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Marine Genetic Resources Access and Benefit Sharing

Marine Genetic Resources  Access and Benefit Sharing Author Bevis Fedder
ISBN-10 9781134122158
Release 2013-05-29
Pages 220
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Access to genetic resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS) has been promoted under the Convention on Biological Diversity, with the aim of combining biodiversity conservation goals with economic development. However, as this book shows, since its inception in 1992, implementation has encountered multiple challenges and obstacles. This is particularly so in the marine environment, where interest in genetic resources for pharmaceuticals and nutrients has increased. This is partly because of the lack of clarity of terminology, but also because of the terms of the comprehensive law of the sea (UNCLOS) and transboundary issues of delineating ownership of marine resources. The author explains and compares relevant provisions and concepts under ABS and the law of the sea taking access, benefit sharing, monitoring, compliance, and dispute settlement into consideration. He also provides an overview of the implementation status of ABS-relevant measures in user states and identifies successful ABS transactions. A key unique feature of the book is to illustrate how biological databases can serve as the central scientific infrastructure to implement the global multilateral benefit sharing mechanism, proposed by the Nagoya Protocol. The research for this book was supported by both the Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) and the International Research Training Group INTERCOAST – Integrated Coastal Zone and Shelf-Sea Research.



Marine Genetic Resources Access and Benefits Sharing

Marine Genetic Resources  Access  and Benefits Sharing Author Bevis Fedder
ISBN-10 0415830559
Release 2013
Pages 216
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Access to genetic resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS) has been promoted under the Convention on Biological Diversity, with the aim of combining biodiversity conservation goals with economic development. However, as this book shows, since its inception in 1992, implementation has encountered multiple challenges and obstacles. This is particularly so in the marine environment, where interest in genetic resources for pharmaceuticals and nutrients has increased. This is partly because of the lack of clarity of terminology, but also because of the terms of the comprehensive law of the sea (UNCLOS) and transboundary issues of delineating ownership of marine resources. The author explains and compares relevant provisions and concepts under ABS and the law of the sea taking access, benefit sharing, monitoring, compliance, and dispute settlement into consideration. He also provides an overview of the implementation status of ABS-relevant measures in user states and identifies successful ABS transactions. A key unique feature of the book is to illustrate how biological databases can serve as the central scientific infrastructure to implement the global multilateral benefit sharing mechanism, proposed by the Nagoya Protocol. The research for this book was supported by both the Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) and the International Research Training Group INTERCOAST - Integrated Coastal Zone and Shelf-Sea Research.



Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law

Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law Author Charles R. McManis
ISBN-10 9781315530833
Release 2017-11-27
Pages 422
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This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources. Contributors include leading academics, policy-makers and practitioners reviewing a range of socio-legal issues concerning the relationships between humankind and the natural world. The Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law includes chapters on fundamental and cutting-edge issues, including discussion of major legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. The book is divided into six distinct parts based around the major objectives which have emerged from legal frameworks concerned with protecting biodiversity. Following introductory chapters, Part II examines issues relating to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with Part III focusing on access and benefit-sharing. Part IV discusses legal issues associated with the protection of traditional knowledge, cultural heritage and indigenous human rights. Parts V and VI focus on a selection of intellectual property issues connected to the commercial exploitation of biological resources, and analyse ethical issues, including viewpoints from economic, ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical and other scientific industry perspectives.



Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property

Biodiversity  Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Author Kamalesh Adhikari
ISBN-10 9781351580335
Release 2018-03-09
Pages 262
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Debates about Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) have moved on in recent years. An initial focus on the legal obligations established by international agreements like the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the form of obligations for collecting physical biological materials have now moved to a far more complex series of disputes and challenges about the ways ABS should be implemented and enforced: repatriation of resources, technology transfer, traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; open access to information and knowledge, naming conventions, farmers’ rights, new schemes for accessing pandemic viruses and sharing DNA sequences, and so on. Unfortunately, most of this debate is now crystallised into apparently intractable discussions such as implementing the certificates of origin, recognising traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression as a form of intellectual property, and sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. Not everything in this new marketplace of ABS has been created de novo. Like most new entrants, ABS has disrupted existing legal and governance arrangements. This collection of chapters examines what is new, what has been changed, and what might be changed in response to the growing acceptance and prevalence of ABS of genetic resources. Biodiversity, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Developments in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources addresses current issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates about managing genetic resources through the ABS regime. The book explores key historical, doctrinal, and theoretical issues in the field, at the same time developing new ideas and perspectives around ABS. It shows the latest state of knowledge and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students in the fields of intellectual property, governance, biodiversity and conservation, sustainable development, and agriculture.



The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea

The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea Author Donald R. Rothwell
ISBN-10 9780191024658
Release 2015-03-26
Pages 850
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Human activities have taken place in the world's oceans and seas for most of human history. With such a vast number of ways in which the oceans can be used for trade, exploited for natural resources and fishing, as well as concerns over maritime security, the legal systems regulating the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans have long been a crucial part of international law. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea comprehensively defined the parameters of the law of the sea in 1982, and since the Convention was concluded it has seen considerable development. This Oxford Handbook provides a comprehensive and original analysis of its current debates and controversies, both theoretical and practical. Written by over forty expert and interdisciplinary contributors, the Handbook sets out how the law of the sea has developed, and the challenges it is currently facing. The Handbook consists of forty chapters divided into six parts. First, it explains the origins and evolution of the law of the sea, with a particular focus upon the role of key publicists such as Hugo Grotius and John Selden, the gradual development of state practice, and the creation of the 1982 UN Convention. It then reviews the components which comprise the maritime domain, assessing their definition, assertion, and recognition. It also analyses the ways in which coastal states or the international community can assert control over areas of the sea, and the management and regulation of each of the maritime zones. This includes investigating the development of the mechanisms for maritime boundary delimitation, and the decisions of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The Handbook also discusses the actors and intuitions that impact on the law of the sea, considering their particular rights and interests, in particular those of state actors and the principle law of the sea institutions. Then it focuses on operational issues, investigating longstanding matters of resource management and the integrated oceans framework. This includes a discussion and assessment of the broad and increasingly influential integrated oceans management governance framework that interacts with the traditional law of the sea. It considers six distinctive regions that have been pivotal to the development of the law of the sea, before finally providing a detailed analysis of the critical contemporary issues facing the law of the sea. These include threatened species, climate change, bioprospecting, and piracy. The Handbook will be an invaluable and thought-provoking resource for scholars, students, and practitioners of the law of the sea.



Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property

Biodiversity  Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Author Kamalesh Adhikari
ISBN-10 9781351580335
Release 2018-03-09
Pages 262
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Debates about Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) have moved on in recent years. An initial focus on the legal obligations established by international agreements like the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the form of obligations for collecting physical biological materials have now moved to a far more complex series of disputes and challenges about the ways ABS should be implemented and enforced: repatriation of resources, technology transfer, traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; open access to information and knowledge, naming conventions, farmers’ rights, new schemes for accessing pandemic viruses and sharing DNA sequences, and so on. Unfortunately, most of this debate is now crystallised into apparently intractable discussions such as implementing the certificates of origin, recognising traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression as a form of intellectual property, and sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. Not everything in this new marketplace of ABS has been created de novo. Like most new entrants, ABS has disrupted existing legal and governance arrangements. This collection of chapters examines what is new, what has been changed, and what might be changed in response to the growing acceptance and prevalence of ABS of genetic resources. Biodiversity, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Developments in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources addresses current issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates about managing genetic resources through the ABS regime. The book explores key historical, doctrinal, and theoretical issues in the field, at the same time developing new ideas and perspectives around ABS. It shows the latest state of knowledge and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students in the fields of intellectual property, governance, biodiversity and conservation, sustainable development, and agriculture.



Genetic Resources Traditional Knowledge and the Law

Genetic Resources  Traditional Knowledge and the Law Author Evanson C. Kamau
ISBN-10 9781849770095
Release 2009-09-02
Pages 528
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The need to regulate access to genetic resources and ensure a fair and equitable sharing of any resulting benefits was at the core of the development of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD established a series of principles and requirements around access and benefit sharing (ABS) in order to increase transparency and equity in the international flow of genetic resources, yet few countries have been able to effectively implement them and ABS negotiations are often paralysed by differing interests. This book not only examines these complex challenges, but offers workable, policy-oriented solutions. International contributors cover theoretical approaches, new significant national legislation, the concept of traditional knowledge, provider and user country measures and common solutions. Exploring specific, salient examples from across the globe, the authors provide lessons for national regulation and the ongoing negotiations for an international ABS regime. Uniquely, this book also looks at the potential for 'horizontal' development of ABS law and policy, applying lessons from bilateral approaches to other national contexts.



The 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit sharing in Perspective

The 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit sharing in Perspective Author Elisa Morgera
ISBN-10 9789004217195
Release 2012-11-21
Pages 541
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The 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing in Perspective analyses the implications of this innovative environmental treaty for different areas of international law, and its implementation challenges in various regions and from the perspectives of various stakeholders.



Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits

Accessing Biodiversity and Sharing the Benefits Author Santiago Carrizosa
ISBN-10 9782831708164
Release 2004-01-01
Pages 315
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The book aims to address the lack of information on the experiences of others by providing a comparative analysis of national access and benefit-sharing laws and policies in the 41 Pacific Rim countries that signed the CBD. It provides key insights on the main characteristics of selected access and benefit-sharing (ABS) policies and laws, their development, and implementation process. It contains a detailed comparative analysis of existing laws and policies. It presents four case studies of countries with regulations in place and contrasts them with four case studies of countries that are struggling to develop their regulations. It ends by discussing options of an international regime on ABS and a summary analysis of the main lessons and recommendations from the study.



The Global Governance of Genetic Resources

The Global Governance of Genetic Resources Author Florian Rabitz
ISBN-10 9781351984690
Release 2017-04-28
Pages 196
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Multi-institutional governance architectures are increasingly common in world politics, yet how do they evolve over time? This book develops a fresh conceptual approach by distinguishing two main types of institutional change and by proposing the strategic context within which governments make decisions regarding international cooperation as the main driving factor. Applying this theoretical framework to the case of genetic resources, it shows how the scope for change has persistently been circumscribed by asymmetries in the global biotechnology sector. Taking a broad view of the underlying technological, legal and economic factors, the book analyzes the formation of international regimes linking access to genetic resources to the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their utilization. Covering negotiations in the areas of seeds, intellectual property rights, pandemic influenza viruses and marine genetic resources, the author shows how governments have persistently faced the problem of ensuring cooperation among actors with widely differing interests. This led them to opt for a strategy of institutional layering, whereby new international instruments are gradually built upon pre-existing ones. In addition to giving a comprehensive overview of the international governance of Access and Benefit-sharing within the wider context of modern biotechnology, the argument developed here enables a new perspective for studying institutional change in multi-institutional governance architectures.



Implementing the Nagoya Protocol

Implementing the Nagoya Protocol Author Brendan Coolsaet
ISBN-10 9789004293212
Release 2015-04-13
Pages 434
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Implementing the Nagoya Protocol compares existing ABS regimes in ten European countries, including one non-EU member and one EU candidate country, and critically explores several cross-cutting issues related to the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the EU.



Research and Development on Genetic Resources

Research and Development on Genetic Resources Author Evanson Chege Kamau
ISBN-10 9781317511182
Release 2015-06-05
Pages 370
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National implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) provisions has yielded enough challenges for providers and users of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge alike. The Nagoya Protocal brings novel ideas for resolving the challenges plaguing the Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) process in general and non-commercial research in particular. This is one of the first books to address research cooperation and facilitated access for non-commercial biodiversity research. It uniquely offers concrete and practicable solutions based on experiences of researchers and administrative officials with ABS, and on the interpretation of the Nagoya Protocol on how free and lively taxonomic research can be ensured while at the same time observing obligations of obtaining prior informed consent and sharing of benefits. This book will be useful to students of International Environmental Law, International Biodiversity Law, Intellectual Property Law, Climate Law and Law of Indigenous Populations. With foreword from Executive Secretary CBD, Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias.



Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol

Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol Author Elisa Morgera
ISBN-10 9789004217188
Release 2014-07-25
Pages 444
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The Nagoya Protocol is an unprecedented international environmental agreement that equally addresses development, distributive justice, and environmental sustainability. With a balanced view of the various possible interpretations of the Protocol provisions, in light of different national and regional perspectives, and a systematic highlighting of its legal innovations, Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol: A Commentary on the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing to the Convention on Biological Diversity will serve as a seminal work for all those interested in the environment, human rights, economics and both legal and scientific innovations.



African Perspectives on Genetic Resources

African Perspectives on Genetic Resources Author Kent Nnadozie
ISBN-10 1585760684
Release 2003-01-01
Pages 347
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African Perspectives on Genetic Resources has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from African Perspectives on Genetic Resources also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full African Perspectives on Genetic Resources book for free.



Genetic Resources as Natural Information

Genetic Resources as Natural Information Author Manuel Ruiz Muller
ISBN-10 9781317624165
Release 2015-09-16
Pages 138
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Demonstrating the shortcomings of current policy and legal approaches to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this book recognizes that genetic resources are widely distributed across countries and that bilateral contracts undermine fairness and equity. The book offers a practical and feasible regulatory alternative to ensure the goal of fairness and equity is effectively and efficiently met. Through a legal analysis that also incorporates historic, economic and sociological perspectives, the book argues that genetic resources are not tangible resources but information. It shows that the existing preference for bilateralism and contracts reflects resistance on the part of many of the stakeholders involved in the CBD process to recognize them as such. ABS issues respond very well to the economics of information, yet as the author explains, these have been either sidelined or overlooked. At a time when the Nagoya Protocol on ABS has renewed interest in feasible policy options, the author provides a constructive and provocative critique. The institutional, policy and regulatory framework constitute "bounded openness" under which fairness and equity emerge.



Contracting for ABS

Contracting for ABS Author Shakeel Bhatti
ISBN-10 9782831709826
Release 2009
Pages 307
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The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.



Drafting Successful Access and Benefit sharing Contracts

Drafting Successful Access and Benefit sharing Contracts Author Tomme Rosanne Young
ISBN-10 9789004356573
Release 2017-10-30
Pages 428
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Drafting Successful Access and Benefit-sharing Contracts gives an insightful and profound analysis of how contracts should be drafted so that biotechnology users and providers of genetic resources get access and become bound to share benefits from use of biological diversity.