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Mechanically Gated Channels and their Regulation

Mechanically Gated Channels and their Regulation Author Andre Kamkin
ISBN-10 9789400750739
Release 2012-12-05
Pages 432
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The volume dwells on the major issues of mechanical stress influencing the ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways. This book is a unique collection of reviews outlining current knowledge and future developments in this rapidly growing field. In our opinion the book presents not only the latest achievements in the field but also brings the problem closer to the experts in related medical and biological sciences as well as practicing doctors. Knowledge of the mechanisms which underlie these processes is necessary for understanding of the normal functioning of different living organs and tissues and allows to predict changes, which arise due to alterations of their environment, and possibly will allow to develop new methods of artificial intervention. We also hope that presenting the problem will attract more attention to it both from researchers and practitioners and will assist to efficiently introduce it into the practical medicine.

Mechanosensitive Ion Channels

Mechanosensitive Ion Channels Author Andre Kamkin
ISBN-10 9781402064265
Release 2007-10-06
Pages 382
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This book explores the latest data dealing with mechanosensitive channels research results. It was compiled by a group of internationally recognized scientists leading in the field of mechanosensitive ion channels or mechanically gated channels and signaling cascades research. Key problems of cell mechanobiology are also discussed. As a whole, the volume dwells on the major issues of mechanical stress influencing the ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways.

Mechanosensitivity and Mechanotransduction

Mechanosensitivity and Mechanotransduction Author Irina Kiseleva
ISBN-10 904819881X
Release 2010-11-18
Pages 371
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This book presents the latest findings in the field of research of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction in different cells and tissues. Mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction of the heart and vascular cells, in the lung, in bone and joint tissues, in sensor systems and in blood cells are described in detail. This Volume focuses on molecular mechanisms of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction via cytoskeleton. Integrin-mediated mechanotransduction, the role of actin cytoskeleton and the role of other cytoskeletal elements are discussed. It contains a detailed description of several stretch-induced signaling cascades with multiple levels of crosstalk between different pathways. It contains a description of the role of nitric oxide in regulation of cardiac activity and in regulation of mechanically gated channels in the heart. In the heart mechanical signals are propagated into the intracellular space primarily via integrin-linked complexes, and are subsequently transmitted from cell to cell via paracrine signaling. Biochemical signals derived from mechanical stimuli activate both acute phosphorylation of signaling cascades, such as in the PI3K, FAK, and ILK pathways, and long-term morphological modii cations via intracellular cytoskeletal reorganization and extracellular matrix remodelling. Cellular and molecular effects of mechanical stretch on vascular cells are also discussed. This Volume highlights the role of mechanotransduction in the lung, in bone and joint tissues. For the first time mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction in blood cells are discussed. It contains new insights into mechanosensitive K+ channels functioning in mouse B lymphocytes. This book is a unique collection of reviews outlining current knowledge and future developments in this rapidly growing field. Currently, investigations of the molecular mechanisms of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction are focused on several issues. The majority of studies investigate intracellular signaling pathways. Knowledge of the mechanisms which underlie these processes is necessary for understanding of the normal functioning of different organs and tissues and allows to predict changes, which arise due to alterations of their environment. Possibly such knowledge will allow the development of new methods of artificial intervention and therapies. This book brings up the problem closer to the experts in related medical and biological sciences as well as practicing doctors besides just presenting the latest achievements in the field.

Piezo Channels

Piezo Channels Author
ISBN-10 9780128096215
Release 2017-07-17
Pages 348
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Piezo Channels, Volume 79, the latest volume in the Current Topics in Membranes series provides the necessary membrane research to assist readers in discovering the current state of a particular field and future directions. New chapters in the updated volume include A Tour de Force: The Discovery, Properties, and Function of Piezo Channels, Piezo1 Channels in Vascular Development and the Sensing of Shear Stress, the Origin of the Force: The Force-From-Lipids Principle Applied to Piezo Channels, Genetic Diseases of PIEZO1 and PIEZO2 Dysfunction, and The Structural Basis for Sensing by the Piezo1 Protein. Users of this series will find an up-to-date presentation of the current knowledge in the field of Piezo Channels. Written by leading experts in the field Contains original material, both textual and illustrative, that make it a very relevant reference Presented in a very comprehensive manner Ideal reference for both researchers in the field and general readers who will find this book to be relevant and up-to-date

Mechanosensitivity of the Heart

Mechanosensitivity of the Heart Author Andre Kamkin
ISBN-10 9789048128501
Release 2009-11-11
Pages 471
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This timely review of heart mechanosensitivity examines tissues at the molecular, biological, bio-physical, physiological and pharmaceutical levels. New insight on the electromechanical properties of cardiac tissue is supported with experimental results.

Molecular Biology of Membrane Transport Disorders

Molecular Biology of Membrane Transport Disorders Author Thomas E. Andreoli
ISBN-10 9781461311430
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 657
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When the six of us gathered to start planning for what was to be the Third Edition of Physiology of Membrane Disorders, it was clear that since 1986, when the Second Edition appeared, the field had experienced the dawning of a new era dominated by a change in focus from phenomenology to underlying mechanisms propelled by the power of molecular biology. In 1985, detailed molecular information was available for only three membrane transporters: the lac permease, bacterial rhodopsin, and the acetylcholine receptor. During the decade that has since elapsed, almost all of the major ion channels and transport proteins have been cloned, sequenced, mutagenized, and expressed in homologous as well as heterologous cells. Few, if any, of the transporters that were identified during the previous era have escaped the probings of the new molecular technologies and, in many instances, considerable insight has been gained into their mechanisms of function in health and disease. Indeed, in some instances novel, unexpected transporters have emerged that have yet to have their functions identified. The decision to adopt the new title Molecular Biology of Membrane Transport Disorders was a natural outgrowth of these considerations.

Handbook of Ion Channels

Handbook of Ion Channels Author Jie Zheng
ISBN-10 9781466551428
Release 2015-02-25
Pages 691
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The New Benchmark for Understanding the Latest Developments of Ion Channels Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and cardiac cells, mediate the detection and response to sensory stimuli, and regulate the response to physical stimuli. They can often interact with the cellular environment due to their location at the surface of cells. In nonexcitable tissues, they also help regulate basic salt balance critical for homeostasis. All of these features make ion channels important targets for pharmaceuticals. Handbook of Ion Channels illustrates the fundamental importance of these membrane proteins to human health and disease. Renowned researchers from around the world introduce the technical aspects of ion channel research, provide a modern guide to the properties of major ion channels, and present powerful methods for modeling ion channel diseases and performing clinical trials for ion channel drugs. Conveniently divided into five parts, the handbook first describes the basic concepts of permeation and gating mechanisms, balancing classic theories and the latest developments. The second part covers the principles and practical issues of both traditional and new ion channel techniques and their applications to channel research. The third part organizes the material to follow the superfamilies of ion channels. This part focuses on the classification, properties, gating mechanisms, function, and pharmacology of established and novel channel types. The fourth part addresses ion channel regulation as well as trafficking and distribution. The final part examines several ion channel-related diseases, discussing genetics, mechanisms, and pharmaceutical advances.

Single Channel Recording

Single Channel Recording Author Bert Sakmann
ISBN-10 9781441912299
Release 2009-10-03
Pages 700
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Edited by the 1991 winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this Second Edition includes new chapters covering such applications as capacitance measurements; single-cell PCR measurements; whole-cell recording from brain slices in combination with imaging techniques; atomic force microscopy of cells and membranes attached to glass pipettes; and patch clamping.

Biological Membrane Ion Channels

Biological Membrane Ion Channels Author Shin-Ho Chung
ISBN-10 9780387689197
Release 2007-11-13
Pages 658
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This book deals with recent breakthroughs in ion-channel research that have been brought about by the combined effort of experimental biophysicists and computational physicists, who together are beginning to unravel the story of these exquisitely designed biomolecules. With chapters by leading experts, the book is aimed at researchers in nanodevices and biosensors, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology and the physical sciences.

Molecular and Cell Biology of Pain

Molecular and Cell Biology of Pain Author
ISBN-10 9780128014325
Release 2015-03-02
Pages 648
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Pain is the number one reason that people seek medical attention but pain is still under- and poorly-treated world-wide. The purpose of this book is to give an up to date picture of what causes pain, how pain becomes chronic and what pharmacological targets might be manipulated to alleviate acute and chronic pain. The book will cover a wide array of topics from gene polymorphisms to voltage-gated ion channels moving from cellular biology to whole animal physiology. Written by future leaders in the pain field Covers a wide range of targets Contains provocative ideas about the future direction of the pain field.

Cell Physiology Sourcebook

Cell Physiology Sourcebook Author Nicholas Sperelakis
ISBN-10 9780080528809
Release 2001-05-15
Pages 1235
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This completely revised and updated source book provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of cell physiology and membrane biophysics. Intended primarily as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and as a reference for researchers, this multidisciplinary book includes several new chapters and is an invaluable aid to scientists interested in cell physiology, biophysics, cell biology, electrophysiology, and cell signaling. * Includes broad coverage of both animal and plant cells * Appendices review basics of the propagation of action potentials, electricity, and cable properties

Integrins and Ion Channels

Integrins and Ion Channels Author Andrea Becchetti
ISBN-10 9781441960665
Release 2010-12-28
Pages 124
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Interdisciplinarity is more often invoked than practised. This is hardly surprising, considering the daunting vastness of modern biology. To reach a satisfactory understanding of a complex biological system, a wide spectrum of conceptual and experimental tools must be applied at different levels, from the molecular to the cellular, tissue and organismic. We believe the multifaceted regulatory interplay between integrin receptors and ion channels offers a rich and challenging field for researchers seeking broad biological perspectives. By mediating cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, integrins regulate many developmental processes in the widest sense (from cell choice between differentiation and proliferation, to tissue remodeling and organogenesis). Rapidly growing evidence shows that frequent communication takes place between cell adhesion receptors and channel proteins. This may occur through formation of multiprotein membrane complexes that regulate ion fluxes as well as a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. In other cases, cross talk is more indirect and mediated by cellular messengers such as G proteins. These interactions are reciprocal, in that ion channel stimulation often controls integrin activation or expression. From a functional standpoint, studying the interplay between integrin receptors and ion channels clarifies how the extracellular matrix regulates processes as disparate as muscle excitability, synaptic plasticity and lymphocyte activation, just to mention a few. The derangement of these processes has many implications for pathogenesis processes, in particular for tumor invasiveness and some cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. This book provides a general introduction to the problems and methods of this blossoming field.

Modulation of Presynaptic Calcium Channels

Modulation of Presynaptic Calcium Channels Author Gary Stephens
ISBN-10 9789400763340
Release 2013-04-23
Pages 365
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This book will bring together leading international experts to discuss recent advances in basic scientific knowledge regarding the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels. Importantly, Ca2+ channels represent one of the most widely modulated proteins in the body, being the target of a range of effector pathways and drugs; this range will be fully represented here. A number of therapeutic drugs target the Ca2+ channel complex, including the anti-epileptic gabapentinoid and analgesic ziconotide drugs and the pharmaceutical industry is searching for Ca2+ channel blocking drugs, particularly in the pain, epilepsy, ataxia and migraine areas. Such potential future therapies will be discussed here. Scientific disciplines will focus on electrophysiological studies, but will extend to neuroscience, genetics and biochemical areas. The work described will represent advances at the cutting edge of current neuroscience research and is timely and highly appropriate for the Springer book series.

Cell Mechanics and Cellular Engineering

Cell Mechanics and Cellular Engineering Author Van C. Mow
ISBN-10 9781461384250
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 564
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Cell mechanics and cellular engineering may be defined as the application of principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in normal and pathological cells and the development of biological substitutes to restore cellular functions. This definition is derived from one developed for tissue engineering at a 1988 NSF workshop. The reader of this volume will see the definition being applied and stretched to study cell and tissue structure-function relationships. The best way to define a field is really to let the investigators describe their areas of study. Perhaps cell mechanics could be compartmentalized by remembering how some of the earliest thinkers wrote about the effects of mechanics on growth. As early as 1638, Galileo hypothesized that gravity and of living mechanical forces place limits on the growth and architecture organisms. It seems only fitting that Robert Hooke, who gave us Hooke's law of elasticity, also gave us the word "cell" in his 1665 text, Micrographid, to designate these elementary entities of life. Julius Wolffs 1899 treatise on the function and form of the trabecular architecture provided an incisive example of the relationship between the structure of the body and the mechanical load it bears. In 1917, D' Arcy Thompson's On Growth and Form revolutionized the analysis of biological processes by introducing cogent physical explanations of the relationships between the structure and function of cells and organisms.

Cellular Mechanotransduction

Cellular Mechanotransduction Author Mohammad R. K. Mofrad
ISBN-10 9781316139479
Release 2009-11-23
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'Mechanotransduction' is the term for the ability, first described by 19th-century anatomist Julius Wolff, of living tissues to sense mechanical stress and respond by tissue remodeling. More recently, the scope of mechanotransduction has been expanded to include the sensation of stress, its translation into a biochemical signal, and the sequence of biological responses it produces. This book looks at mechanotransduction in a more restricted sense, focusing on the process of stress sensing and transducing a mechanical force into a cascade of biochemical signals. This stress has become increasingly recognized as one of the primary and essential factors controlling biological functions, ultimately affecting the function of the cells, tissues, and organs. A primary goal of this broad book is also to help define the new field of mechanomics, which attempts to describe the complete mechanical state of a biological system.

Novel Chemical Tools to Study Ion Channel Biology

Novel Chemical Tools to Study Ion Channel Biology Author Christopher Ahern
ISBN-10 9781493928453
Release 2015-09-17
Pages 154
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This volume describes chemical approaches to assess ion channel structure, function and pharmacology. Topics discussed include the use of engineered ionizable side chains to obtain information on permeation pathways and the local environment; the modification of engineered cysteine side chains, including cysteine scanning mutagenesis and the attachment of fluorescent probes and bio-reactive tethers; and the nascent use of genetic code expansion, evaluating its applications to ion channel and membrane proteins. This comprehensive text provides multifaceted perspectives on the great diversity of state-of-the-art methods which take advantage of the ever-expanding chemical toolbox to study ion channel biology. Capturing the contributions and innovations of renowned laboratory researchers in transmembrane protein study for the first time, this book is comprehensive in scope. It covers a wide array of experimental approaches: photochemistry, novel biological tools, and innovative spectroscopy, all combined with traditional techniques of electrophysiology and molecular biology. Novel Chemical Tools to Study Ion Channel Biology, part of the bestselling Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology series is ideal for researchers and advanced students interested in biochemistry, biophysics, fluorometry, electrophysiology, and chemical biology. .​

Muscle Biophysics

Muscle Biophysics Author Rassier Dilson J.E
ISBN-10 1441963669
Release 2010-09-08
Pages 354
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Muscle contraction has been the focus of scientific investigation for more than two centuries, and major discoveries have changed the field over the years. Early in the twentieth century, Fenn (1924, 1923) showed that the total energy liberated during a contraction (heat + work) was increased when the muscle was allowed to shorten and perform work. The result implied that chemical reactions during contractions were load-dependent. The observation underlying the “Fenn effect” was taken to a greater extent when Hill (1938) published a pivotal study showing in details the relation between heat production and the amount of muscle shortening, providing investigators with the force-velocity relation for skeletal muscles. Subsequently, two papers paved the way for the current paradigm in the field of muscle contraction. Huxley and Niedergerke (1954), and Huxley and Hanson (1954) showed that the width of the A-bands did not change during muscle stretch or activation. Contraction, previously believed to be caused by shortening of muscle filaments, was associated with sliding of the thick and thin filaments. These studies were followed by the classic paper by Huxley (1957), in which he conceptualized for the first time the cross-bridge theory; filament sliding was driven by the cyclical interactions of myosin heads (cross-bridges) with actin. The original cross-bridge theory has been revised over the years but the basic features have remained mostly intact. It now influences studies performed with molecular motors responsible for tasks as diverse as muscle contraction, cell division and vesicle transport.