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Language and Meaning in Cognitive Science

Language and Meaning in Cognitive Science Author Andy Clark
ISBN-10 9781136525391
Release 2012-11-12
Pages 312
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Summarizes and illuminates two decades of research Gathering important papers by both philosophers and scientists, this collection illuminates the central themes that have arisen during the last two decades of work on the conceptual foundations of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Each volume begins with a comprehensive introduction that places the coverage in a broader perspective and links it with material in the companion volumes. The collection is of interest in many disciplines including computer science, linguistics, biology, information science, psychology, neuroscience, iconography, and philosophy. Examines initial efforts and the latest controversies The topics covered range from the bedrock assumptions of the computational approach to understanding the mind, to the more recent debates concerning cognitive architectures, all the way to the latest developments in robotics, artificial life, and dynamical systems theory. The collection first examines the lineage of major research programs, beginning with the basic idea of machine intelligence itself, then focuses on specific aspects of thought and intelligence, highlighting the much-discussed issue of consciousness, the equally important, but less densely researched issue of emotional response, and the more traditionally philosophical topic of language and meaning. Provides a gamut of perspectives The editors have included several articles that challenge crucial elements of the familiar research program of cognitive science, as well as important writings whose previous circulation has been limited. Within each volume the papers are organized to reflect a variety of research programs and issues. The substantive introductions that accompany each volume further organize the material and provide readers with a working sense of the issues and the connection between articles.



Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science

Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Author Mark H. Bickhard
ISBN-10 9780444825209
Release 1996
Pages 384
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The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields. The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure. The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges. Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.



Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author Jay Friedenberg
ISBN-10 1412925681
Release 2006
Pages 531
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Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is mind? How does it operate? What is consciousness? Only recently have these efforts in traditional and cutting edge disciplines become more united in their focus. Cognitive Science is the comprehensive result of the authors' drawing together of this work. Key features: -Includes numerous ancillaries to promote the book's effective use, a companion student website at www.sagepub.com/CSstudy featuring online student-friendly exercises, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes; and an Instructors CD-ROM with a test bank, chapter outlines, PowerPoint slides, a sample syllabus, and ideas for student projects - After introducing a major perspective, an `Evaluating' section discusses the strengths and weaknesses of that perspective `Thought Balloons' in margins further encourage students to think critically about key concepts; - `In-Depth' boxes elaborate on specific models, illustrating them in concrete terms, and `Minds On' exercises help students to familiarize themselves with key concepts in a hands-on fashion; - Student study is assisted via key terms (which are boldfaced and defined in context when first introduced), suggestions for further reading, and end-of-chapter `Food for Thought' discussion questions; - Covers all the traditional concerns of cognitive science together with analysis of newer areas such as robotics and the evolutionary approach. Cognitive Science is the perfect introductory textbook for cross-disciplinary courses on the mind in psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer science.



An Invitation to Cognitive Science Language

An Invitation to Cognitive Science  Language Author Lila R. Gleitman
ISBN-10 0262650444
Release 1995
Pages 445
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Rather than surveying theories and data in the manner characteristic of many introductory textbooks in the field, An Invitation to Cognitive Science employs a unique case study approach, presenting a focused research topic in some depth and relying on suggested readings to convey the breadth of views and results.



The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences Author Robert Andrew Wilson
ISBN-10 0262731444
Release 2001
Pages 964
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A landmark, comprehensive reference work that represents the methodological and theoretical diversity of this changing field.



Handbook of Logic and Language

Handbook of Logic and Language Author Johan F.A.K. van Benthem
ISBN-10 0444537279
Release 2010-12-17
Pages 1168
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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories



Cognitive Pluralism

Cognitive Pluralism Author Steven Horst
ISBN-10 9780262333634
Release 2016-06-24
Pages 376
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An argument that we understand the world through many special-purpose mental models of different content domains, and an exploration of the philosophical implications. Philosophers have traditionally assumed that the basic units of knowledge and understanding are concepts, beliefs, and argumentative inferences. In Cognitive Pluralism, Steven Horst proposes that another sort of unit—a mental model of a content domain—is the fundamental unit of understanding. He argues that understanding comes not in word-sized concepts, sentence-sized beliefs, or argument-sized reasoning but in the form of idealized models and in domain-sized chunks. He argues further that this idea of “cognitive pluralism”—the claim that we understand the world through many such models of a variety of content domains—sheds light on a number of problems in philosophy. Horst first presents the “standard view” of cognitive architecture assumed in mainstream epistemology, semantics, truth theory, and theory of reasoning. He then explains the notion of a mental model as an internal surrogate that mirrors features of its target domain, and puts it in the context of ideas in psychology, philosophy of science, artificial intelligence, and theoretical cognitive science. Finally, he argues that the cognitive pluralist view not only helps to explain puzzling disunities of knowledge but also raises doubts about the feasibility of attempts to “unify” the sciences; presents a model-based account of intuitive judgments; and contends that cognitive pluralism favors a reliabilist epistemology and a “molecularist” semantics. Horst suggests that cognitive pluralism allows us to view rival epistemological and semantic theories not as direct competitors but as complementary accounts, each an idealized model of different dimensions of evaluation.



Minds Brains and Computers

Minds  Brains  and Computers Author Ralph Morelli
ISBN-10 0893917931
Release 1992
Pages 229
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The basic questions addressed in this book are: what is the computational nature of cognition, and what role does it play in language and other mental processes?; What are the main characteristics of contemporary computational paradigms for describing cognition and how do they differ from each other?; What are the prospects for building cognition and how do they differ from each other?; and what are the prospects for building an artificial intelligence?



Psychology and Cognitive Science

Psychology and Cognitive Science Author Michel Denis
ISBN-10 0863776027
Release 1998
Pages 72
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This special issue includes revised versions of papers presented at the IUPsyS Symposium "Psychology and Cognitive Science", held during the XXVIth International Congress of Psychology in Montreal, August 1996. The introductory article reports the results of an international survey conducted for the IUPsyS on the place and role of psychology in cognitive science; the next three papers are illustrations of interdisciplinary approaches to cognitive issues. Approaches to discourse comprehension by cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and neurobiology are discussed, and it is considered how the human mind and machines represent knowledge from discourse and text. Finally, there is a description of a computational approach to vision and language inspired by psychological theories.



Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society

Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Author Cognitive Science Society (U.S.). Conference
ISBN-10 0805832319
Release 1998
Pages 1284
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This volume features the complete text of the material presented at the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. As in previous years, the symposium included an interesting mixture of papers on many topics from researchers with diverse backgrounds and different goals, presenting a multifaceted view of cognitive science. This volume contains papers, posters, and summaries of symposia presented at the leading conference that brings cognitive scientists together to discuss issues of theoretical and applied concern. Submitted presentations are represented in these proceedings as "long papers" (those presented as spoken presentations and "full posters" at the conference) and "short papers" (those presented as "abstract posters" by members of the Cognitive Science Society).



Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science Author Henri Cohen
ISBN-10 008045741X
Release 2005-10-25
Pages 1136
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Categorization, the basic cognitive process of arranging objects into categories, is a fundamental process in human and machine intelligence and is central to investigations and research in cognitive science. Until now, categorization has been approached from singular disciplinary perspectives with little overlap or communication between the disciplines involved (Linguistics, Psychology, Philosophy, Neuroscience, Computer Science, Cognitive Anthropology). Henri Cohen and Claire Lefebvre have gathered together a stellar collection of contributors in this unique, ambitious attempt to bring together converging disciplinary and conceptual perspectives on this topic. "Categorization is a key concept across the range of cognitive sciences, including linguistics and philosophy, yet hitherto it has been hard to find accounts that go beyond the concerns of one or two individual disciplines. The Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science provides just the sort of interdisciplinary approach that is necessary to synthesize knowledge from the different fields and provide the basis for future innovation." Professor Bernard Comrie, Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany "Anyone concerned with language, semantics, or categorization will want to have this encyclopedic collection." Professor Eleanor Rosch, Dept of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA



Handbook of Cognitive Science

Handbook of Cognitive Science Author Paco Calvo
ISBN-10 008091487X
Release 2008-11-05
Pages 498
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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.



Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence Author Rajakishore Nath
ISBN-10 9781599429052
Release 2009
Pages 190
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This book deals with the major philosophical issues in the theoretical framework of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in particular and cognitive science in general. The researchers in AI are concerned with the issues of consciousness, human subjectivity, creativity, etc. Cognitive Science and AI argue that consciousness can be artificially created and comprehended in the function of robots. The robotic activities explain the mechanism involved in computation, language processing, sensing the information, etc. Contrary to this thesis, the philosophical study tries to show that human consciousness, thinking, imagination, etc. are much larger concepts and need to be delved into in the broad theoretical framework. This book is a critique of the mechanistic theory of mind. It shows the basic foundation of AI and its limitations in explaining the activities of the human mental life. Machine-functionalism fails to account for the subjective nature of consciousness and the creativity involved in the conscious acts. There are two aspects of this thesis-- the epistemological and the metaphysical. Epistemologically, the subject of consciousness intimately knows the raw feelings or the qualia. Metaphysically speaking, however, the raw feelings are real in the sense that they are part of the furniture of the mental world. Therefore, we can hardly deny that the mental world is real.



Predicative Forms in Natural Language and in Lexical Knowledge Bases

Predicative Forms in Natural Language and in Lexical Knowledge Bases Author P. Saint-Dizier
ISBN-10 9789401727464
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 379
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This volume is a selection of papers presented at a workshop entitled Predicative Forms in Natural Language and in Lexical Knowledge Bases organized in Toulouse in August 1996. A predicate is a named relation that exists among one or more arguments. In natural language, predicates are realized as verbs, prepositions, nouns and adjectives, to cite the most frequent ones. Research on the identification, organization, and semantic representa tion of predicates in artificial intelligence and in language processing is a very active research field. The emergence of new paradigms in theoretical language processing, the definition of new problems and the important evol ution of applications have, in fact, stimulated much interest and debate on the role and nature of predicates in naturallangage. From a broad theoret ical perspective, the notion of predicate is central to research on the syntax semantics interface, the generative lexicon, the definition of ontology-based semantic representations, and the formation of verb semantic classes. From a computational perspective, the notion of predicate plays a cent ral role in a number of applications including the design of lexical knowledge bases, the development of automatic indexing systems for the extraction of structured semantic representations, and the creation of interlingual forms in machine translation.



Enaction

Enaction Author John Robert Stewart
ISBN-10 9780262014601
Release 2010
Pages 463
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A comprehensive presentation of an approach that proposes a new account of cognition at levels from the cellular to the social.



The Dawn of Cognitive Science

The Dawn of Cognitive Science Author L. Albertazzi
ISBN-10 0792367995
Release 2001-02-28
Pages 355
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Current debate in cognitive science, from robotics to analysis of vision, deals with problems like the perception of form, the structure and formation of mental images and their modelling, the ecological development of artificial intelligence, and cognitive analysis of natural language. It focuses in particular on the presence of a hierarchy of intellectual constructions in different formats of representation. These diverse approaches, which share a common assumption of the inner nature of representation, call for a new epistemology - even a new psychophysics - based on a theory of reference which is intrinsically cognitive. As a contribution to contemporary research, the reading presents the core of theories developed in Central Europe between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by philosophers, physicists, psychologists and semanticists who shared a dynamic approach and a pronounced concern with problems of interaction and dependence. These theories offer innovative solutions to some of the epistemological and philosophical problems currently at the centre of debate, like part-whole, theory of relations, and conceptual and linguistic categorization.



Representation and Understanding

Representation and Understanding Author Jerry Bobrow
ISBN-10 9781483299150
Release 2014-06-28
Pages 427
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Representation and Understanding