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Law in Transition

Law in Transition Author Ruth Buchanan
ISBN-10 9781782254133
Release 2014-12-01
Pages 392
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Law has become the vehicle by which countries in the 'developing world', including post-conflict states or states undergoing constitutional transformation, must steer the course of social and economic, legal and political change. Legal mechanisms, in particular, the instruments as well as concepts of human rights, play an increasingly central role in the discourses and practices of both development and transitional justice. These developments can be seen as part of a tendency towards convergence within the wider set of discourses and practices in global governance. While this process of convergence of formerly distinct normative and conceptual fields of theory and practice has been both celebrated and critiqued at the level of theory, the present collection provides, through a series of studies drawn from a variety of contexts in which human rights advocacy and transitional justice initiatives are colliding with development projects, programmes and objectives, a more nuanced and critical account of contemporary developments. The book includes essays by many of the leading experts writing at the intersection of development, rights and transitional justice studies. Notwithstanding the theoretical and practical challenges presented by the complex interaction of these fields, the premise of the book is that it is only through engagement and dialogue among hitherto distinct fields of scholarship and practice that a better understanding of the institutional and normative issues arising in contemporary law and development and transitional justice contexts will be possible. The book is designed for research and teaching at both undergraduate and graduate levels. ENDORSEMENTS An extraordinary collection of essays that illuminate the nature of law in today's fragmented and uneven globalized world, by situating the stakes of law in the intersection between the fields of human rights, development and transitional justice. Unusual for its breadth and the quality of scholarly contributions from many who are top scholars in their fields, this volume is one of the first that attempts to weave the three specialized fields, and succeeds brilliantly. For anyone working in the fields of development studies, human rights or transitional justice, this volume is a wake-up call to abandon their preconceived ideas and frames and aim for a conceptual and programmatic restart. Professor Balakrishnan Rajagopal, Ford International Associate Professor of Law and Development, Massachusetts Institute of Technology This superb collection of essays explores the challenges, possibilities, and limits faced by scholars and practitioners seeking to imagine forms of law that can respond to social transformation. Drawing together cutting-edge work across the three dynamic fields of law and development, transitional justice, and international human rights law, this volume powerfully demonstrates that in light of the changes demanded of legal research, education, and practice in a globalizing world, all law is "law in transition". Anne Orford, Michael D Kirby Chair of International Law and Australian Research Council Future Fellow, University of Melbourne A terrific volume. Leading scholars of human rights, development policy, and transitional justice look back and into the future. What has worked? Where have these projects gone astray or conflicted with one another? Law will only contribute forcefully to justice, development and peaceful, sustainable change if the lessons learned here give rise to a new practical wisdom. We all hope law can do better ? the essays collected here begin to show us how. David Kennedy, Manley O Hudson Professor of Law, Director, Institute for Global Law and Policy, Harvard Law School



United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice

United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice Author Zachary D. Kaufman
ISBN-10 9780190243494
Release 2016-04-07
Pages 382
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In United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice: Principles, Politics, and Pragmatics, Zachary D. Kaufman explores the U.S. government's support for, or opposition to, certain transitional justice institutions. By first presenting an overview of possible responses to atrocities (such as war crimes tribunals) and then analyzing six historical case studies, Kaufman evaluates why and how the United States has pursued particular transitional justice options since World War II. This book challenges the "legalist" paradigm, which postulates that liberal states pursue war crimes tribunals because their decision-makers hold a principled commitment to the rule of law. Kaufman develops an alternative theory-"prudentialism"-which contends that any state (liberal or illiberal) may support bona fide war crimes tribunals. More generally, prudentialism proposes that states pursue transitional justice options, not out of strict adherence to certain principles, but as a result of a case-specific balancing of politics, pragmatics, and normative beliefs. Kaufman tests these two competing theories through the U.S. experience in six contexts: Germany and Japan after World War II, the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103, the 1990-1991 Iraqi offenses against Kuwaitis, the atrocities in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Kaufman demonstrates that political and pragmatic factors featured as or more prominently in U.S. transitional justice policy than did U.S. government officials' normative beliefs. Kaufman thus concludes that, at least for the United States, prudentialism is superior to legalism as an explanatory theory in transitional justice policymaking.



Reading Modern Law

Reading Modern Law Author Ruth Buchanan
ISBN-10 9781136315268
Release 2012-05-31
Pages 240
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Reading Modern Law identifies and elaborates upon key critical methodologies for reading and writing about law in modernity. The force of law rests on determinate and localizable authorizations, as well as an expansive capacity to encompass what has not been pre-figured by an order of rules. The key question this dynamic of law raises is how legal forms might be deployed to confront and disrupt injustice. The urgency of this question must not eclipse the care its complexity demands. This book offers a critical methodology for addressing the many challenges thrown up by that question, whilst testifying to its complexity. The essays in this volume - engagements direct or oblique, with the work of Peter Fitzpatrick - chart a mode of resisting the proliferation of social scientific methods, as much as geo-political empire. The authors elaborate a critical and interdisciplinary treatment of law and modernity, and outline the pivotal role of sovereignty in contemporary formations of power, both national and international. From various overlapping vantage points, therefore, Reading Modern Law interrogates law's relationship to power, as well as its relationship to the critical work of reading and writing about law in modernity.



A Return to Justice

A Return to Justice Author Ashley Nellis
ISBN-10 9781442227675
Release 2015-12-14
Pages 156
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The juvenile justice system has changed dramatically since its inception in this country. From a system that sought to protect and rehabilitate, to one that sought to punish and incarcerate, it is now refocusing on treatment and redirection. Here, Nellis delivers a history of the system and calls for more reforms to reflect current realities.



Torture as Tort

Torture as Tort Author Craig Scott
ISBN-10 9781847316806
Release 2001-05-22
Pages 776
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The controversial nature of seeking globalised justice through national courts has become starkly apparent in the wake of the Pinochet case in which the Spanish legal system sought to bring to account under international criminal law the former President of Chile,for violations in Chile of human rights of non-Spaniards. Some have reacted to the involvement of Spanish and British judges in sanctioning a former head of state as nothing more than legal imperialism while others have termed it positive globalisation. While the international legal and associated statutory bases for such criminal prosecutions are firm, the same cannot be said of the enterprise of imposing civil liability for the same human-rights-violating conduct that gives rise to criminal responsibility. In this work leading scholars from around the world address the host of complex issues raised by transnational human rights litigation. There has been, to date, little treatment, let alone a comprehensive assessment, of the merits and demerits of US-style transnational human rights litigation by non-American legal scholars and practitioners. The book seeks not so much to fill this gap as to start the process of doing so, with a view to stimulating debate amongst scholars and policy-makers. The book's doctrinal coverage and analytical inquiries will also be extremely relevant to the world of transnational legal practice beyond the specific question of human rights litigation.



Responsible Business

Responsible Business Author Olaf Dilling
ISBN-10 9781847314406
Release 2008-07-01
Pages 376
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With the globalisation of markets, the phenomenon of market failure has also been globalised. Against the backdrop of the territoriality of nation state jurisdictions and the slow progress of international law based on the principle of sovereignty this poses a serious challenge. However while the legal infrastructure of globalised markets has a firm basis in formal national and international law, the side effects of economic transactions on public goods such as the environment, human health and consumer interests often escape state-based regulation. Therefore, attention is drawn to the potential of self-regulation by transnational industry. While hypotheses abound which try to grasp this phenomenon in conceptual terms, both empirical and legal research is still underdeveloped. This volume helps to fill this gap, in two ways: firstly by reconstructing self-regulatory settings such as multinational corporations, transnational production networks and industry-NGO partnerships in terms of organisation, problem-solving and legitimation, and secondly, by linking their empirical findings to formal law by examining how legal concepts are reflected in self-regulation, how the law builds on self-regulatory solutions, and how it helps to establish favorable conditions for private governance.



The New Law and Economic Development

The New Law and Economic Development Author David M. Trubek
ISBN-10 9781139458665
Release 2006-08-21
Pages
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This book is a collection of essays that identify and analyze a new phase in thinking about the role of law in economic development and in the practices of development agencies that support law reform. The authors trace the history of theory and doctrine in this field, relating it to changing ideas about development and its institutional practices. The essays describe a new phase in thinking about the relation between law and economic development and analyze how this rising consensus differs from previous efforts to use law as an instrument to achieve social and economic progress. In analyzing the current phase, these essays also identify tensions and contradictions in current practice. This work is a comprehensive treatment of this emerging paradigm, situating it within the intellectual and historical framework of the most influential development models since World War II.



Fictions of Justice

Fictions of Justice Author Kamari Maxine Clarke
ISBN-10 9780521889100
Release 2009-05-25
Pages 322
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This book explores how notions of justice are negotiated through everyday micropractices and grassroots contestations of those practices.



The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice

The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice Author
ISBN-10 9780191553448
Release 2009-01-22
Pages 1096
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The move to end impunity for human rights atrocities has seen the creation of international and hybrid tribunals and increased prosecutions in domestic courts. The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice is the first major reference work to provide a complete overview of this emerging field. Its nearly 1100 pages are divided into three sections. In the first part, 21 essays by leading thinkers offer a comprehensive survey of issues and debates surrounding international humanitarian law, international criminal law, and their enforcement. The second part is arranged alphabetically, containing 320 entries on doctrines, procedures, institutions and personalities. The final part contains over 400 case summaries on different trials from international and domestic courts dealing with war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, torture, and terrorism. With analysis and commentary on every aspect of international criminal justice, this Companion is designed to be the first port of call for scholars and practitioners interested in current developments in international justice.



The Policing of Politics in the Twentieth Century

The Policing of Politics in the Twentieth Century Author Mark Mazower
ISBN-10 1571818731
Release 1997
Pages 262
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The role of the police has, from its beginnings, been ambiguous, even janus-faced. This volume focuses on one of its controversial aspects by showing how the police have been utilized in the past by regimes in Europe, the USA and the British Empire to check political dissent and social unrest. Ideologies such as anti-Communism emerge as significant influences in both democracies and dictatorships. And by shedding new light on policing continuities in twentieth-century Germany and Italy, as well as Interpol, this volume questions the compatibility of democratic government and political policing. Mark Mazower received his D. Phil. In Modern History from Oxford University. He taught History at Princeton University, International Relations at the University of Sussex and currently he is Professor of History at Birkbeck College, University of London.



Reconstituting the Constitution

Reconstituting the Constitution Author Caroline Morris
ISBN-10 3642215726
Release 2011-09-01
Pages 519
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All nation states, whether ancient or newly created, must examine their constitutional fundamentals to keep their constitutions relevant and dynamic. Constitutional change has greater legitimacy when the questions are debated before the people and accepted by them. Who are the peoples in this state? What role should they have in relation to the government? What rights should they have? Who should be Head of State? What is our constitutional relationship with other nation states? What is the influence of international law on our domestic system? What process should constitutional change follow? In this volume, scholars, practitioners, politicians, public officials, and young people explore these questions and others in relation to the New Zealand constitution and provide some thought-provoking answers. This book is recommended for anyone seeking insight into how a former British colony with bicultural foundations is making the transition to a multicultural society in an increasingly complex and globalised world.



Racism in a Racial Democracy

Racism in a Racial Democracy Author France Winddance Twine
ISBN-10 0813523656
Release 1998
Pages 175
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In Racism in a Racial Democracy, France Winddance Twine asks why Brazilians, particularly Afro-Brazilians, continue to have faith in Brazil's "racial democracy" in the face of pervasive racism in all spheres of Brazilian life. Through a detailed ethnography, Twine provides a cultural analysis of the everyday discursive and material practices that sustain and naturalize white supremacy. This is the first ethnographic study of racism in southeastern Brazil to place the practices of upwardly mobile Afro-Brazilians at the center of analysis. Based on extensive field research and more than fifty life histories with Afro- and Euro-Brazilians, this book analyzes how Brazilians conceptualize and respond to racial disparities. Twine illuminates the obstacles Brazilian activists face when attempting to generate grassroots support for an antiracist movement among the majority of working class Brazilians. Anyone interested in racism and antiracism in Latin America will find this book compelling.



Labour Law in an Era of Globalization

Labour Law in an Era of Globalization Author Joanne Conaghan
ISBN-10 019927181X
Release 2004
Pages 546
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Throughout the industrial world, the discipline of labour law has fallen into deep philosophical and policy crisis, at the same time as new theoretical approaches make it a field of considerable intellectual ferment. Modern labour law evolved in a symbiotic relationship with a postwar institutional and policy agenda, the social, economic, and political underpinnings of which have gradually eroded in the context of accelerating international economic integration and wage-competition, a decline in the capacity of the nation-state to steer economic progress, the ascendancy of fiscal austerity and monetarism over Keynesian/welfare state politics, the appearance of post-industrial production models, the proliferation of contingent employment relationships, the fragmentation of class-based identities and emergence of new social movements, and the significantly increased participation of women in paid work. These developments offer many appealing possibilities - the opportunity, for example, to contest the gender division of labour and re-think the boundaries between immigration and labour policy. But they also hold out quite threatening prospects - including increased unemployment and inequality and the decline of workers' organizations and social participation - in the context of proliferating constraints imposed by international financial pressures on enacting redistributive social and economic policies. New strategies must be developed to meet these challenges.These essays - which are the product of a transnational comparative dialogue among academics and practitioners in labour law and related legal fields, including social security, immigration, trade, and development - identify, analyse, and respond to some of the conceptual and policy challenges posed by globalization.



The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law Author Michel Rosenfeld
ISBN-10 9780191640179
Release 2012-05-17
Pages 1416
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The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.



Stalinism and Nazism

Stalinism and Nazism Author Ian Kershaw
ISBN-10 0521565219
Release 1997-04-28
Pages 369
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Several distinguished historians present the first comprehensive comparison of Nazism and Stalinism.



A Law of Blood ties The Right to Access Genetic Ancestry

A Law of Blood ties   The  Right  to Access Genetic Ancestry Author Alice Diver
ISBN-10 9783319010717
Release 2013-08-28
Pages 306
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This text collates and examines the jurisprudence that currently exists in respect of blood-tied genetic connection, arguing that the right to identity often rests upon the ability to identify biological ancestors, which in turn requires an absence of adult-centric veto norms. It looks firstly to the nature and purpose of the blood-tie as a unique item of birthright heritage, whose socio-cultural value perhaps lies mainly in preventing, or perhaps engendering, a feared or revered sense of ‘otherness.’ It then traces the evolution of the various policies on ‘telling’ and accessing truth, tying these to the diverse body of psychological theories on the need for unbroken attachments and the harms of being origin deprived. The ‘law’ of the blood-tie comprises of several overlapping and sometimes conflicting strands: the international law provisions and UNCRC Country Reports on the child’s right to identity, recent Strasbourg case law, and domestic case law from a number of jurisdictions on issues such as legal parentage, vetoes on post-adoption contact, court-delegated decision-making, overturned placements and the best interests of the relinquished child. The text also suggests a means of preventing the discriminatory effects of denied ancestry, calling upon domestic jurists, legislators, policy-makers and parents to be mindful of the long-term effects of genetic ‘kinlessness’ upon origin deprived persons, especially where they have been tasked with protecting this vulnerable section of the population.



Law s Ethical Global and Theoretical Contexts

Law s Ethical  Global and Theoretical Contexts Author Upendra Baxi
ISBN-10 9781316404768
Release 2015-10-22
Pages
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Law's Ethical, Global and Theoretical Contexts examines William Twining's principal contributions to law and jurisprudence in the context of three issues which will receive significant scholarly attention over the coming decades. Part I explores human rights, including torture, the role of evidence in human rights cases, the emerging discourse on 'traditional values', the relevance of 'Southern voices' to human rights debates, and the relationship between human rights and peace agreements. Part II assesses the impact of globalization through the lenses of sociology and comparative constitutionalism, and features an analysis of the development of pluralistic ideas of law in the context of privatization. Finally, Part III addresses issues of legal theory, including whether global legal pluralism needs a concept of law, the importance of context in legal interpretation, the effect of increasing digitalization on legal theory, and the utility of feminist and postmodern approaches to globalization and legal theory.