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Knowledge Expertise and the Professions

Knowledge  Expertise and the Professions Author Michael Young
ISBN-10 9781134683857
Release 2014-04-24
Pages 190
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It has long been recognised that specialised knowledge is at the core of what distinguishes professions from other occupations. The privileged status of professions in most countries, however, together with their claims to autonomy and access to specialised knowledge, is being increasingly challenged both by market pressures and by new instruments of accountability and regulation. Established and emerging professions are increasingly seen as either the solution, or as sources of conservatism and resistance to change in western economies, and recent developments in professional education draw on a competence model which emphasises what newly qualified members of a profession ‘can do’ rather than what ‘they know’. This book applies the disciplines of the sociology of knowledge and epistemology to the question of professional knowledge. What is this knowledge? It goes beyond traditional debates between ‘knowing how’ and ’knowing that’, and ‘theory’ and ‘practice’. The chapters cover a wide range of issues, from discussions of the threats to the knowledge base of established professions including engineers and architects, to the fraught situations faced by occupations whose fragile knowledge base and professional status is increasingly challenged by new forms of control. While recognising that graduates seeking employment as members of a profession need to show their capabilities, the book argues for reversing the trend that blurs or collapses the skill/knowledge distinction. If professions are to have a future then specialised knowledge is going to be more important than ever before. Knowledge, Expertise and the Professions will be key reading for students, researchers and academics in the fields of professional expertise, further education, higher education, the sociology of education, and the sociology of the professions.



The Future of the Professions

The Future of the Professions Author Richard Susskind
ISBN-10 9780198713395
Release 2015-09-30
Pages 256
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This book predicts the decline of today's professions and introduces the people and systems that will replace them. In an internet-enhanced society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Professions explains how increasingly capable technologies - from telepresence to artificial intelligence - will place the 'practical expertise' of the finest specialists at the fingertips of everyone, often at no or low cost and without face-to-face interaction. The authors challenge the 'grand bargain' - the arrangement that grants various monopolies to today's professionals. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of their best is enjoyed only by a few. In their place, they propose five new models for producing and distributing expertise in society. The book raises profound policy issues, not least about employment (they envisage a new generation of 'open-collared workers') and about control over online expertise (they warn of new 'gatekeepers') - in an era when machines become more capable than human beings at most tasks. Based on the authors' in-depth research of more than a dozen professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the future of the professions in the 21st century.



Practice Knowledge and Expertise in the Health Professions

Practice Knowledge and Expertise in the Health Professions Author Joy Higgs
ISBN-10 0750646888
Release 2001
Pages 231
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Forlagets beskrivelse: Informative, analytical and stimulating, this book examines the relationship between professional knowledge and clinical practice.Biography



Knowledge in Practice in the Caring Professions

Knowledge in Practice in the Caring Professions Author Dr Adrian Schoo
ISBN-10 9781409492092
Release 2012-12-28
Pages 266
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Knowledge-in-Practice in the Caring Professions explores the nature and role of knowledge in the practical work of the caring professions. It focuses on knowledge of the practical over the theoretical, looking at the application of theory and the implementation of skill, judgment and discretion. Containing contributions from experts in a variety of fields, the research within this book offers a unique perspective on professional practice as multi-disciplinary, illustrating shared and overlapping understandings in knowledge-in-practice between the different professions as well as understandings that are distinctive to each discipline. It underlines that in order to effectively address the range of social, psychological and health problems facing contemporary societies, professionals need to engage in cooperative models of practice.



Vocational Education and Training in Times of Economic Crisis

Vocational Education and Training in Times of Economic Crisis Author Matthias Pilz
ISBN-10 9783319478562
Release 2017-01-19
Pages 490
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This book brings together a broad range of approaches and methodologies relevant to international comparative vocational education and training (VET). Revealing how youth in transition is affected by economic crises, it provides essential insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and prospects of VET in contexts ranging from North America to Europe, (e.g. Spain, Germany or the UK) to Asia (such as China, Thailand and India). Though each country examined in this volume is affected by the economic crisis in a different way, the effects are especially apparent for the young generation. In many countries the youth unemployment rate is still very high and the job perspectives for young people are often limited at best. The contributions in this volume demonstrate that VET alone cannot solve these problems, but can be used to support a smooth transition from school to work. If the quality of VET is high and the status and job expectations are good, VET can help to fill the skills gap, especially at the intermediate skill level. Furthermore, VET can also offer a realistic alternative to the university track for young people in many countries.



Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions

Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions Author Joy Higgs
ISBN-10 9780750688857
Release 2008
Pages 504
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Clinical reasoning is the foundation of professional clinical practice. Totally revised and updated, this book continues to provide the essential text on the theoretical basis of clinical reasoning in the health professions and examines strategies for assisting learners, scholars and clinicians develop their reasoning expertise. key chapters revised and updated nature of clinical reasoning sections have been expanded increase in emphasis on collaborative reasoning core model of clinical reasoning has been revised and updated



Knowledge Sharing in Professions

Knowledge Sharing in Professions Author Professor Alexander Styhre
ISBN-10 9781409460343
Release 2012-08-28
Pages 208
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No professional is an island. Despite their capacity to monopolize and erect entry barriers in terms of either formal credentials or membership of certain organizations, professionalism is inextricably bound up with collective accomplishments on a day-to-day basis and the capacity to share all the resources that constitute the professional domain of expertise. Knowledge Sharing in Professions looks at professionalism as a form of systematic and institutionalized knowledge sharing. It analyses professionalism through the everyday practices in professional communities and the organizations where they work. Three empirical studies, of pharmaceutical clinical trials researchers, management consultants, and architects, are presented, serving to illustrate the relational nature of these and other professions, and how members of professional communities are constantly exchanging data, information, and know-how in their everyday work. Alexander Styhre seeks to understand the role of professions and other forms of experts in contemporary society on the basis of complementary perspectives, that is to say, the communal and collegial nature of professional work. This book represents a valuable contribution both to the sociological literature on professions and the business orientated literature on knowledge management and should promote further new research on professionalism.



Europeanizing Education

Europeanizing Education Author Martin Lawn
ISBN-10 9781873927618
Release 2012-05-14
Pages 173
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The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. Europeanizing Education describes the origins of European education policy, as it metamorphosed from cultural policy to networking support and into a space of comparison and data. The authors look at the early development and growth of research networks and agencies, and international and national collaborations. The gradual increase in the velocity and scope of education policy, practice and instruments across Europe is at the heart of the book. The European space of education, a new policy space, has been slowly coaxed into existence; governed softly and by persuasion; developed by experts and agents; and de-politicized by the use of standards and data. It has increasing momentum. It is becoming a single, commensurable space on a rising tide of indicators and benchmarks. The construction of policy spaces by the European Union makes Europe governable: policy spaces have to be mobilized by networks of actors and constructed by comparative data. They are the result of transnational flows of people, ideas and practices across European borders; the direct effects of European Union policy; and, finally, the Europeanizing effect of international institutions and globalization. The European space of education and research has become a new place of work through interconnected institutions, networks and companies, and it is being constructed through the flow of policy ideas, knowledge and practices from place to place, sector to sector, organization to organization, and across borders. This book will be useful to any scholar of the new arena of study, the European Space of Education.



Building on Knowledge

Building on Knowledge Author David Bartholomew
ISBN-10 9781444301410
Release 2009-01-26
Pages 320
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This guide shows design practices and other construction professionals how to manage knowledge successfully. It explains how to develop and implement a knowledge management strategy, and how to avoid the pitfalls, focusing on the techniques of learning and knowledge sharing that are most relevant in professional practice. Expensive IT-based ‘solutions’ bought off-the-shelf rarely succeed in a practice context, so the emphasis here is on people-centred techniques, which recognise and meet real business knowledge needs and fit in with the organisational culture. Knowledge is supplanting physical assets as the dominant basis of capital value and an understanding of how knowledge is acquired, shared and used is increasingly crucial in organisational success. Most business leaders recognise this, but few have yet succeeded in making it the pervasive influence on management practice that it needs to become; that has turned out to be harder than it looks. Construction professionals are among those who have furthest to go, and most to gain. Design is a knowledge-based activity, and project managers, contractors and clients, as well as architects and engineers, have always learned from experience and shared their knowledge with immediate colleagues. But the intuitive processes they have traditionally used break down alarmingly quickly as organisations grow; even simply dividing the office over two floors can noticeably reduce communication. At the same time, increasingly sophisticated construction technology and more demanding markets are making effective management of knowledge ever more important. Other knowledge-intensive industries (such as management consultancy, pharmaceuticals, and IT), are well ahead in adopting a more systematic approach to learning and sharing knowledge, and seeing the benefits in improved technical capacity, efficiency, customer satisfaction and reduced risk.



Positioning for Professionals

Positioning for Professionals Author Tim Williams
ISBN-10 0470877529
Release 2010-06-15
Pages 208
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It’s not the best companies that prevail in the marketplace, but rather the best brands. The goal of business strategy is not just to be better, but different. Learn how to build a differentiating value proposition by clearly and carefully defining your brand boundaries: Calling, Competencies, Customers, and Culture. Positioning for Professionals shows how a well-defined value proposition can help professional service firms create their own success instead of copying the success of others, including such concepts as: How and why professional service brands become homogenized Why standing for everything is the same as standing for nothing Why there’s no such thing as full service Deep and narrow as a strategic imperative Why it’s better to be a profit leader than a market leader Differentiation and price premiums How to map your brand on the matrix of relevance and differentiation How to define a value proposition that will make your firm intensely appealing to the customers who want you for what you do best Based on the proven premise that the most profitable business strategy is not to aim at the center of the market, but rather at the edges, Positioning for Professionals is written for leaders, managers, and other senior executives of service companies in with a particular emphasis on professional service firms.



The Future of the Army Profession

The Future of the Army Profession Author Lloyd J. Matthews
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105111873092
Release 2002
Pages 558
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Who are the future members of the Army profession and how is their competence to be certified to their client, the American people? This is a contemporary analysis of the Army profession, its knowledge and expertise, with conclusions and policy recommendations.



Knowledge in Practice in the Caring Professions

Knowledge in Practice in the Caring Professions Author Dr Adrian Schoo
ISBN-10 9781409492092
Release 2012-12-28
Pages 266
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Knowledge-in-Practice in the Caring Professions explores the nature and role of knowledge in the practical work of the caring professions. It focuses on knowledge of the practical over the theoretical, looking at the application of theory and the implementation of skill, judgment and discretion. Containing contributions from experts in a variety of fields, the research within this book offers a unique perspective on professional practice as multi-disciplinary, illustrating shared and overlapping understandings in knowledge-in-practice between the different professions as well as understandings that are distinctive to each discipline. It underlines that in order to effectively address the range of social, psychological and health problems facing contemporary societies, professionals need to engage in cooperative models of practice.



Evidence Based Practice Across the Health Professions

Evidence Based Practice Across the Health Professions Author Tammy Hoffmann
ISBN-10 9780729579025
Release 2009-12-22
Pages 400
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Inter-professional education that begins in undergraduate or graduate-entry programs has been accepted by universities as a proven method for fostering collaborative practice among health professionals yet there are few truly multidisciplinary books about evidence-based practice that meet the needs of undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in inter-professional courses. Evidence-based Practice across the Health Professions is designed to meet this need. It provides the reader with an excellent foundation in the knowledge and skills necessary to perform and understand the implications of evidence-based practice within a healthcare environment. It discusses the critical role of clinical reasoning and includes a range of practical strategies to facilitate shared decision making and effective communication with clients for improved client outcomes. Evidence-based decision making is common to all professions and provides an ideal platform for multidisciplinary work. With this in mind, to facilitate an understanding of how evidence may be integrated into clinical practice there are a number of chapters that contain worked examples from many different health professions that demonstrate appraisals of the methodological quality and interpretation of results for a number of different methodologies (such as randomised controlled trials, diagnostic studies, cohort studies, and qualitative research). Health professionals from a range of disciplines will benefit from familiarity with the intervention being evaluated, the context of the intervention, and the outcome measures used. Evidence-based Practice across the Health Professions is of direct relevance to all health profession students and practitioners engaged in client care and in making informed clinical decisions in order to achieve better client outcomes. worked examples of a wide range of case scenarios and appraised papers (some are discipline-specific and others are multidisciplinary) designed to be used by students from a wide range of health professions, thus facilitating the student’s ability to understand the needs of multi-disciplinary health-care teams in a real-life setting includes a detailed chapter on implementing evidence into practice and other topics that are not typically addressed in other texts, such as a chapter about how to communicate evidence to clients and another that discusses the role of clinical reasoning in evidence-based practice summary points at the end of each chapter supported by an Evolve resource package that contains revision questions that utilize a range of question formats This book will provide the reader with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to be an evidence-based clinician and to understand the implications of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the overall healthcare environment. The book will contain two parts. Part 1 provides the EBP content that is generic to most health professions. The Part 2 provides information about the EBP-related issues that are specific to each health profession and to multidisciplinary teams. Part 1 will cover all of the key steps in the EBP process, such as formulating clinical questions, knowing what type of evidence is appropriate for various clinical questions, finding evidence effectively, appraising the various types of evidence, and making sense of the results sections of papers. It will also include a chapter on research translation and implementing EBP and other topics not typically addressed in other texts, such as how to communicate evidence to clients and other stakeholders, and the importance of clinical reasoning in EBP.



Curriculum and the Specialization of Knowledge

Curriculum and the Specialization of Knowledge Author Michael Young
ISBN-10 9781317600428
Release 2015-09-07
Pages 240
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This book presents a new way for educators at all levels - from early years to university - to think about curriculum priorities. It focuses on the curriculum as a form of specialised knowledge, optimally designed to enable students to gain access to the best knowledge available in any field. Papers jointly written by the authors over the last eight years are revised for this volume. It draws on the sociology of knowledge and in particular the work of Emile Durkheim and Basil Bernstein, opening up the possibilities for collaborative inter-disciplinary enquiry with historians, philosophers and psychologists. Although primarily directed to researchers, university teachers and graduate students, its arguments about specialised knowledge have profound implications for policy makers.



Profession of Medicine

Profession of Medicine Author Eliot Freidson
ISBN-10 0226262286
Release 1988-05-15
Pages 419
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"Must be judged as a landmark in medical sociology."—Norman Denzin, Journal of Health and Social Behavior "Profession of Medicine is a challenging monograph; the ideas presented are stimulating and thought provoking. . . . Given the expanding domain of what illness is and the contentions of physicians about their rights as professionals, Freidson wonders aloud whether expertise is becoming a mask for privilege and power. . . . Profession of Medicine is a landmark in the sociological analysis of the professions in modern society."—Ron Miller, Sociological Quarterly "This is the first book that I know of to go to the root of the matter by laying open to view the fundamental nature of the professional claim, and the structure of professional institutions."—Everett C. Hughes, Science



Knowledge and the Future School

Knowledge and the Future School Author Michael Young
ISBN-10 9781472534545
Release 2014-10-10
Pages 160
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Written at a time of uncertainty about the implications of the English government's curriculum policies, Knowledge and the Future School engages with the debate between the government and large sections of the educational community. It provides a forward-looking framework for head teachers, their staff and those involved in training teachers to use when developing the curriculum of individual schools in the context of a national curriculum. While explaining recent ideas in the sociology of educational knowledge, the authors draw on Michael Young's earlier research with Johan Muller to distinguish three models of the curriculum in terms of their assumptions about knowledge, referred to in this book as Future 1, Future 2 and Future 3. They link Future 3 to the idea of 'powerful knowledge' for all pupils as a curriculum principle for any school, arguing that the question of knowledge is intimately linked to the issue of social justice and that access to 'powerful knowledge' is a necessary component of the education of all pupils. Knowledge and the Future School offers a new way of thinking about the problems that head teachers, their staff and curriculum designers face. In charting a course for schools that goes beyond current debates, it also provides a perspective that policy makers should not avoid.



The Death of Expertise

The Death of Expertise Author Tom Nichols
ISBN-10 9780190469412
Release 2017
Pages 272
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People are now exposed to more information than ever before, provided both by technology and by increasing access to every level of education. These societal gains, however, have also helped fuel a surge in narcissistic and misguided intellectual egalitarianism that has crippled informed debates on any number of issues. Today, everyone knows everything: with only a quick trip through WebMD or Wikipedia, average citizens believe themselves to be on an equal intellectual footing with doctors and diplomats. All voices, even the most ridiculous, demand to be taken with equal seriousness, and any claim to the contrary is dismissed as undemocratic elitism. As Tom Nichols shows in The Death of Expertise, this rejection of experts has occurred for many reasons, including the openness of the internet, the emergence of a customer satisfaction model in higher education, and the transformation of the news industry into a 24-hour entertainment machine. Paradoxically, the increasingly democratic dissemination of information, rather than producing an educated public, has instead created an army of ill-informed and angry citizens who denounce intellectual achievement. Nichols has deeper concerns than the current rejection of expertise and learning, noting that when ordinary citizens believe that no one knows more than anyone else, democratic institutions themselves are in danger of falling either to populism or to technocracy-or in the worst case, a combination of both. The Death of Expertise is not only an exploration of a dangerous phenomenon but also a warning about the stability and survival of modern democracy in the Information Age.