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Logics and Languages

Logics and Languages Author M. J. Cresswell
ISBN-10 9781134874118
Release 2016-08-12
Pages 284
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Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning. Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 show that these formal languages are rich enought to be used in the precise description of natural languages. Appendices describe some of the concepts discussed in the text.



Logic Language and Meaning Volume 1

Logic  Language  and Meaning  Volume 1 Author L. T. F. Gamut
ISBN-10 0226280845
Release 1991
Pages 296
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Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language. Both volumes provide exercises and their solutions. Volume 1, Introduction to Logic, begins with a historical overview and then offers a thorough introduction to standard propositional and first-order predicate logic. It provides both a syntactic and a semantic approach to inference and validity, and discusses their relationship. Although language and meaning receive special attention, this introduction is also accessible to those with a more general interest in logic. In addition, the volume contains a survey of such topics as definite descriptions, restricted quantification, second-order logic, and many-valued logic. The pragmatic approach to non-truthconditional and conventional implicatures are also discussed. Finally, the relation between logic and formal syntax is treated, and the notions of rewrite rule, automation, grammatical complexity, and language hierarchy are explained.



Puzzles in Logic Languages and Computation

Puzzles in Logic  Languages and Computation Author Dragomir Radev
ISBN-10 9783642343728
Release 2013-02-11
Pages 191
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This is the second volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute



An Advanced Logic Programming Language

An Advanced Logic Programming Language Author Tony Dodd
ISBN-10 1871516102
Release 1990-01
Pages 392
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This guide consists of a number of tutorials that provide detailed, comprehensive coverage of different aspects of Prolog in general, and Prolog-2 in particular. The first two thirds of the book covers facilities that exist in most DEC-10 style implementations which will in all likelihood form a major part of the forthcoming standard definition of the language. The remaining chapters deal wth the details of Prolog-2 in different environments.



The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts Volume 1 Logic and the Philosophy of Language

The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts  Volume 1  Logic and the Philosophy of Language Author Norman Kretzmann
ISBN-10 052128063X
Release 1988
Pages 531
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This volume is concerned with the logic and the philosophy of language and has a comprehensive index.



Puzzles in Logic Languages and Computation

Puzzles in Logic  Languages and Computation Author Dragomir Radev
ISBN-10 9783642343780
Release 2013-02-11
Pages 178
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This is the first volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute



The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China

The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China Author Joseph Needham
ISBN-10 052146773X
Release 1995-09-14
Pages 384
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This fifth volume of Colin Ronan's abridgement of Joseph Needham's monumental work is concerned with the remarkable engineering feats made during the early and medieval periods. No other country did more in civil engineering, both as to scale and skill, than China. The book opens with an account of the road system, which compared favorably with that of the Roman Empire. Naturally, the Great Wall of China is covered in some detail within the social context of walls, which--more than any other structure--mark the basic features of Chinese communities. The Chinese genius for town planning and achievements in hydraulic engineering are covered in later chapters. This book provides many clues as to the influence of Chinese innovation on Western engineering trends and will fascinate readers who are interested in the history of science and Chinese civilization.



A Millennium of Buddhist Logic

A Millennium of Buddhist Logic Author Alex Wayman
ISBN-10 8120816463
Release 1999
Pages 349
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This is volume One of texts (from sanskrit and Tibetan sources) of the two planned volumes on Buddhist Ligic (the second volume to be on topics and opponents). This first volumes is in two parts. Part 1 has Asanga`s rules of Debate, Dharmakirti Nyayabindu with Kamalasila commentary and Santi-pa`s treatise on inner pervasion. Part II devoted to the Dignage-Dharmakirti system has five sets of eleven verses then a stydy if Bu-Ston`s commentary ib Dharmakirti`s Pramanaviniscaya and finally Tsong-kha-pa;s Mun sel on the seven books of Dharmakirti.



Language Truth and Logic

Language  Truth and Logic Author Alfred Jules Ayer
ISBN-10 9780486113098
Release 2012-04-18
Pages 160
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"A delightful book … I should like to have written it myself." — Bertrand Russell First published in 1936, this first full-length presentation in English of the Logical Positivism of Carnap, Neurath, and others has gone through many printings to become a classic of thought and communication. It not only surveys one of the most important areas of modern thought; it also shows the confusion that arises from imperfect understanding of the uses of language. A first-rate antidote for fuzzy thought and muddled writing, this remarkable book has helped philosophers, writers, speakers, teachers, students, and general readers alike. Mr. Ayers sets up specific tests by which you can easily evaluate statements of ideas. You will also learn how to distinguish ideas that cannot be verified by experience — those expressing religious, moral, or aesthetic experience, those expounding theological or metaphysical doctrine, and those dealing with a priori truth. The basic thesis of this work is that philosophy should not squander its energies upon the unknowable, but should perform its proper function in criticism and analysis.



Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web

Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web Author Elie Sanchez
ISBN-10 0080460488
Release 2006-02-20
Pages 496
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These are exciting times in the fields of Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web, and this book will add to the excitement, as it is the first volume to focus on the growing connections between these two fields. This book is expected to be a valuable aid to anyone considering the application of Fuzzy Logic to the Semantic Web, because it contains a number of detailed accounts of these combined fields, written by leading authors in several countries. The Fuzzy Logic field has been maturing for forty years. These years have witnessed a tremendous growth in the number and variety of applications, with a real-world impact across a wide variety of domains with humanlike behavior and reasoning. And we believe that in the coming years, the Semantic Web will be major field of applications of Fuzzy Logic. This book, the first in the new series Capturing Intelligence, shows the positive role Fuzzy Logic, and more generally Soft Computing, can play in the development of the Semantic Web, filling a gap and facing a new challenge. It covers concepts, tools, techniques and applications exhibiting the usefulness, and the necessity, for using Fuzzy Logic in the Semantic Web. It finally opens the road to new systems with a high Web IQ. Most of today's Web content is suitable for human consumption. The Semantic Web is presented as an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. For example, within the Semantic Web, computers will understand the meaning of semantic data on a web page by following links to specified ontologies. But while the Semantic Web vision and research attracts attention, as long as it will be used two-valued-based logical methods no progress will be expected in handling ill-structured, uncertain or imprecise information encountered in real world knowledge. Fuzzy Logic and associated concepts and techniques (more generally, Soft Computing), has certainly a positive role to play in the development of the Semantic Web. Fuzzy Logic will not supposed to be the basis for the Semantic Web but its related concepts and techniques will certainly reinforce the systems classically developed within W3C. In fact, Fuzzy Logic cannot be ignored in order to bridge the gap between human-understandable soft logic and machine-readable hard logic. None of the usual logical requirements can be guaranteed: there is no centrally defined format for data, no guarantee of truth for assertions made, no guarantee of consistency. To support these arguments, this book shows how components of the Semantic Web (like XML, RDF, Description Logics, Conceptual Graphs, Ontologies) can be covered, with in each case a Fuzzy Logic focus. First volume to focus on the growing connections between Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web Keynote chapter by Lotfi Zadeh The Semantic Web is presently expected to be a major field of applications of Fuzzy Logic It fills a gap and faces a new challenge in the development of the Semantic Web It opens the road to new systems with a high Web IQ Contributed chapters by Fuzzy Logic leading experts



Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference

Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference Author R.H. Johnson
ISBN-10 0080532918
Release 2002-09-11
Pages 508
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The Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference is an authoritative reference work in a single volume, designed for the attention of senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in all the leading research areas concerned with the logic of practical argument and inference. After an introductory chapter, the role of standard logics is surveyed in two chapters. These chapters can serve as a mini-course for interested readers, in deductive and inductive logic, or as a refresher. Then follow two chapters of criticism; one the internal critique and the other the empirical critique. The first deals with objections to standard logics (as theories of argument and inference) arising from the research programme in philosophical logic. The second canvasses criticisms arising from work in cognitive and experimental psychology. The next five chapters deal with developments in dialogue logic, interrogative logic, informal logic, probability logic and artificial intelligence. The last chapter surveys formal approaches to practical reasoning and anticipates possible future developments. Taken as a whole the Handbook is a single-volume indication of the present state of the logic of argument and inference at its conceptual and theoretical best. Future editions will periodically incorporate significant new developments.



From Discourse to Logic

From Discourse to Logic Author Hans Kamp
ISBN-10 079232403X
Release 1993-01-01
Pages 713
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This is the first textbook that approaches natural language semantics and logic from the perspective of Discourse Representation Theory, an approach which emphasizes the dynamic and incremental aspects of meaning and inference. The book has been carefully designed for the classroom. It is aimed at students with varying degrees of preparation, including those without prior exposure to semantics or formal logic. Moreover, it should make DRT easily accessible to those who want to learn about the theory on their own. Exercises are available to test understanding as well as to encourage independent theoretical thought. The book serves a double purpose. Besides a textbook, it is also the first comprehensive and fully explicit statement of DRT available in the form of a book. The first part of the book develops the basic principles of DRT for a small fragment of English (but which has nevertheless the power of standard predicate logic). The second part extends this fragment by adding plurals; it discusses a wide variety of problems connected with plural nouns and verbs. The third part applies the theory to the analysis of tense and aspect. Many of the problems raised in Parts Two and Three are novel, as are the solutions proposed. For undergraduate and graduate students interested in linguistics, theoretical linguistics, computational linguistics, artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Suitable for students with no previous exposure to formal semantics or logic.



Mathematical Methods in Linguistics

Mathematical Methods in Linguistics Author Barbara B.H. Partee
ISBN-10 9789400922136
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 666
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Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.



Meaning and Argument

Meaning and Argument Author Ernest Lepore
ISBN-10 9781118455210
Release 2012-09-14
Pages 496
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Meaning and Argument is a popular introduction to philosophy of logic and philosophy of language. Offers a distinctive philosophical, rather than mathematical, approach to logic Concentrates on symbolization and works out all the technical logic with truth tables instead of derivations Incorporates the insights of half a century's work in philosophy and linguistics on anaphora by Peter Geach, Gareth Evans, Hans Kamp, and Irene Heim among others Contains numerous exercises and a corresponding answer key An extensive appendix allows readers to explore subjects that go beyond what is usually covered in an introductory logic course Updated edition includes over a dozen new problem sets and revisions throughout Features an accompanying website at http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/~logic/MeaningArgument.html



Tome 1 Philosophie du langage Logique philosophique Volume 1 Philosophy of language Philosophical logic

Tome 1 Philosophie du langage  Logique philosophique   Volume 1 Philosophy of language  Philosophical logic Author Guttorm Fløistad
ISBN-10 9789400983564
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 404
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The present publication is a continuation of two earlier series of chronicles, Philosophy in the Mid-Century (Firenze 1958/59) and Contemporary Philosophy (Firenze 1968), edited by Raymond KJibansky. As with the earlier series the present chronicles purport to give a survey of significant trends in contemporary philosophi cal discussion. The time space covered by the present series is (approximately) 1966-1978. The need for such surveys has, I believe, increased rather than decreased over the last years. The philosophical scene appears, for various reasons, more complex than ever before. The continuing process of specialization in most branches, the emergence of new schools of thought, particularly in philosophical logic and the philosophy of language, the convergence of interest (though not necessarily of opinion) of different traditions upon certain prob lems, and the increasing attention being paid to the history of philosophy in discussions of contemporary problems are the most important contributory factors. Surveys of the present kind are a valuable source of knowledge of this complexity and may as such be an assistance in renewing the understanding of one's own philosophical problems. The surveys, it is to be hoped, may also help to strengthen the Socratic element of modem philosophy, the dialogue or Kommu nikationsgemeinschajt. So far, four volumes have been prepared for the new series. The present chronicles in the Philosophy of Language and Philosophi cal Logic (Vol. I), are followed by chronicles in the Philosophy of Science (Vol. II), and Philosophy of Action (Vol.



Quantification in Nonclassical Logic

Quantification in Nonclassical Logic Author Dov M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 008093112X
Release 2009-06-20
Pages 640
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Quantification and modalities have always been topics of great interest for logicians. These two themes emerged from philosophy and language in ancient times; they were studied by traditional informal methods until the 20th century. In the last century the tools became highly mathematical, and both modal logic and quantification found numerous applications in Computer Science. At the same time many other kinds of nonclassical logics were investigated and applied to Computer Science. Although there exist several good books in propositional modal logics, this book is the first detailed monograph in nonclassical first-order quantification. It includes results obtained during the past thirty years. The field is very large, so we confine ourselves with only two kinds of logics: modal and superintuitionistic. The main emphasis of Volume 1 is model-theoretic, and it concentrates on descriptions of different sound semantics and completeness problem --- even for these seemingly simple questions we have our hands full. The major part of the presented material has never been published before. Some results are very recent, and for other results we either give new proofs or first proofs in full detail.



Language in Cognition

Language in Cognition Author Pieter A. M. Seuren
ISBN-10 9780191567933
Release 2009-02-26
Pages 404
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Language in Cognition argues that language is based on the human construal of reality. Humans refer to and quantify over virtual entities with the same ease as they do over actual entities: the natural ontology of language, the author argues, must therefore comprise both actual and virtual entities and situations. He reformulates speech act theory, suggesting that the primary function of language is less the transfer of information than the establishing of socially binding commitments or appeals based on the proposition expressed. This leads him first to a new analysis of the systems and structures of cognitive language machinery and their ecological embedding, and finally to a reformulation of the notion of meaning, in which sentence meaning is distinguished from lexical meaning and the vagaries and multifarious applications of lexical meanings may be explained and understood. This is the first of a two-volume foundational study of language, published under the title, Language from Within. Pieter Seuren discusses and analyses such apparently diverse issues as the ontology underlying the semantics of language, speech act theory, intensionality phenomena, the machinery and ecology of language, sentential and lexical meaning, the natural logic of language and cognition, and the intrinsically context-sensitive nature of language - and shows them to be intimately linked. Throughout his ambitious enterprise, he maintains a constant dialogue with established views, reflecting on their development from Ancient Greece to the present. The resulting synthesis concerns central aspects of research and theory in linguistics, philosophy, and cognitive science.