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Matter Dark Matter and Anti Matter

Matter  Dark Matter  and Anti Matter Author Alain Mazure
ISBN-10 9781441988225
Release 2011-11-16
Pages 172
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For over ten years, the dark side of the universe has been headline news. Detailed studies of the rotation of spiral galaxies, and 'mirages' created by clusters of galaxies bending the light from very remote objects, have convinced astronomers of the presence of large quantities of dark (unseen) matter in the cosmos. The most striking fact is that they seem to compromise about 95% of the matter/energy content of the universe. As for ordinary matter, although we are immersed in a sea of dark particles, including primordial neutrinos and photons from fossil cosmological radiation, both we and our environment are made of ordinary, 'baryonic' matter. Authors Mazure and Le Brun present the inventory of matter, baryonic and exotic, and investigating the nature and fate of matter's twin, anti-matter. They show how technological progress has been a result of basic research, in tandem with the evolution of new ideas, and how the combined effect of these advances might help lift the cosmic veil.



Essays on the Frontiers of Modern Astrophysics and Cosmology

Essays on the Frontiers of Modern Astrophysics and Cosmology Author Santhosh Mathew
ISBN-10 9783319018874
Release 2013-11-08
Pages 206
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This book is a collection of fourteen essays that describe an inspiring journey through the universe and discusses popular science topics that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to deal with. What is our place in the universe and what happens in the magnificent cosmos where we exist for a brief amount of time. In an unique way that incorporates mythological and philosophical perspectives, the essays in this work address the big questions of what the universe is, how it came into being, and where it may be heading. This exciting adventure is a rich scientific history of elegant physics, mathematics, and cosmology as well as a philosophical and spiritual pursuit fueled by the human imagination.



The Cosmos

The Cosmos Author Jay M. Pasachoff
ISBN-10 9781107687561
Release 2013-08-12
Pages 599
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An exciting introduction to astronomy, using recent discoveries and stunning photography to inspire non-science majors about the Universe and science.



Cosmic Biology

Cosmic Biology Author Louis Neal Irwin
ISBN-10 9781441916471
Release 2010-12-08
Pages 338
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In Cosmic Biology, Louis Irwin and Dirk Schulze-Makuch guide readers through the range of planetary habitats found in our Solar System and those likely to be found throughout the universe. Based on our current knowledge of chemistry, energy, and evolutionary tendencies, the authors envision a variety of possible life forms. These range from the familiar species found on Earth to increasingly exotic examples possible under the different conditions of other planets and their satellites. Discussions of the great variety of life forms that could evolve in these diverse environments have become particularly relevant in recent years with the discovery of around 300 exoplanets in orbit around other stars and the possibilities for the existence of life in these planetary systems. The book also posits a taxonomic classification of the various forms of life that might be found, including speculation on the relative abundance of different forms and the generic fate of living systems. The fate and future of life on Earth will also be considered. The closing passages address the Fermi Paradox, and conclude with philosophical reflections on the possible place of Homo sapiens in the potentially vast stream of life across the galaxies.



Solar System Maps

Solar System Maps Author Nick Kanas
ISBN-10 9781461408963
Release 2013-09-25
Pages 331
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In recent years, there has been increased interest in our Solar System. This has been prompted by the launching of giant orbiting telescopes and space probes, the discovery of new planetary moons and heavenly bodies that orbit the Sun, and the demotion of Pluto as a planet. In one generation, our place in the heavens has been challenged, but this is not unusual. Throughout history, there have been a number of such world views. Initially, Earth was seen as the center of the universe and surrounded by orbiting planets and stars. Then the Sun became the center of the cosmos. Finally, there was no center, just a vast array of galaxies with individual stars, some with their own retinue of planets. This allowed our Solar System to be differentiated from deep-sky objects, but it didn’t lose its mystery as more and more remarkable bodies were discovered within its boundaries. This book tells the exciting story of how we have conceptualized and mapped our Solar System from antiquity to modern times. In addition to the complete text, this story is made more vivid by: • 162 Solar System and planetary maps, diagrams, and images (over a third in color); • direct quotes and figures from antiquarian, contemporary, and Space Age documents and photographs that allow the reader to track how humans have viewed the Solar System from original sources; • nine tables that compare the various world views, relative planetary positions, and components of the Solar System with each other. Broad in scope and rich in imagery, this book will draw the reader into the story of our Solar System and how it has been mapped since the beginning of recorded time.



In Search of Dark Matter

In Search of Dark Matter Author Ken Freeman
ISBN-10 9780387276182
Release 2006-08-25
Pages 158
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Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary.



Celestial Mechanics

Celestial Mechanics Author Alessandra Celletti
ISBN-10 9780387685779
Release 2007-06-24
Pages 248
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The aim of this book is to demonstrate to a wider audience, as well as to a more skilled audience, the many fascinating aspects of modern celestial mechanics. It sets out to do this without the use of mathematics. After giving the reader the technical tools needed for a basic understanding of the underlying physical phenomena (using only elementary mathematics), facts and figures are provided on historical events, modern discoveries and future applications. Contents are divided into major topics where the three "souls" of modern celestial mechanics (dynamical systems, Solar System and stellar systems, spaceflight dynamics) play a major role.



The Natural Laws of the Universe

The Natural Laws of the Universe Author Jean-Philippe Uzan
ISBN-10 0387740813
Release 2010-04-02
Pages 136
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This book examines constants, the role they play in the laws of physics, and whether indeed constants can be verified. From the laboratory to the depths of space, it explores the paths of gravitation, general relativity and new theories such as that of superstrings. Coverage investigates the solidity of the foundations of physics and discusses the implications of the discovery of the non-constancy of a constant. The book even goes beyond the subject of constants to explain and discuss many ideas in physics, encountering along the way, for example, such exciting details as the discovery of a natural nuclear reactor at Oklo in Gabon.



Stars Above Earth Below

Stars Above  Earth Below Author Tyler Nordgren
ISBN-10 1441916490
Release 2011-01-28
Pages 444
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Stars Above, Earth Below uses photographs and sky charts to form a connection between what is seen on the ground and in the sky, and looks at the deeper scientific meaning behind these sights. Nordgren describes other objects in the Solar System with features similar to those on Earth and links the geological features seen in the national parks to the very latest NASA spacecraft discoveries on other planets and their moons. Additionally, historical context is discussed to show why we humans (who have lived in and around our national parts for tens of thousands of years) have always been astronomers. The first book to make direct connections between astronomy and the landscapes, processes and cultures one experiences in the US National Parks Each chapter ties a specific astronomical phenomenon to a particular National Park or type of park and concludes with a “See for yourself” section that shows you how to see the planets, stars, nebulae, moons, etc. that are described within that chapter A personal guide showing the reader the astronomical phenomena that you can see for yourself when visiting the U.S. National Parks



Solar Sails

Solar Sails Author Giovanni Vulpetti
ISBN-10 9781493909414
Release 2014-11-05
Pages 277
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The reality of sunlight-based sailing in space began in May 2010, and solar sail technology and science have continued to evolve rapidly through new space missions. Using the power of the Sun's light for regular travel propulsion will be the next major leap forward in our journey to other worlds. This book is the second edition of the fascinating explanation of solar sails, how they work and how they will be used in the exploration of space. Updated with 35% new material, this second edition includes three new chapters on missions operated by Japan and the US, as well as projects that are in progress. The remainder of the book describes the heritage of exploration in water-borne sailing ships and the evolution to space-vehicle propulsion; as well as nuclear, solar-electric, nuclear-electric and antimatter rocket devices. It also discusses various sail systems that may use either sunlight or solar wind, and the design, fabrication and steering challenges associated with solar sails. The first edition was met with overwhelmingly positive reviews, and deemed “a title that needs to be on your shelf if you’re seriously interested in the next step as we move beyond rocketry" (Centauri Dreams, September 2008). Written with a mixed approach, this book appeals to both the general public as well as those with a more scientifically technical background.



New Eyes on the Universe

New Eyes on the Universe Author Stephen Webb
ISBN-10 9781461421948
Release 2012-05-19
Pages 371
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“New Eyes on the Universe – Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them” gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Universe? Do other Earths exist? Is there intelligent life out there? The renowned author explains clearly, without recourse to mathematics, why each question is puzzling and worthy of research. Included in the study of the wide range of sensitive and powerful instruments used by scientists to try and solve these problems are ones which capture electromagnetic radiation and ‘telescopes’ for cosmic rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves, and dark matter. This book discusses twelve areas of active astronomical research, ranging from the nature of dark energy to the existence or otherwise of extraterrestrial civilizations, and devotes one chapter to each topic. Although astronomers tackle each of these questions using information gleaned from all possible wavelengths and sources (and this is emphasized throughout the book), in this work the author dedicates each chapter to a particular observational method. One chapter covers X-ray telescopes for investigating black holes, while another uses infrared telescopes to learn more about planetary information.



The Dark Matter Problem

The Dark Matter Problem Author Robert H. Sanders
ISBN-10 9781139485739
Release 2010-04-22
Pages
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Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented. This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.



Sirius

Sirius Author Jay B. Holberg
ISBN-10 9780387489421
Release 2007-07-05
Pages 250
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This book tells two stories. The first and most obvious is why the star known as Sirius has been regarded as an important fixture of the night sky by many civilizations and cultures since the beginnings of history. A second, but related, narrative is the prominent part that Sirius has played in how we came to achieve our current scientific understanding of the nature and fate of the stars. This is the first book to integrate the cultural history of Sirius with modern astrophysics in a way which provides a realistic view of how science progresses over time.



Star Maps

Star Maps Author Nick Kanas
ISBN-10 9781461409175
Release 2012-06-05
Pages 528
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Until the publication of the first edition of 'Star Maps,' books were either general histories of astronomy using examples of antiquarian celestial maps as illustrations, or catalogs of celestial atlases that failed to trace the flow of sky map development over time. The second edition focuses on the development of contemporary views of the heavens and advances in map-making. It captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through images from antiquarian celestial prints and star atlases. This book uniquely combines a number of features: 1) the history of celestial cartography is traced from ancient to modern times; 2) this development is integrated with contemporary cosmological systems; 3) the artistry of sky maps is shown using beautiful color images from actual celestial atlases and prints; 4) each illustration is accompanied by a legend explaining what is being shown; and 5) the text is written for the lay reader based on the author's experience with writing articles for amateur astronomy and map collector magazines. This updated second edition of 'Star Maps' contains over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color), including completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps. There is also expanded material about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids.



High Energy Cosmic Rays

High Energy Cosmic Rays Author Todor Stanev
ISBN-10 9783540851486
Release 2010-03-10
Pages 333
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Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models



Celestial Sleuth

Celestial Sleuth Author Donald W. Olson
ISBN-10 9781461484035
Release 2013-10-02
Pages 355
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For a general audience interested in solving mysteries in art, history, and literature using the methods of science, 'forensic astronomy' is a thrilling new field of exploration. Astronomical calculations are the basis of the studies, which have the advantage of bringing to readers both evocative images and a better understanding of the skies. Weather facts, volcano studies, topography, tides, historical letters and diaries, famous paintings, military records, and the friendly assistance of experts in related fields add variety, depth, and interest to the work. The chosen topics are selected for their wide public recognition and intrigue, involving artists such as Vincent van Gogh, Claude Monet, Edvard Munch, and Ansel Adams; historical events such as the Battle of Marathon, the death of Julius Caesar, the American Revolution, and World War II; and literary authors such as Chaucer, Shakespeare, Joyce, and Mary Shelley. This book sets out to answer these mysteries indicated with the means and expertise of astronomy, opening the door to a richer experience of human culture and its relationship with nature. Each subject is carefully analyzed. As an example using the study of sky paintings by Vincent van Gogh, the analytical method would include: - computer calculations of historical skies above France in the 19th century - finding and quoting the clues found in translations of original letters by Van Gogh - making site visits to France to determine the precise locations when Van Gogh set up his easel and what celestial objects are depicted. For each historical event influenced by astronomy, there would be a different kind of mystery to be solved. As an example: - How can the phase of the Moon and time of moonrise help to explain a turning point of the American Civil War - the fatal wounding of Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville in 1863? For each literary reference to astronomy, it was determined which celestial objects were being described and making an argument that the author is describing an actual event. For example, what was the date of the moonlit scene when Mary Shelley first had the idea for her novel “Frankenstein?” These and more fun riddles will enchant and delight the fan of art and astronomy.



Dyna Soar

Dyna Soar Author Robert Godwin
ISBN-10 1896522955
Release 2003
Pages 448
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The story of the Dyna-Soar program, which consumed $430 million and never flew, is one of the great "what-ifs" of American aerospace history. A compilation of government documents, more than 100 photographs, and 200 drawings and charts tell the story of America's extraordinary spacecraft that was consigned to oblivion less than two weeks after President Kennedy's assassination. A bonus DVD includes rare footage of the program.