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Mercury Cadmium Telluride

Mercury Cadmium Telluride Author Peter Capper
ISBN-10 9781119957577
Release 2011-06-20
Pages 590
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Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) is the third most well-regarded semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide and is the material of choice for use in infrared sensing and imaging. The reason for this is that MCT can be ‘tuned’ to the desired IR wavelength by varying the cadmium concentration. Mercury Cadmium Telluride: Growth, Properties and Applications provides both an introduction for newcomers, and a comprehensive review of this fascinating material. Part One discusses the history and current status of both bulk and epitaxial growth techniques, Part Two is concerned with the wide range of properties of MCT, and Part Three covers the various device types that have been developed using MCT. Each chapter opens with some historical background and theory before presenting current research. Coverage includes: Bulk growth and properties of MCT and CdZnTe for MCT epitaxial growth Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth Metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Alternative substrates Mechanical, thermal and optical properties of MCT Defects, diffusion, doping and annealing Dry device processing Photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors Avalanche photodiode detectors Room-temperature IR detectors



Mercury Cadmium Telluride

Mercury Cadmium Telluride Author Peter Capper
ISBN-10 0470697067
Release 2010-11-03
Pages 590
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Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) is the third most well-regarded semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide and is the material of choice for use in infrared sensing and imaging. The reason for this is that MCT can be ‘tuned’ to the desired IR wavelength by varying the cadmium concentration. Mercury Cadmium Telluride: Growth, Properties and Applications provides both an introduction for newcomers, and a comprehensive review of this fascinating material. Part One discusses the history and current status of both bulk and epitaxial growth techniques, Part Two is concerned with the wide range of properties of MCT, and Part Three covers the various device types that have been developed using MCT. Each chapter opens with some historical background and theory before presenting current research. Coverage includes: Bulk growth and properties of MCT and CdZnTe for MCT epitaxial growth Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth Metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Alternative substrates Mechanical, thermal and optical properties of MCT Defects, diffusion, doping and annealing Dry device processing Photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors Avalanche photodiode detectors Room-temperature IR detectors



Zinc Oxide Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Applications

Zinc Oxide Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Applications Author Cole W. Litton
ISBN-10 9781119991212
Release 2011-03-23
Pages 386
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Zinc Oxide (ZnO) powder has been widely used as a white paint pigment and industrial processing chemical for nearly 150 years. However, following a rediscovery of ZnO and its potential applications in the 1950s, science and industry alike began to realize that ZnO had many interesting novel properties that were worthy of further investigation. ZnO is a leading candidate for the next generation of electronics, and its biocompatibility makes it viable for medical devices. This book covers recent advances including crystal growth, processing and doping and also discusses the problems and issues that seem to be impeding the commercialization of devices. Topics include: Energy band structure and spintronics Fundamental optical and electronic properties Electronic contacts of ZnO Growth of ZnO crystals and substrates Ultraviolet photodetectors ZnO quantum wells Zinc Oxide Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Applications is ideal for university, government, and industrial research and development laboratories, particularly those engaged in ZnO and related materials research.



Lead free Solders

Lead free Solders Author K. Subramanian
ISBN-10 9781119966807
Release 2012-03-06
Pages 520
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Providing a viable alternative to lead-based solders is a major research thrust for the electrical and electronics industries - whilst mechanically compliant lead-based solders have been widely used in the electronic interconnects, the risks to human health and to the environment are too great to allow continued widescale usage. Lead-free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics chronicles the search for reliable drop-in lead-free alternatives and covers: Phase diagrams and alloy development Effect of minor alloying additions Composite approaches including nanoscale reinforcements Mechanical issues affecting reliability Reliability under impact loading Thermomechanical fatigue Chemical issues affecting reliability Whisker growth Electromigration Thermomigration Presenting a comprehensive understanding of the current state of lead-free electronic interconnects research, this book approaches the ongoing research from fundamental, applied and manufacturing perspectives to provide a balanced view of the progress made and the requirements which still have to be met.



Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials

Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials Author Safa Kasap
ISBN-10 9783319489339
Release 2017-10-04
Pages 1536
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The second, updated edition of this essential reference book provides a wealth of detail on a wide range of electronic and photonic materials, starting from fundamentals and building up to advanced topics and applications. Its extensive coverage, with clear illustrations and applications, carefully selected chapter sequencing and logical flow, makes it very different from other electronic materials handbooks. It has been written by professionals in the field and instructors who teach the subject at a university or in corporate laboratories. The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, second edition, includes practical applications used as examples, details of experimental techniques, useful tables that summarize equations, and, most importantly, properties of various materials, as well as an extensive glossary. Along with significant updates to the content and the references, the second edition includes a number of new chapters such as those covering novel materials and selected applications. This handbook is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and practicing professionals working in the area of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic materials.



Crystal Growth Technology

Crystal Growth Technology Author Hans J. Scheel
ISBN-10 9783527632893
Release 2011-07-26
Pages 366
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Semiconductors and dielectrics are two essential materials found in cell phones and computers, for example, and both are manufactured by growing crystals. Edited by the organizers of the International Workshop on Crystal Growth Technology, this ready reference is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists, physicists, computer hardware manufacturers, engineers, and those working in the chemical and semiconductor industries. They have assembled an international team of experts who present the current challenges, latest methods and new applications for producing these materials necessary for the electronics industry using bulk crystal growth technology. From the contents: * General aspects of crystal growth technology * Compound semiconductors * Halides and oxides * Crystal growth for sustaining energy * Crystal machining



Properties of Semiconductor Alloys

Properties of Semiconductor Alloys Author Sadao Adachi
ISBN-10 0470744391
Release 2009-03-12
Pages 422
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The main purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive treatment of the materials aspects of group-IV, III−V and II−VI semiconductor alloys used in various electronic and optoelectronic devices. The topics covered in this book include the structural, thermal, mechanical, lattice vibronic, electronic, optical and carrier transport properties of such semiconductor alloys. The book reviews not only commonly known alloys (SiGe, AlGaAs, GaInPAs, and ZnCdTe) but also new alloys, such as dilute-carbon alloys (CSiGe, CSiSn, etc.), III−N alloys, dilute-nitride alloys (GaNAs and GaInNAs) and Mg- or Be-based II−VI semiconductor alloys. Finally there is an extensive bibliography included for those who wish to find additional information as well as tabulated values and graphical information on the properties of semiconductor alloys.



Liquid Phase Epitaxy of Electronic Optical and Optoelectronic Materials

Liquid Phase Epitaxy of Electronic  Optical and Optoelectronic Materials Author Peter Capper
ISBN-10 0470319496
Release 2007-08-20
Pages 464
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Liquid-Phase Epitaxy (LPE) is a technique used in the bulk growth of crystals, typically in semiconductor manufacturing, whereby the crystal is grown from a rich solution of the semiconductor onto a substrate in layers, each of which is formed by supersaturation or cooling. At least 50% of growth in the optoelectronics area is currently focussed on LPE. This book covers the bulk growth of semiconductors, i.e. silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium mercury telluride, indium phosphide, indium antimonide, gallium nitride, cadmium zinc telluride, a range of wide-bandgap II-VI compounds, diamond and silicon carbide, and a wide range of oxides/fluorides (including sapphire and quartz) that are used in many industrial applications. A separate chapter is devoted to the fascinating field of growth in various forms of microgravity, an activity that is approximately 30-years old and which has revealed many interesting features, some of which have been very surprising to experimenters and theoreticians alike. Covers the most important materials within the field The contributors come from a wide variety of countries and include both academics and industrialists, to give a balanced treatment Builds-on an established series known in the community Highly pertinent to current and future developments in telecommunications and computer-processing industries.



Bulk Crystal Growth of Electronic Optical and Optoelectronic Materials

Bulk Crystal Growth of Electronic  Optical and Optoelectronic Materials Author Peter Capper
ISBN-10 9780470012079
Release 2005-10-31
Pages 574
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A valuable, timely book for the crystal growth community, edited by one of the most respected members in the field. Contents cover all the important materials from silicon through the III-V and II-IV compounds to oxides, nitrides, fluorides, carbides and diamonds International group of contributors from academia and industry provide a balanced treatment Includes global interest with particular relevance to: USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Australia and South Africa



Radiative Properties of Semiconductors

Radiative Properties of Semiconductors Author N.M. Ravindra
ISBN-10 9781681741765
Release 2017-08-21
Pages 139
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Optical properties, particularly in the infrared range of wavelengths, continue to be of enormous interest to both material scientists and device engineers. The need for the development of standards for data of optical properties in the infrared range of wavelengths is very timely considering the on-going transition of nano-technology from fundamental R&D to manufacturing. Radiative properties play a critical role in the processing, process control and manufacturing of semiconductor materials, devices, circuits and systems. The design and implementation of real-time process control methods in manufacturing requires the knowledge of the radiative properties of materials. Sensors and imagers operate on the basis of the radiative properties of materials. This book reviews the optical properties of various semiconductors in the infrared range of wavelengths. Theoretical and experimental studies of the radiative properties of semiconductors are presented. Previous studies, potential applications and future developments are outlined. In Chapter 1, an introduction to the radiative properties is presented. Examples of instrumentation for measurements of the radiative properties is described in Chapter 2. In Chapters 3-11, case studies of the radiative properties of several semiconductors are elucidated. The modeling and applications of these properties are explained in Chapters 12 and 13, respectively. In Chapter 14, examples of the global infrastructure for these measurements are illustrated.



Solar Cell Materials

Solar Cell Materials Author Arthur Willoughby
ISBN-10 9781118695814
Release 2014-01-13
Pages 344
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This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.



Inorganic Glasses for Photonics

Inorganic Glasses for Photonics Author Animesh A. Jha
ISBN-10 9780470741702
Release 2016-10-17
Pages 344
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"This book is structured in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses glass science and structures of inorganic glasses, which are commonly used for photonic devices, including oxide, fluoride, chalcogenide and mixed anion glasses. Chapter 2 covers the important thermal, viscosity and physical properties of glasses which, by nucleation and crystal growth processes can be engineered for photonic device applications. In Chapter 3, bulk glass fabrication using melting and casting and sol-gel techniques are discussed along with the fabrication principles of glass-ceramic materials, sol-gel formation and sol-gel based glass fabrication. Chapter 4 introduces the standard geometrical optics for fibre optics, Maxwell's equation for modal analysis and its importance in fibre and waveguide optics. It concludes with a detailed discussion on refractive index and its dependence on compositions, density, temperature and stress. The relationship of these properties in controlling bulk optical properties is especially emphasized. The main emphasis of Chapter 5 is on the methods of thin film fabrication using physical and chemical vapour deposition and on pulsed laser deposition including ion implantation techniques. Chapter 6 starts with the classical radiative transition theory based on dipole models, and then explains the concept of dipoles and electron-phonon coupling. Emphasizing various quantum mechanical rules, it then discusses the radiative, non-radiative, energy transfer and upconversion processes. Finally, chapter 7 covers the photonic device applications of inorganic glasses, fibres and waveguides and concludes with a short discussion on the emerging opportunities in future for inorganic glasses"--



Spintronics for Next Generation Innovative Devices

Spintronics for Next Generation Innovative Devices Author Katsuaki Sato
ISBN-10 9781118751916
Release 2015-09-15
Pages 280
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Spintronics (short for spin electronics, or spin transport electronics) exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices. Controlling the spin of electrons within a device can produce surprising and substantial changes in its properties. Drawing from many cutting edge fields, including physics, materials science, and electronics device technology, spintronics has provided the key concepts for many next generation information processing and transmitting technologies. This book discusses all aspects of spintronics from basic science to applications and covers: • magnetic semiconductors • topological insulators • spin current science • spin caloritronics • ultrafast magnetization reversal • magneto-resistance effects and devices • spin transistors • quantum information devices This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Spintronics for researchers and students in academia and industry.



Properties of Mercury Cadmium Telluride

Properties of Mercury Cadmium Telluride Author John Chadwick Brice
ISBN-10 0852964730
Release 1987
Pages 198
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Properties of Mercury Cadmium Telluride has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Properties of Mercury Cadmium Telluride also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Properties of Mercury Cadmium Telluride book for free.



Solar Cells and Their Applications

Solar Cells and Their Applications Author Lewis M. Fraas
ISBN-10 9780470636879
Release 2010-07-13
Pages 700
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A major update of solar cell technology and the solar marketplace Since the first publication of this important volume over a decade ago, dramatic changes have taken place with the solar market growing almost 100-fold and the U.S. moving from first to fourth place in the world market as analyzed in this Second Edition. Three bold new opportunities are identified for any countries wanting to improve market position. The first is combining pin solar cells with 3X concentration to achieve economic competitiveness near term. The second is charging battery-powered cars with solar cell–generated electricity from arrays in surrounding areas—including the car owners' homes—while simultaneously reducing their home electricity bills by over ninety percent. The third is formation of economic "unions" of sufficient combined economic size to be major competitors. In this updated edition, feed-in tariffs are identified as the most effective approach for public policy. Reasons are provided to explain why pin solar cells outperform more traditional pn solar cells. Field test data are reported for nineteen percent pin solar cells and for ~500X concentrating systems with bare cell efficiencies approaching forty percent. Paths to bare cell efficiencies over fifty percent are described, and key missing program elements are identified. Since government support is needed for new technology prototype integration and qualification testing before manufacturing scale up, the key economic measure is identified in this volume as the electricity cost in cents per kilowatt-hour at the complete installed system level, rather than just the up-front solar cell modules' costs in dollars per watt. This Second Edition will benefit technologists in the fields of solar cells and systems; solar cell researchers; power systems designers; academics studying microelectronics, semiconductors, and solar cells; business students and investors with a technical focus; and government and political officials developing public policy.



Biosensors Nanotechnology

Biosensors Nanotechnology Author Ashutosh Tiwari
ISBN-10 9781118773819
Release 2014-06-26
Pages 552
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This book provides detailed reviews of a range of nanostructures used in the construction of biosensors as well as the applications of these biosensor nanotechnologies in the biological, chemical, and environmental monitoring fields Biological sensing is a fundamental tool for understanding living systems, but also finds practical application in medicine, drug discovery, process control, food safety, environmental monitoring, defense, and personal security. Moreover, a deeper understanding of the bio/electronic interface leads us towards new horizons in areas such as bionics, power generation, and computing. Advances in telecommunications, expert systems, and distributed diagnostics prompt us to question the current ways we deliver healthcare, while robust industrial sensors enable new paradigms in R&D and production. Despite these advances, there is a glaring absence of suitably robust and convenient sensors for body chemistries. This book examines some of the emerging technologies that are fueling scientific discovery and underpinning new products to enhance the length and quality of our lives. The 14 chapters written by leading experts cover such topics as: ZnO and graphene microelectrode applications in biosensing Assembly of polymers/metal nanoparticles Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors Impedimetric DNA sensing employing nanomaterials Graphene and carbon nanotube-based biosensors Computational nanochemistry study of the BFPF green fluorescent protein chromophore Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles Bioconjugated-nanoporous gold films in electrochemical biosensors The combination of molecular imprinting and nanotechnology Principles and properties of multiferroics and ceramics



Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films

Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films Author Matthew M. Hawkeye
ISBN-10 9781118847336
Release 2014-07-03
Pages 320
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This book provides a highly practical treatment of Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD), a thin film fabrication technology optimized to produce precise nanostructures from a wide range of materials. GLAD provides an elegant method for fabricating arrays of nanoscale helices, chevrons, columns, and other porous thin film architectures using physical vapour deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation. The book gathers existing procedures, methodologies, and experimental designs into a single, cohesive volume which will be useful both as a ready reference for those in the field and as a definitive guide for those entering it. It covers: Development and description of GLAD techniques for nanostructuring thin films Properties and characterization of nanohelices, nanoposts, and other porous films Design and engineering of optical GLAD films including fabrication and testing, and chiral films Post-deposition processing and integration to optimize film behaviour and structure Deposition systems and requirements for GLAD fabrication A patent survey, extensive relevant literature, and a survey of GLAD’s wide range of material properties and diverse applications.