to avoid salt. This plasticity, here called salt chemotaxis learning, is very robust and therefore has been intensively studied. It was found that the insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway has a pivotal role in salt chemotaxis learning, and the salt-sensing neuron ASER is the target of insulin action. A decrease in synaptic output of the ASER sensory neuron was suggested to underlie changes in sensory processing caused by learning. In addition, other sensory neurons and interneurons are also involved in this form of learning. These findings at the molecular and neuronal levels are discussed in this chapter.



Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory Author
ISBN-10 9782889190003
Release
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Invertebrate Learning and Memory has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Invertebrate Learning and Memory also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Invertebrate Learning and Memory book for free.



Invertebrate Neurobiology

Invertebrate Neurobiology Author Geoffrey North
ISBN-10 9780879698195
Release 2007
Pages 665
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This monograph captures the current excitement in invertebrate neurobiology, from the manipulation of activity in specified neurons to the investigation of behavior. The monograph emphasizes the evolutionary aspects of neurobiology and work on non-model species. The chapters, from internationally respected contributors, incorporate trenchant findings but also identify important outstanding questions. The volume will inspire graduate students and post-docs, and provide a good starting point for any scientist who wants to learn about this resurgent field.