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Megacities

Megacities Author Kees Koonings
ISBN-10 9781848137318
Release 2013-04-04
Pages 208
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For the first time in history, the majority of the world's population lives in cities, the result of a rapid process of urbanization that started in the second half of the twentieth century. 'Megacities' around the world are rapidly becoming the scene for deprivation, especially in the global South, and the urban excluded face the brunt of what in many cases seems like low-intensity warfare. Featuring case studies from across the globe, including Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, Megacities examines recent worldwide trends in poverty and social exclusion, urban violence and politics, and links these to the challenges faced by policy-makers and practitioners.



Politics and History of Violence and Crime in Central America

Politics and History of Violence and Crime in Central America Author Sebastian Huhn
ISBN-10 9781349950676
Release 2016-12-24
Pages 330
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This book highlights historical explanations to and roots of present phenomena of violence, insecurity, and law enforcement in Central America. Violence and crime are among the most discussed topics in Central America today, and sensationalism and fear of crime is as present as the increase of private security, the re-militarization of law enforcement, political populism, and mano dura policies. The contributors to this volume discuss historical forms, paths, continuities, and changes of violence and its public and political discussion in the region. This book thus offers in-depth analysis of different patterns of violence, their reproduction over time, their articulation in the present, and finally their discursive mobilization.



Criminal Enterprises and Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean

Criminal Enterprises and Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean Author Enrique Desmond Arias
ISBN-10 9781108107983
Release 2017-03-30
Pages
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This book examines security in three cities that suffer from chronic violence: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Medellin, Colombia; and Kingston, Jamaica. In each, democratic states contend with subnational armed groups that dominate territory and play important roles in politics even as they contribute to fear and insecurity. Through a nested three-city, six-neighborhood analysis of the role of criminal groups in governance, this research provides a deep understanding of the impact of crime on political experience. Neighborhoods controlled by different types of armed actors, operating in the same institutional context, build alliances with state officials and participate in political life through the structures created by these armed actors. The data demonstrates the effects criminal dominance can have on security, civil society, elections, and policymaking. Far from reflecting a breakdown of order, varying types of criminal groups generate different local lived political experiences.



Cities Slums and Gender in the Global South

Cities  Slums and Gender in the Global South Author Sylvia Chant
ISBN-10 9781317950370
Release 2015-12-22
Pages 300
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Developing regions are set to account for the vast majority of future urban growth, and women and girls will become the majority inhabitants of these locations in the Global South. This is one of the first books to detail the challenges facing poorer segments of the female population who commonly reside in ‘slums’. It explores the variegated disadvantages of urban poverty and slum-dwelling from a gender perspective. This book revolves around conceptualisation of the ‘gender-urban-slum interface’ which explains key elements to understanding women’s experiences in slum environments. It has a specific focus on the ways in which gender inequalities are can be entrenched but also alleviated. Included is a review of the demographic factors which are increasingly making cities everywhere ‘feminised spaces’, such as increased rural-urban migration among women, demographic ageing, and rising proportions of female-headed households in urban areas. Discussions focus in particular on education, paid and unpaid work, access to land, property and urban services, violence, intra-urban mobility, and political participation and representation. This book will be of use to researchers and professionals concerned with gender and development, urbanisation and rural-urban migration.



Latin American Responses to Globalization in the 21st Century

Latin American Responses to Globalization in the 21st Century Author M. Nilsson
ISBN-10 9781137003126
Release 2012-02-29
Pages 267
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Written by a diverse group of scholars and practitioners from Latin America, the US and Europe and taking into consideration the recent global financial crisis,the book offers a multifaceted insight into the expectations as well as the possible threats related to Latin America's incorporation into the sphere of global interconnectedness.



Violence at the Urban Margins

Violence at the Urban Margins Author Javier Auyero
ISBN-10 9780190221485
Release 2015-03-09
Pages 352
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In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.



Violence and Resilience in Latin American Cities

Violence and Resilience in Latin American Cities Author Kees Koonings
ISBN-10 9781780324593
Release 2015-11-15
Pages 208
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Why are Latin American cities amongst the most violent in the world? Over the past decades Latin America has not only become the most urbanised of the regions of the so-called global South, it has also been the scene of the urbanisation of poverty and exclusion. Overall regional homicides rates are the highest in the world, a fact closely related to the spread and use of firearms by male youths, who are frequently involved in local and translocal forms of organised crime. In response, governments and law enforcements agencies have been facing mounting pressure to address violence through repressive strategies, which in turn has led to a number of consequences: law enforcement is often based on excessive violence and the victimisation of entire marginal populations. Thus, the dynamics of violence have generated a widespread perception of insecurity and fear. Featuring much original fieldwork across a broad array of case studies, this cutting edge volume focuses on questions not only of crime, insecurity and violence but also of Latin American cities’ ability to respond to these problems in creative and productive ways.



Imagining Global Amsterdam

Imagining Global Amsterdam Author Marco de Waard
ISBN-10 9789089643674
Release 2012-01-01
Pages 316
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Imagining Global Amsterdam gaat over het beeld van Amsterdam in film, literatuur, visuele kunst en in het moderne stedelijke discours, in het bijzonder in de context van de mondialisering. De essays gaan onder andere dieper in op Amsterdam als een lieu de mémoire van de vroeg-moderne wereldhandel. Wat betekent deze herinnering in de hedendaagse cultuur? Waarom verwijzen zo veel contemporaine films en romans naar dit verleden terug? Ook het (inter)nationale imago van Amsterdam als een multicultureel en ultra-tolerant ‘%x;global village’%x; komt aan bod. Waarom is dit beeld zo persistent, en hoe heeft het zich in de loop van de laatste decennia ontwikkeld? Tot slot wordt ingegaan op de vraag hoe mondialiseringsprocessen ingrijpen in de stadscultuur, zoals in het prostitutiegebied op de Wallen en via de erfgoedindustrie. Hoe manifesteert de mondialisering zich in de stad, en welke rol speelt beeldvorming daarbij? Deze bundel vormt een rijk geschakeerd onderzoek naar de relatie tussen Amsterdam, mondialisering en stedelijke beeldvorming. Marco de Waard is als docent literatuurwetenschap verbonden aan het Amsterdam University College.



Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South

Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South Author Jennifer Erin Salahub
ISBN-10 9781351254700
Release 2018-04-19
Pages 220
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While cities often act as the engines of economic growth for developing countries, they are also frequently the site of growing violence, poverty, and inequality. Yet, social theory, largely developed and tested in the Global North, is often inadequate in tackling the realities of life in the dangerous parts of cities in the Global South. Drawing on the findings of an ambitious five-year, 15-project research programme, Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South offers a uniquely Southern perspective on the violence–poverty–inequalities dynamics in cities of the Global South. Through their research, urban violence experts based in low- and middle-income countries demonstrate how "urban violence" means different things to different people in different places. While some researchers adopt or adapt existing theoretical and conceptual frameworks, others develop and test new theories, each interpreting and operationalizing the concept of urban violence in the particular context in which they work. In particular, the book highlights the links between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities based on income, class, gender, and other social cleavages. Providing important new perspectives from the Global South, this book will be of interest to policymakers, academics, and students with an interest in violence and exclusion in the cities of developing countries.



Curse of the black gold

Curse of the black gold Author Ed Kashi
ISBN-10 UOM:39015076184541
Release 2008-05-13
Pages 223
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Curse of the BlackGold: 50 Years of Oil in the Niger Delta takes a graphic look at the profound cost of oil exploitation in West Africa. Featuring images by world-renowned photojournalist Ed Kashi and text by prominent Nigerian journalists, human rights activists, and University of California at Berkeley professor Michael Watts, this book traces the 50-year history of Nigeria's oil interests and the resulting environmental degradation and community conflicts that have plagued the region. Now one of the major suppliers of U.S. oil, Nigeria is the sixth largest producer of oil in the world. Set against a backdrop of what has been called the scramble for African oil,Curse of the Black Goldis the first book to document the consequences of a half-century of oil exploration and production in one of the world's foremost centers of biodiversity. This book exposes the reality of oil's impact and the absence of sustainable development in its wake, providing a compelling pictorial history of one of the world's great deltaic areas. Accompanied by powerful writing by some of the most prominent public intellectuals and critics in contemporary Nigeria, Kashi's photographs capture local leaders, armed militants, oil workers, and nameless villagers, all of whose fates are inextricably linked. His exclusive coverage bears witness to the ongoing struggles of local communities, illustrating the paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty. The publication ofCurse of the Black Goldoccurs at a moment of worldwide concern over dependency on petroleum, dubbed byNew York Timesjournalist Thomas Friedman as "the resource curse." Much has been written about the drama of the search for oil-Daniel Yergin'sThe Prizeand Ryszard Kapuscinski'sShah of Shahsare two of the most widely lauded-but there has been no serious examination of the relations between oil, environment, and community in a particular oil-producing region.Curse of the Black Goldis a landmark work of historic significance.



Out of the Mountains

Out of the Mountains Author David Kilcullen
ISBN-10 9780190230968
Release 2015-07-01
Pages 352
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Analyzes four megatrends—population growth, urbanization, coastal life and connectedness-and concludes that future conflict is increasingly likely to occur in sprawling coastal cities; in underdeveloped regions of the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Asia; and in highly networked, connected settings, in a book that also looks at gangs, cartels and warlords.



The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South

The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South Author Gautam Bhan
ISBN-10 9781317392842
Release 2017-09-11
Pages 396
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The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South offers an edited collection on planning in parts of the world which, more often than not, are unrecognised or unmarked in mainstream planning texts. In doing so, its intention is not to fill a ‘gap’ that leaves this ‘mainstream’ unquestioned but to re-theorise planning from a deep understanding of ‘place’ as well as a commitment to recognise the diverse modes of practice that come within it. The chapters thus take the form not of generalised, ‘universal’ analyses and prescriptions, but instead are critical and located reflections in thinking about how to plan, act and intervene in highly complex city, regional and national contexts. Chapter authors in this Companion are not all planners, or are planners of very different kinds, and this diversity ensures a rich variety of insights, primarily based on cases, to emphasise the complexity of the world in which planning is expected to happen. The book is divided into a framing Introduction followed by five sections: planning and the state; economy and economic actors; new drivers of urban change; landscapes of citizenship; and planning pedagogy. This volume will be of interest to all those wanting to explore the complexities of planning practice and the need for new theories of knowledge from which to draw insight to face the challenges of the 21st century.



The Punitive City

The Punitive City Author Markus-Michael Müller
ISBN-10 9781783606993
Release 2016-06-15
Pages 192
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In the eyes of the global media, modern Mexico has become synonymous with crime, violence and insecurity. But while media fascination and academic engagement has focussed on the drug war, an equally dangerous phenomenon has taken root. In The Punitive City, Markus-Michael Müller argues that what has emerged in Mexico is not just a punitive urban democracy, in which those at the social and political margins face growing violence and exclusion. More alarmingly, it would seem that clientelism in the region is morphing into a private, political protection racket. Vital reading for anyone seeking to understand the implications of a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly widespread across Latin America.



China s Regulatory State

China s Regulatory State Author Roselyn Hsueh
ISBN-10 9780801462863
Release 2011-09-01
Pages 320
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Today's China is governed by a new economic model that marks a radical break from the Mao and Deng eras; it departs fundamentally from both the East Asian developmental state and its own Communist past. It has not, however, adopted a liberal economic model. China has retained elements of statist control even though it has liberalized foreign direct investment more than any other developing country in recent years. This mode of global economic integration reveals much about China's state capacity and development strategy, which is based on retaining government control over critical sectors while meeting commitments made to the World Trade Organization. In China's Regulatory State, Roselyn Hsueh demonstrates that China only appears to be a more liberal state; even as it introduces competition and devolves economic decisionmaking, the state has selectively imposed new regulations at the sectoral level, asserting and even tightening control over industry and market development, to achieve state goals. By investigating in depth how China implemented its economic policies between 1978 and 2010, Hsueh gives the most complete picture yet of China's regulatory state, particularly as it has shaped the telecommunications and textiles industries. Hsueh contends that a logic of strategic value explains how the state, with its different levels of authority and maze of bureaucracies, interacts with new economic stakeholders to enhance its control in certain economic sectors while relinquishing control in others. Sectoral characteristics determine policy specifics although the organization of institutions and boom-bust cycles influence how the state reformulates old rules and creates new ones to maximize benefits and minimize costs after an initial phase of liberalization. This pathbreaking analysis of state goals, government-business relations, and methods of governance across industries in China also considers Japan's, South Korea's, and Taiwan's manifestly different approaches to globalization.



Enclosed

Enclosed Author Liza Grandia
ISBN-10 9780295991665
Release 2012
Pages 278
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This impassioned and rigorous analysis of the territorial plight of the Q'eqchi Maya of Guatemala highlights an urgent problem for indigenous communities around the world--repeated displacement from their lands.



Africa s Urban Revolution

Africa s Urban Revolution Author Doctor Edgar Pieterse
ISBN-10 9781780325231
Release 2014-01-09
Pages 320
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The facts of Africa’s rapid urbanisation are startling. By 2030 African cities will have grown by more than 350 million people and over half the continent's population will be urban. Yet in the minds of policy makers, scholars and much of the general public, Africa remains a quintessentially rural place. This lack of awareness and robust analysis means it is difficult to make a policy case for a more overtly urban agenda. As a result, there is across the continent insufficient urgency directed to responding to the challenges and opportunities associated with the world’s last major wave of urbanisation. Drawing on the expertise of scholars and practitioners associated with the African Centre for Cities, and utilising a diverse array of case studies, Africa's Urban Revolution provides a comprehensive insight into the key issues - demographic, cultural, political, technical, environmental and economic - surrounding African urbanisation.



City of Extremes

City of Extremes Author Martin J. Murray
ISBN-10 9780822347682
Release 2011-06-20
Pages 470
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No other city in South Africa bears the scars of white minority rule as obviously and as self-consciously as Johannesburg, the place where the architects of racial segregation were the most deeply invested in implanting their vision of 'separate development' into the material fabric of society. Not surprisingly the city is also the place where this vision of racial exclusivity was the most bitterly contested in the popular struggles that eventually brought white rule to an end. Today, although a new generation of city builders has struggled to reinvent the city so as to reflect an alternative, more equitable politics that answers the basic needs of the urban poor, nevertheless the city remains deeply fractured, divided between two highly unequal and spatially disconnected worlds: one catering to the rich and another for those without regular work, without shelter, and forced to eke out a marginal existence. City of Extremes analyzes the relationship between the evolving urban form of Johannesburg after apartheid and present-day, boosterist, city-building efforts to create a "world-class" African city. The book shows how property-holding elites and their affluent middle-class allies have been able to maintain privileged life styles despite persistent demands from below for redress of long-standing grievances. The metamorphosis of Johannesburg from the exemplary "apartheid city" at the height of white minority rule has, Murray demonstrates, gone hand in hand with the emergence of new patterns of spatial inequality and new kinds of social exclusion, the result of city-building efforts that have partitioned the urban landscape into fortified "renaissance sites" of privatized luxury where affluent urban residents work and play - on one side - and impoverished spaces of confinement where the poor, the socially excluded, and the homeless are forced to survive on the other. Murray's analysis of this phenomenon is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides a historical context that reveals how real estate developers, corporate builders, and city planners have fostered an image of an aspiring global city, yet at the same time have produced spatial frictions that have disrupted the city's coherence, hollowed out its core, relied primarily on private transport rather than public transit, and left decaying inner-city slums. Part 2 examines the twin processes of fragmentation and polarization that have left the city with pockets of ostentatious wealth and other pockets of utter destitution. Murray shows how this process depends on the peculiar qualities of land values as marketable commodities, producing boom and bust cycles as builders compete to produce landmark structures but then feel required to insulate them from the nearby "mean streets" by creating citadel-like office buildings and shopping enclaves. Part 3 then looks in detail at the creation of these new divisive spaces, what Murray calls "redoubts of commerce" that resemble nomadic fortresses connected by bridges and underground tunnels arising not as the result of impersonal market forces, but through the deliberate actions of key propertied stakeholders. The result, he shows, is a patchwork city of dispersed territorial enclaves that have not only reinforced existing inequalities and racial hierarchies, but have introduced new patterns of social exclusion that have further marginalized the black underclass and urban poor.