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Macroneural Theories in Cognitive Neuroscience

Macroneural Theories in Cognitive Neuroscience Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9781317392729
Release 2015-07-24
Pages 214
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In this book, William R. Uttal continues his analysis and critique of theories of mind. This book considers theories that are based on macroneural responses (such as those obtained from fMRI) that represent the averaged or cumulative responses of many neurons. The analysis is carried out with special emphasis on the logical and conceptual difficulties in developing a theory but with special attention to some of the current attempts to go from these cumulative responses to explanations of the grand question of how the mind is generated by the brain. While acknowledging the importance of these macroneural techniques in the study of the anatomy and physiology of the brain, Uttal concludes that this macroneural approach is not likely to produce a valid neural theory of cognition because the critical information—the states of the individual neurons—involved in brain activity becoming mental activity is actually lost in the process of summation. Controversial topics are considered in detail including discussions of empirical, logical, and technological barriers to theory building in cognitive neuroscience.



The Neuron and the Mind

The Neuron and the Mind Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9781317208099
Release 2016-07-01
Pages 204
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This book, a companion to William R. Uttal’s earlier work on macrotheories theories of mind-brain relationships, reviews another set of theories—those based on microneuronal measurements. Microneural theories maintain the integrity of individual neurons either in isolation or as participants in the great neuronal networks that make up the physical brain. Despite an almost universal acceptance by cognitive neuroscientists that the intangible mind must, in some way, be encoded by network states, Uttal shows that the problem of how the transformation occurs is not yet supported by empirical research findings at the micro as well as at the macro levels of analysis. Theories of the neuronal network survive more as metaphors than as robust explanations. This book also places special emphasis on the technological developments that stimulate these metaphors. A major conclusion drawn in this book is that it is not at all certain that the mind-brain problem is solvable in the sense that many other grand scientific problems are.



Blinded by Science

Blinded by Science Author Wastell, David
ISBN-10 9781447322337
Release 2017-03-15
Pages 304
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This timely book critically examines the capabilities and limitations of new areas of biology, especially epigenetics and neuroscience, that are used as powerful arguments for developing social policy in a particular direction, exploring their implications for policy and practice.



Neuroteach

Neuroteach Author Glenn Whitman
ISBN-10 9781475825367
Release 2016-06-20
Pages 236
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Teachers are brain changers. Thus it would seem obvious that an understanding of the brain – the organ of learning – would be critical to a teacher’s readiness to work with students. Unfortunately, in traditional public, public-charter, private, parochial, and home schools across the country, most teachers lack an understanding of how the brain receives, filters, consolidates, and applies learning for both the short and long term. Neuroteach was therefore written to help solve the problem teachers and school leaders have in knowing how to bring the growing body of educational neuroscience research into the design of their schools, classrooms, and work with each individual student. It is our hope, that Neuroteach will help ensure that one day, every student –regardless of zip code or school type—will learn and develop with the guidance of a teacher who knows the research behind how his or her brain works and learns.



The War Between Mentalism and Behaviorism

The War Between Mentalism and Behaviorism Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9781135666002
Release 1999-09-01
Pages 218
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This book considers one of the most fundamental, but only infrequently considered, issues in psychology--Are mental processes accessible by means of verbal reports and/or experimental assays? It is argues that this is the main characteristic distinguishing between behaviorism and mentalistic cognitivism. The answer posed by the author is that, with few exceptions and for the most fundamental reasons, mental processes are not accessible and that any psychology, such as contemporary cognitivism, based on a putative analysis of mind into its mental components must be fallacious. Classic and modern arguments against both mentalism and behaviorism are reviewed. In general, it is concluded that most antibehaviorist arguments are based on second order humanistic considerations rather than those underlying the usual scientific standards. Behaviorism represents the best that can be done in a situation of fundamental immeasurability and uncertainty. A modern version is offered in the final chapter of this book.



Applications Challenges and Advancements in Electromyography Signal Processing

Applications  Challenges  and Advancements in Electromyography Signal Processing Author Naik, Ganesh R.
ISBN-10 9781466660915
Release 2014-05-31
Pages 404
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"This book provides an updated overview of signal processing applications and recent developments in EMG from a number of diverse aspects and various applications in clinical and experimental research"--Provided by publisher.



Introductory Statistics

Introductory Statistics Author Stephen Kokoska
ISBN-10 1464111693
Release 2018-07-21
Pages 880
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Stephen Kokoska combines a traditional, classic approach to teaching statistics with contemporary examples, pedagogical features, and prose that will appeal to today’s student. Kokoska emphasises statistical inference and decision making throughout. His fresh yet practical way to help students understand statistics is balanced by a logic that speaks to the teaching style of many instructors. The textbook has been extensively reviewed and class tested and feedback from instructors and students has shaped it throughout its development. Author Steve Kokoska blends solid mathematics with lucid writing to create a text that illustrates statistical concepts by using a stepped problem-solving approach. His textbook helps students understand the process of basic statistical arguments, a skill that will help them in their coursework and as they enter a life beyond academics. Introductory Statistics is available with SaplingPlus. Within SaplingPlus, you’ll have access to an interactive ebook (available on and offline) along with questions, quizzes and targeted feedback to help you achieve success in your course.



The Mind brain Continuum

The Mind brain Continuum Author Rodolfo R. Llin's
ISBN-10 0262121980
Release 1996
Pages 315
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Bringing together contributors working on a common problem but addressing different levels of brain organization by way of different techniques, "The Mind-Brain Continuum" seeks to determine which scientific questions are most pressing as we move toward discovering the neurobiology of psychological processes. As the title implies, contributions are organized around the notion that mental activity is brain activity, providing a broad, integrated view of a particular subset of brain function. The focus is on sensory perception, processes that include somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory processes, as well research on vision. Contributors include: Albert S. Bregman. Patricia S. Churchland. Martha Constantine-Paton. Antonio R. Damasio. Hannah Damasio. Howard Eichenbaum. Rodolfo R. Lliná s. Nikos K. Logothetis. Christoph von deMalsburg. Stephen E. McAdams. Michael M. Merzenich. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran. John A. Simmons. Wolf Singer.



The Multiple Realization Book

The Multiple Realization Book Author Thomas W. Polger
ISBN-10 9780198732891
Release 2016-08-30
Pages 240
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Since Hilary Putnam offered multiple realization as an empirical hypothesis in the 1960s, philosophical consensus has turned against the idea that mental processes could be identified with brain processes, and multiple realization has become the keystone of the 'antireductive consensus' across philosophy of science broadly. Thomas W. Polger and Lawrence A. Shapiro offer the first book-length investigation of multiple realization. Their analysis of multiple realization serves as a starting point to a series of philosophically sophisticated and empirically informed arguments that cast doubt on the generality of multiple realization in the cognitive sciences. In the course of making their case, they respond to classic defenses of multiple realization that Jerry Fodor, Ned Block, and other prominent philosophers of psychology have offered. Polger and Shapiro conclude that the identity theory, once left for dead, remains a viable theory of mind--one that, when suitably framed, enjoys the benefits typically thought to accrue only to theories of mind that presuppose the truth of multiple realization. As Polger and Shapiro see matters, mind-brain identities have played an important role in the growth and achievements of the cognitive sciences, and they see little prospect--or need--for multiple realization in an empirically-based theory of mind. This leads Polger and Shapiro to offer an alternative framework for understanding explanations in the cognitive sciences, as well as in chemistry, biology, and other non-basic sciences.



Love Is a Story

Love Is a Story Author Robert J. Sternberg
ISBN-10 0198026595
Release 1999-06-03
Pages 256
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In this groundbreaking work, Robert Sternberg opens the book of love and shows you how to discover your own story--and how to read your relationships in a whole new light. What draws us so strongly to some people and repels us from others? What makes some relationships work so smoothly and others burst into flames? Sternberg gives us new answers to these questions by showing that the kind of relationship we create depends on the kind of love stories we carry inside us. Drawing on extensive research and fascinating examples of real couples, Sternberg identifies 26 types of love story--including the fantasy story, the business story, the collector story, the horror story, and many others--each with its distinctive advantages and pitfalls, and many of which are clashingly incompatible. These are the largely unconscious preconceptions that guide our romantic choices, and it is only by becoming aware of the kind of story we have about love that we gain the freedom to create more fulfilling and lasting relationships. As long as we remain oblivious to the role our stories play, we are likely to repeat the same mistakes again and again. But the enlivening good news this book brings us is that though our stories drive us, we can revise them and learn to choose partners whose stories are more compatible with our own. Quizzes in each chapter help you to see which stories you identify with most strongly and which apply to your partner. Are you a traveler, a gardener, a teacher, or something else entirely? Love is a Story shows you how to find out.



Event Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations

Event Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations Author Christa Neuper
ISBN-10 0080465595
Release 2006-12-03
Pages 464
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Research on brain oscillations and event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related (de-) synchronization (ERD/ERS) in particular became a rapidly growing field in the last decades. A large number of laboratories worldwide are using ERD/ERS to study cognitive and motor brain function and the importance of this tool in neurocognitive research is widely recognized. This book is a summary of the most current research, methods, and applications of the study of event-related dynamics of brain oscillations. Facing the rapid progress in this field, it brings together, on the one side, fundamental questions of the underlying events, which still remain to be clarified and, on the other side, some of the most significant novel findings, which point to the key topics for future research. In particular, the chapters of this volume cover the neurophysiological fundamentals and models (Section I), new methodological approaches (Section II), current ERD research related to cognitive (Section III) and sensorimotor brain function (Section IV), invasive approaches and clinical applications (Section V), and novel developments of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback (Section IV).



Dualism

Dualism Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9781135608590
Release 2004-09-22
Pages 416
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Directed to scholars and senior-level graduate students, this book is an iconoclastic survey of the history of dualism and its impact on contemporary cognitive psychology. It argues that much of modern cognitive or mentalist psychology is built upon a cryptodualism--the idea that the mind and brain can be thought of as independent entities. This dualism pervades so much of society that it covertly influences many aspects of modern science, particularly psychology. To support the argument, the history of dualism is extended over 100,000 years--from the Paleolithic times until modern philosophical and psychological thinking. The questions regarding this topic that are answered in the book are: 1) Does dualism influence the scientific theories of psychology? 2) If so, should dualism be put aside in the search for a more objective analysis of human mentation?



Mind and Brain

Mind and Brain Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9780262298032
Release 2011-08-26
Pages 528
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Cognitive neuroscience explores the relationship between our minds and our brains, most recently by drawing on brain imaging techniques to align neural mechanisms with psychological processes. In Mind and Brain, William Uttal offers a critical review of cognitive neuroscience, examining both its history and modern developments in the field. He pays particular attention to the role of brain imaging--especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)--in studying the mind-brain relationship. He argues that, despite the explosive growth of this new mode of research, there has been more hyperbole than critical analysis of what experimental outcomes really mean. With Mind and Brain, Uttal attempts a synoptic synthesis of this substantial body of scientific literature. Uttal considers psychological and behavioral concerns that can help guide the neuroscientific discussion; work done before the advent of imaging systems; and what brain imaging has brought to recent research. Cognitive neuroscience, Uttal argues, is truly both cognitive and neuroscientific. Both approaches are necessary and neither is sufficient to make sense of the greatest scientific issue of all: how the brain makes the mind.



Psychomythics

Psychomythics Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9781135623715
Release 2014-04-04
Pages 215
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Psychology deals with the most complex subject matter of any science. As such, it is subject to misunderstandings, artifacts, and just simple errors of data, logic, and interpretation. This book teases out the details of some of the sources of these errors. It considers errors in psychological data and theories that arise from confusing endogenous and exogenous causal forces in perceptual research, misinterpreting the effects of inevitable natural laws as psychological phenomena, improper application of statistics and measurement, and flawed assumptions. Examples of each of these sources of error are presented and discussed. Finally, the book concludes that a return to a revitalized kind of behaviorism is preferred, rather than continuing on the current cognitive path.



Reliability in Cognitive Neuroscience

Reliability in Cognitive Neuroscience Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 9780262018524
Release 2013
Pages 238
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Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly claim that brain images generated by new brain imaging technologies reflect, correlate, or represent cognitive processes. In this book, William Uttal warns against these claims, arguing that, despite its utility in anatomic and physiological applications, brain imaging research has not provided consistent evidence for correlation with cognition. Uttal bases his argument on an extensive review of the empirical literature, pointing to variability in data not only among subjects within individual experiments but also in the new meta-analytical approach that pools data from different experiments. This inconsistency of results, he argues, has profound implications for the field, suggesting that cognitive neuroscientists have not yet proven their interpretations of the relation between brain activity captured by macroscopic imaging techniques and cognitive processes; what may have appeared to be correlations may have only been illusions of association. He supports the view that the true correlates are located at a much more microscopic level of analysis: the networks of neurons that make up the brain. Uttal carries out comparisons of the empirical data at several levels of data pooling, including the meta-analytical. He argues that although the idea seems straightforward, the task of pooling data from different experiments is extremely complex, leading to uncertain results, and that little is gained by it. Uttal's investigation suggests a need for cognitive neuroscience to reevaluate the entire enterprise of brain imaging-cognition correlational studies.



Microarrays for the Neurosciences

Microarrays for the Neurosciences Author Daniel H. Geschwind
ISBN-10 0262072297
Release 2002
Pages 332
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A guide to the use of DNA microarray technology in studying the central nervous system and other complex biological systems.



Neural Theories of Mind

Neural Theories of Mind Author William R. Uttal
ISBN-10 1138004200
Release 2014-06-09
Pages 304
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In this fascinating book, William R. Uttal raises the possibility that, however much we learn about the anatomy and physiology of the brain and psychology, we may never be able to cross the final bridge explaining how the mind is produced by the brain. Three main classes of mind-brain theory are considered and rejected: field theories, because they are based on a superficial analogy; single cell theories, because they emerge from a massive uncontrolled experimental program; and neural net theories, because they are constrained by combinatorial complexity. To support his argument, Uttal explores the empirical and conceptual foundations of these theoretical approaches and identifies flaws in their fundamental logic. The author concludes that the problems preventing solution of the mind-brain problem are intractable, yet well within the confines of natural science.